Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1165
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Tutuian R - - 2006
Gastroesophagel reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition encountered in clinical practice. Over the years there has been a continuous interaction between the understanding of the disease, the diagnostic tools and treatments of GERD. The use of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) trials by primary care physicians as diagnostic tool in ...
Scherer Gerhard - - 2006
Charcoal (CC) filters of cigarettes are known to significantly reduce a series of volatile constituents in mainstream smoke, including reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein and crotonaldehyde. We performed a randomized, crossover, 2-wk brand-switching study with 39 smokers. Twenty of the subjects smoked cellulose acetate (CA) filter tipped cigarettes during ...
Biastoff Stefan - - 2006
Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT, EC 2.1.1.53) catalyses the S-adenosyl- L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet)-dependent methylation of putrescine to N-methylputrescine within the biosynthetic pathways of calystegines, nicotine, and tropane alkaloids in medicinal plants and produces S-adenosyl- L-homocysteine (SAH or AdoHcy). Determination of PMT activity was time-consuming and hardly reproducible in the past because ...
Offermanns Stefan - - 2006
Relatively high doses of nicotinic acid induce a profound change in the lipid and lipoprotein profile. In particular, the ability of nicotinic acid to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels has led to its use as an antidyslipidemic drug. The mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects ...
Bredenoord Albert J - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Belching and gastroesophageal reflux share a common physiological mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether air swallowing leads to both belching and reflux. METHODS: Esophageal impedance, pH, and pressure were measured during two 20-min recording periods in 12 controls and 12 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease ...
Celik Munevver - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent publications have seemed to clarify the controversies that existed in the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux and have shed light on the therapy. The present article reviews recent publications in the diagnosis and management of laryngopharyngeal reflux. RECENT FINDINGS: In laryngopharyngeal reflux, laryngeal pathology results from small ...
Kono Koji - - 2006
The pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis is not well understood and remains controversial. Distal gastrectomy serves as a model to assess the role of duodenal reflux with low gastric acidity in the development of reflux esophagitis. We investigated the relationship between the severity of esophagitis and gastroduodenal juice reflux, with particular ...
Oh Daniel S - - 2006
The components of refluxed gastric juice are known to cause mucosal injury, but their effect on esophageal function is less appreciated. Our aim was to determine the effect of acid and/or bile on mucosal injury and esophageal function. From 1993-2004, 402 patients with reflux symptoms had 24-hour pH and Bilitec ...
Roh Jong-Lyel - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is related to various laryngeal sequelae. However, there is a lack of established reflux animal models covering longer observation periods. We evaluated the effects of acid, pepsin, and bile acid on healing of the traumatized subglottis in a simulated reflux model. METHODS: In the ...
Oberwittler H - - 2006
Nicotinic acid (NA) is highly effective and widely used in the management of dyslipidaemia. For many patients, the side effect of flushing of the face and upper body leads to discontinuation. Flushing with NA is mediated by prostaglandins, and as acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, 'aspirin') is a highly effective inhibitor ...
Globe J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus is the major risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is proposed that long-term re-epithelialisation, which has been achieved following ablation using 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT) may reduce the risk of malignant change. However, it is not known whether PDT modifies oesophageal motility. AIM: To assess ...
Felten V - - 2006
The physiological responses of the acid-sensitive amphipod Gammarus fossarum exposed in situ to acid stress (pH4.5 and 5.5) and then transferred back to neutral water were investigated. Survival rate and haemolymph [Cl(-)] and [Na(+)] were assessed after 24, 48 and 72h of exposure in acidic streams and after a recovery ...
Lidén Carola - - 2006
There is a great need to accurately assess skin exposure to contact allergens. We have developed a technique for assessment of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt using acid wipe sampling by cellulose wipes with 1% nitric acid. Chemical analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). ...
Kuc Damian - - 2006
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and all ionotropic glutamate receptors. Its neuroprotective activity has been suggested. In this study, the presence of KYNAin human saliva and its potential bactericidal role was investigated. KYNAwas found in all samples of human saliva with mean concentration of ...
Stark Timo - - 2006
Since recent reports on the role of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids as powerful antioxidants and key contributors to the astringent taste of cocoa nibs, there is an increasing interest in the concentrations of these phytochemicals in plant-derived foods. A versatile analytical method for the accurate quantitative analysis of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids in plant-derived ...
Raines C R - - 2006
Darkening of bone marrow in packaged fresh pork is problematic and may be caused by pro-oxidative iron and (or) a pro-oxidative atmosphere. We evaluated the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) and Origanox™ (OG) in different packaging systems to prevent pork lumbar vertebrae marrow discoloration. Concentrations of 1.25%, 1.875%, or 2.5% ...
Miner P B PB - - 2006
The control of oesophageal acid exposure through gastric acid inhibition, as the basis for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) treatment, arose from the apparent pH dependency of erosive oesophagitis and relationship to GERD symptoms. The current perception is that reflux disease is an entirely acid-mediated condition, and antisecretory therapies, particularly proton ...
Dettmar P W - - 2006
The objective of the open, randomised, four-period crossover study was to compare the time of onset of effect of sodium alginate (SA), omeprazole, ranitidine and control, based on oesophageal and intragastric pH and to determine any correlation between reflux symptoms and episodes in volunteers suffering from occasional gastro-oesophageal reflux. SA ...
Hirano I - - 2006
Ambulatory pH monitoring detects abnormal levels of acid reflux in the oesophagus and can be used to correlate patients' symptoms with oesophageal acid exposure. Catheter-based pH testing has several limitations, including issues of sensitivity, specificity, tolerability and the inability to record non-acid reflux events. In an effort to improve upon ...
Li Yan - - 2006
The current animal models of esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus consist of surgeries that divert the gastroduodenal contents to the esophagus. The limitations of these models are the inability to control the amount and concentration of the refluxate and the causing of significant postoperative stress and morbidity. Eighteen adult rats were ...
Raghu Ganesh - - 2006
RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease despite the available treatment regimes. Increased acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs in IPF patients. OBJECTIVES: To follow the course of IPF in patients while being treated for acid GER alone. METHODS: A retrospective review of the clinical outcomes of ...
Zentilin P - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multichannel intraluminal impedance combined with pH-metry is a novel technique for studying gastro-oesophageal reflux. As refluxes are particularly frequent after meals, we carried out this study in order to assess the impact of a Mediterranean diet on normal values of impedancemetry. METHODS: Twenty-five Italian healthy subjects (13 ...
Yang Guang - - 2006
From a Clonorchis sinensis adult worm cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene which encoded a putative protein with a predicted molecular weight of 35.6 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme were 7.5 and 50 degrees C in the pyruvate ...
Nagahama Kenji - - 2006
Pepsin, a protease activated by gastric acid, is a component of the refluxate, yet the role of pepsin in the pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis has not been well studied. In the present study, we examined the effect of pepstatin, a specific inhibitor of pepsin, on acid reflux esophagitis. Acid reflux ...
Hines-Peralta Andrew - - 2006
PURPOSE: To determine whether larger confluent zones of ablation can be achieved in chemical ablation with use of a multiple-tine infusion device compared with standard needle infusion in a solid tumor model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple canine venereal sarcomas (N=42) were implanted in nine mildly immunosuppressed dogs (treated with 10 ...
Lao-Sirieix Pierre P Medical Research Council Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-Medical Research Council Research Centre, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XZ, United - - 2006
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for the development of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. The effect of antireflux therapy on the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is unknown. Acid exposure in vitro induces hyperproliferation via a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) dependent mechanism. Epidemiologic and animal studies suggest that COX inhibitors decrease ...
Sifrim D - - 2006
Up until now, most pathophysiological concepts about gastroesophageal reflux derived from measurement of esophageal pH. However, pH monitoring does not detect all gastroesophageal reflux events, particularly when little or no acid is present in the refluxate. Esophageal impedance measurements made possible to detect and quantify all types of reflux i.e. ...
Pandolfino J E - - 2006
The aim of this study was to assess the quantitative differences of acid exposure at 1 cm and 6 cm above the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) using two radiotelemetry pH capsules affixed to the esophageal mucosa. Ten normal subjects and 10 endoscopy-negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients without hiatus hernia (ages ...
Oelschlager Brant K - - 2006
Airway symptoms are often caused by aspiration of refluxed materials into the larynx. In this study we sought to define the frequency, character, and proximal extent of refluxed contents - including nonacid reflux-in normal subjects using intraluminal impedance to improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux and aspiration. Ten ...
Kim Hyun-Duck - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between occupational acidic chemicals (ACs) exposure and occupational dental erosion. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which three dentists surveyed 951 subjects from 42 factories using five types of ACs below Korean Threshold Limit Values (K-TLVs). Subjects agreed to participate by a written ...
Al-Asoom L I - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The frequency of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) among asthmatic patients was found to range from 34% to 89% at different locations. The aims of this study have been to determine the frequency of GER in patients with asthma in the Saudi environment, to ascertain the main mechanism whereby GER triggers ...
Tankiewicz A - - 2006
PURPOSE: Anthranilic acid is an important, the aromatic intermediate in the degradation of tryptophan in kynurenine pathway. This compound plays an important role in the regulation of immunological processes as well shows antibacterial activity. The aim of our study was to estimate the concentration of anthranilic acid in saliva of ...
Pins Joel J - - 2006
Scientific evidence continues to accumulate regarding fasting serum triglycerides as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. In response, the National Cholesterol Education Program has revised the acceptable level of fasting triglycerides from <200 mg/dL to <150 mg/dL. A significant percentage of Americans suffer from hypertriglyceridemia, and considering the ...
Orlando Roy C - - 2006
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) covers a broad range of signs and symptoms arising from the orad movement of gastric contents into the oesophagus, oropharynx, larynx or airway. Most commonly, contact with and damage to the oesophageal epithelium by acidic refluxate causes micro or macroscopic defects leading to the symptom of ...
Raghu G - - 2006
The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of acid gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Sixty-five consecutive patients with well-defined IPF were subjected to 24-h pH monitoring and oesophageal manometry. A total of 133 consecutive patients with intractable asthma and ...
Stoner Gary D GD Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus 43210, USA. - - 2006
For several years, our laboratory has been evaluating the ability of lyophilized (freeze-dried) black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis, BRBs), blackberries (R. fructicosus, BBs), and strawberries (Fragaria ananasia, STRWs) to inhibit carcinogen-induced cancer in the rodent esophagus. To assure "standardized" berry preparations for study, each berry type is of the same cultivar, ...
Casanova Herley - - 2005
The effect of fatty acid chain length on nicotine carboxylate insecticide emulsions has been studied in terms of particle size, interfacial tension, nicotine encapsulation on emulsion droplets, and bioactivity. The particle size of the nicotine emulsion and the interfacial tension at the nicotine carboxylate oil phase (0.03 M)--Tween 80 aqueous ...
Underwood Robyn M - - 2005
The combination of the concentration of formic acid and the duration of fumigation (CT product) during indoor treatments of honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies to control the varroa mite, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, determines the efficacy of the treatment. Because high concentrations can cause queen mortality, we hypothesized ...
Katz P O - - 2005
Nocturnal gastro-oesphageal reflux is an under-appreciated clinical challenge. This condition may cause symptoms such as nocturnal heartburn, or it may be asymptomatic. In addition, patients may experience sleep disturbances that can potentially lead to complications such as erosive oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus, and may be a risk factor for development ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In past studies, investigators have reported that the salivary glands respond to esophageal acidification by increased salivary secretion and termed this response the 'esophago-salivary response'. The existence, however, of such a reflex was but a speculation because the verification of its mechanism could not be traced in the literature. ...
Pike Nicholas B - - 2005
The recent discovery of the G(i) protein-coupled receptor GPR109A (HM74A in humans; PUMA-G in mice) as a receptor for nicotinic acid has provided the opportunity to gain greater understanding of the underlying biology contributing to the clinical efficacy (increases in HDL, decreases in VLDL, LDL, and triglycerides) and the characteristic ...
Benyó Zoltán - - 2005
Nicotinic acid (niacin) has long been used as an antidyslipidemic drug. Its special profile of actions, especially the rise in HDL-cholesterol levels induced by nicotinic acid, is unique among the currently available pharmacological tools to treat lipid disorders. Recently, a G-protein-coupled receptor, termed GPR109A (HM74A in humans, PUMA-G in mice), ...
Zerbib F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Impedance-pH monitoring is the most sensitive method for detection and characterization of gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes. Normal values from European subjects are lacking. AIM: To build a database of gastro-oesophageal reflux patterns from French and Belgian healthy subjects. METHODS: Seventy-two healthy subjects (35 men, mean age 35 years, 18-72) underwent ...
Frazzoni M - - 2006
Acid suppression is the mainstay of therapy in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Esomeprazole 40 mg is more effective than lansoprazole 30 mg in healing mucosal lesions in severe erosive reflux oesophagitis. However, data comparing esomeprazole with lansoprazole in patients with complications of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, such as ulcerative reflux oesophagitis and ...
Reddy Hariprasad - - 2005
Our aims were to investigate gender differences to multimodal stimulations of the esophagus after experimentally induced sensitization. Thirty healthy age-matched subjects, 13 males and 17 females, were included. Pain evoked by mechanical and thermal stimuli was assessed before and after perfusion of the lower esophagus with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid. ...
Breous Ekaterina - - 2005
The diesters of benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic (phthalic) acid, the phthalates, are used to make plastics flexible and can comprise 40% of the weight of plastic. Human exposure to phthalates can occur via ingestion, inhalation and dermal routes, as well as through parenteral exposure from medical devices containing phthalates. Since earlier morphological studies ...
Lunzer Mark - - 2005
Molecular evolution is moving from statistical descriptions of adaptive molecular changes toward predicting the fitness effects of mutations. Here, we characterize the fitness landscape of the six amino acids controlling coenzyme use in isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IMDH). Although all natural IMDHs use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a coenzyme, they can ...
Yiyun Cheng - - 2005
In the present study we investigated the effect of ethylenediamine (EDA) core polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on the aqueous solubility of nicotinic acid. The aqueous solubility of nicotinic acid was measured in the presence of dendrimers at room temperature in distilled water. The effect of variables, such as pH condition, concentration, ...
Armstrong David - - 2005
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasingly common worldwide; symptoms differ between individuals and endoscopically visible injury is present in only about 50% of cases. Although GERD is a disorder of gastrointestinal motility and structure, the most effective therapy is based on the use of acid antisecretory drugs. Proton pump inhibitors ...
Shimada Ayumi - - 2006
In the present study, we report the characteristics of H(+)-coupled nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]nicotinate transport in rat astrocytes increased up to a pH 5.5. The nicotinic acid uptake at pH 6.0 was both energy-dependent and saturable with a Michaelis constant (K(t)) ...
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