Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1163
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Zhang Qi - - 2007
Size-resolved indicators of aerosol acidity, including H+ ion concentrations (H+Aer) and the ratio of stoichiometric neutralization are evaluated in submicrometer aerosols using highly time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data from Pittsburgh. The pH and ionic strength within the aqueous particle phase are also estimated using the Aerosol Inorganics Model (AIM). ...
Sifrim D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A number of mechanisms, other than acid reflux, may be responsible for the symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. AIM: To assess the importance of non-acid reflux mechanisms. METHODS: This review is based on presentations and discussion at a workshop, where specialists in the field analysed data relating to these ...
Soudijn Willem - - 2007
Half a century ago, nicotinic acid (niacin) was introduced into the clinic as the first orally available drug to treat high cholesterol levels and to improve the balance between (V)low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Remarkably, its putative mechanism of action has only been recently elucidated, particularly ...
Winter Jack W - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nitrate ingestion leads to high luminal concentrations of nitric oxide being generated where saliva meets gastric acid. Nitric oxide generates N-nitrosative stress on reacting with oxygen at neutral pH. We aimed to ascertain if luminal nitric oxide exerts nitrosative stress in the human upper gastrointestinal tract, and ...
Conchillo J M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Frequent belching is a common symptom in patients with functional dyspepsia with a reported incidence up to 80%. We hypothesized that patients with functional dyspepsia possibly have a higher frequency of belching than healthy subjects secondary to frequent air swallowing. AIM: To assess air swallowing, belching, acid and non-acid ...
Arts J - - 2007
Several studies have demonstrated that radiofrequency energy delivery at the gastroesophageal junction (the Stretta procedure) induces symptom relief in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), although improvement of acid exposure on pH monitoring was usually limited. A role for decreased esophageal sensitivity has been suggested. Our aim was to evaluate the influence ...
Frazzoni M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Long-term intra-oesophageal acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors represents a management option for Barrett's oesophagus and severe reflux oesophagitis, but its stability over time has not been adequately assessed. AIM: Our aim was to evaluate prospectively the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors in suppressing intra-oesophageal acidity after 2-year continuous ...
Kusano Motoyasu - - 2007
It has been reported that proton pump inhibitors are more effective than H2 receptor antagonists in patients with functional dyspepsia. Dyspeptic symptoms that respond to proton pump inhibitors are classified as acid-related dyspepsia. A new questionnaire for assessing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD, covers ...
Blondeau K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Symptoms, oesophageal pHmetry and proton pump inhibitor treatment are used for diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux-related cough. Weakly acidic reflux is now increasingly associated with reflux symptoms such as regurgitation or chest pain. AIM: To study the association between weakly acidic reflux and cough in a selected, large group of patients ...
Gopal Elangovan - - 2007
PURPOSE. To examine the involvement of human SMCT1, a Na+-coupled transporter for short-chain fatty acids, in the transport of nicotinate/structural analogs and monocarboxylate drugs, and to analyze its expression in mouse intestinal tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We expressed human SMCT1 in X. laevis oocytes and monitored its function by [14C]nicotinate ...
Landmann Christian - - 2007
Fragaria x ananassa UDP-glucose:cinnamate glucosyltransferase (FaGT2) catalyzes the formation of cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid glucose esters during strawberry fruit ripening. Here, the ripening and oxidative stress induced enzyme was further characterized by testing a range of structurally different substrates of natural and unnatural origin in vitro and comparing their ...
Hernandez Melba - - 2007
Nicotinic acid is a commonly used anti-dyslipidemic agent that increases plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol and decrease triglycerides (TG), and VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol. The most well-studied effect of nicotinic acid is its ability to lower plasma free fatty acids, which has been observed in humans and many animal models. However, its ...
Colinet Hervé - - 2007
When stressful cold-exposure is interrupted by short warm intervals, physiological recovery is possible, and this improves markedly the survival of insects. Fluctuating thermal regime (FTR) may act as a cue triggering the initiation of a metabolic response involving synthesis of cryoprotective compounds, such as free amino acids (FAA). Since specific ...
Wang Lei - - 2007
Jasmonic acid (JA)-amino acid conjugates are important JA metabolites that activate JA responses. However, our understanding of their involvement in herbivore defenses is limited. We identified a new Arabidopsis jasmonate resistant 1 (JAR1) homologue in Nicotiana attenuata (N. attenuata) and named it jasmonate resistant 6 (JAR6). JAR6 clustered closely with ...
Orr William C - - 2007
During sleep, individuals are uniquely vulnerable to acid reflux. Acid reflux during sleep has been studied by a number of investigators, but non-acid reflux is largely unexplored. In this study, 15 individuals with significant subjective complaints of heartburn were treated with esomeprazole, 40 mg bid, and with placebo, in random ...
Bartzatt Ronald - - 2007
Two dipeptide drugs are synthesized utilizing an acetylsalicylic acid or nicotinic acid molecule for the framework. A D-alanine-D-alanine dipeptide moiety is attached to the carbonyl carbon of acetylsalicylic acid (I) and nicotinic acid (II). Dipeptide derivatives (I) and (II) showed significant reduction of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial growth and ...
Benomran F A - - 2008
A man found dead with circumstantial evidence indicating exposure to sulfuric acid vapor. He had been applying a solution of concentrated sulfuric acid to a drain pipe in an attempt to clear a blockage. External examination showed moderate corrosive damage around his mouth and nose, on his forearms and tips ...
Smout André J P M - - 2007
Treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) by means of gastric acid secretion inhibition usually is successful. When symptoms persist despite adequate treatment, correctness of the diagnosis of GORD should be questioned. Quite often dyspeptic symptoms are erroneously interpreted as GORD symptoms. Other causes of treatment failure are insufficient acid suppression ...
Woodley Frederick W - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clearance of acid gastroesophageal reflux is biphasic. During volume clearance, refluxed material is cleared from the esophagus by peristalsis, and during chemical clearance, acidified esophageal mucosa is neutralized by saliva and possibly secretions from the esophageal lumen. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding on ...
Nobata Kouichi - - 2007
Because 24-h esophageal pH monitoring is quite invasive, the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-associated cough has usually been made based merely on the clinical efficacy of treatment with proton pump inhibitor (PPI). We recently encountered two patients with PPI-responsive chronic non-productive cough for whom switching from bronchodilators and glucocorticosteroids ...
Wise J L - - 2007
The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux is sometimes challenging, especially when symptoms are unresponsive to high-dose acid suppression. With the advent of new technology it is possible to detect and quantify nonacid or weakly acidic reflux. Multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII), introduced over 10 years ago, is gaining popularity as a reflux ...
Semeniuk J - - 2007
PURPOSE: Among 264 children suspected of GERD, acid GER was confirmed in 138 children on the basis of 24-hour pH monitoring. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Comparative analysis of parameters of 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring with dual-channel probe (in proximal channel) in children with acid GER: primary and secondary to cow ...
Miller Eric L - - 2007
Ten fishmeal samples (hidden duplicates of 4 meals plus 2 high-protein meals as a Youden pair), tryptophan, and nicotinic acid were analyzed by 18 laboratories using the Dumas method. Thirteen of the laboratories also analyzed the same 12 samples using their current Kjeldahl method. Recoveries (+/-SR) of tryptophan and nicotinic ...
Roman S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic fundoplication effectively controls symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and decreases acid reflux, but its impact on non-acid reflux is not known. The aim of the study was to characterize reflux events after fundoplication using oesophageal combined multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII)-pH monitoring, to demonstrate its efficacy on acid ...
David M - - 2007
Freshwater edible fish, Cirrhinus mrigala, were exposed to a sublethal concentration (3 microl/L) of commercial grade malathion (50% EC) for 5, 15, or 25 days. After each exposure period, the liver was removed to study biochemical alterations. An increase in free amino acids, protease activity, and acetylcholine (Ach) levels, in ...
Parker Amanda M - - 2007
Surface free fatty acid (FFA) on milled rice is a key factor in determining rice quality and acceptability to the brewing industry. Rice FFA oxidizes, causing off-flavors and odors to develop, compromising the brewing quality of milled rice. The effect of harvest moisture (13%, 16%, and 20%), harvester type (1688 ...
Guo ZengKui - - 2007
More than fifteen years ago it was discovered that intramyocellular triglyceride (imcTG) content in skeletal muscle is abnormally high in conditions of lipid oversupply (e.g. high fat feeding) and, later, obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolic conditions. This imcTG excess is robustly associated with muscle insulin resistance (MIR). ...
Levy Bruce D - - 2007
Protectins are newly identified natural chemical mediators that counter leukocyte activation to promote resolution of inflammation. In this study, we provide the first evidence for protectin D1 (PD1, 10R,17S-dihydroxy-docosa-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid) formation from docosahexaenoic acid in human asthma in vivo and PD1 counterregulatory actions in allergic airway inflammation. PD1 and 17S-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic ...
Robert Nicolas - - 2006
[Structure: see text] Lithiation of 5-bromonicotinic acid protected as secondary or tertiary amide as well as (4,4'-dimethyl)oxazoline with lithium amides is reported. The unusual C-2 and C-4 regioselective lithiation of 3-bromo-5-(4,4'-dimethyl)oxazolinylpyridine using LTMP versus LDA was observed, providing a new route to substituted nicotinic acid scaffolds. The methodology was applied ...
Kollarik Marian - - 2007
Acid is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of cough. Inhalation of exogenous acid triggers cough and endogenous acid may contribute to cough in respiratory diseases. Acid directly stimulates vagal bronchopulmonary sensory nerves that regulate the cough reflex. Consistent with their putative role in defence against aspiration and inhaled irritants, ...
- - 2006
(1) For patients with hypercholesterolaemia requiring primary or secondary prevention, pravastatin, simvastatin and atorvastatin have a proven benefit in terms of mortality and/or morbidity. Gemfibrozil and cholestyramine have a proven impact on morbidity. (2) The lipid-lowering properties of immediate-release nicotinic acid have been known for about 50 years, as have ...
El-Serag Hashem B - - 2007
Obesity has been associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the mechanism by which obesity may cause GERD is unclear. To examine the association between oesophageal acid exposure and total body or abdominal anthropometric measures. A cross-sectional study of consecutive patients undergoing 24 h pH-metry was conducted. Standardised measurements of ...
Roman S - - 2006
Oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring allows detection of acid and non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) events. Visual analysis of impedance recording requires expertise. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of an automated analysis for GOR assessment. Seventy-three patients with suspected GORD underwent 24-h oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring. Recordings analysis was performed visually (V) ...
Nagahara Akihito - - 2006
GOALS: To investigate the features of nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). BACKGROUND: NERD is not considered as a milder form of erosive gastro-esophageal reflux disease (eGERD). Although the prevalence of NERD was reported to be high in our country, there have been very few studies about NERD. STUDY: We performed upper ...
Thilmany Claude - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Acid gastro-esophageal reflux has been shown associated with chronic pulmonary diseases. The role of non-acid refluxes in these children is still unknown. Therefore we investigated the prevalence of acid and non-acid refluxes, and their association with desaturations, in children with chronic pulmonary symptoms. METHODS: In 25 children aged 6 ...
Tashtoush Bassam M - - 2007
Myristyl nicotinate is an ester prodrug under development for delivery of nicotinic acid to skin for treatment and prevention of conditions that involve skin barrier impairment such as chronic photodamage and atopic dermatitis or for mitigating skin barrier impairment that results from therapy such as retinoids or steroids. The formulation ...
Scherer Gerhard - - 2007
In order to determine whether smokers of cigarettes in the contemporary yield ranges of the German market (0.1-1.0mg nicotine, 1-10mg tar) differ in their actual exposure to various smoke constituents, we performed a field study with 274 smokers and 100 non-smokers. The following biomarkers were determined: In 24-h urine: Nicotine ...
Furuta Kenji - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The attenuated antisecretory activity of H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) during continuous administration is known as the tolerance phenomenon. The authors recently clarified that presence or absence of Helicobacter pylori infection influences the occurrence of the tolerance phenomenon. The aim of this study was to clarify whether tolerance ...
Iijima Katsunori - - 2006
During the last decade, inflammation (carditis) and intestinal metaplasia localized to immediately below the human gastro-oesophageal junction have received much attention in relation to the rising incidence of cancer at this site. Since these histological findings are frequently observed even among those who are H pylori-negative, the causative factors for ...
Benyó Zoltán - - 2006
The antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) has been used for decades. One of the major problems of the therapeutical use of nicotinic acid is a strong cutaneous vasodilation called flushing, which develops in almost every patient taking nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid-induced flushing has been shown to be mediated by the ...
Maciejewski-Lenoir Dominique - - 2006
Nicotinic acid, used for atherosclerosis treatment, has an adverse effect of skin flushing. The flushing mechanism, thought to be caused by the release of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), is not well understood. We aimed to identify which cells mediate the flushing effect. Nicotinic acid receptor (GPR109A) gene expression was assessed in ...
Sambe Haruyo - - 2006
Uniformly-sized, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for (S)-nicotine have been prepared by a precipitation polymerization method using methacrylic acid (MAA) or 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid (TFMAA) as a functional monomer and divinylbenzene (DVB) as a cross-linker in a mixture of toluene and acetonitrile. The (S)-nicotine-imprinted MAA-co-DVB polymers were monodispersed microspheres of about 4 ...
Tack J - - 2006
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a multifaceted and multifactorial disorder which results from the reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus. Animal studies suggest that synergism between acid and pepsin and conjugated bile acids have the greatest damaging potential for oesophageal mucosa, although unconjugated bile acids may be caustic at more ...
Klopocka Maria - - 2006
BACKGROUND: First- and second-order esophageal contractions are important factors responsible for esophageal clearance of refluxed gastric content. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of acid reflux on second-order esophageal peristalsis. MATERIAL/METHODS: Simultaneous 24-h esophageal pH-metry and 24-h motility monitoring was performed in 213 patients with non-cardiac ...
Meyers C Daniel - - 2007
Nicotinic acid is a safe, broad-spectrum lipid agent shown to prevent cardiovascular disease, yet its widespread use is limited by the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) mediated niacin flush. Previous research suggests that nicotinic acid-induced PGD2 secretion is mediated by the skin, but the exact cell type remains unclear. We hypothesized that ...
Sampayo-Reyes Adriana - - 2006
The aim of this experimental study was to analyze in vitro effects of clofibric acid on vimentin and desmin contents in rat myocardiocytes, which was carried out in primary myocardiocyte cells that were treated only with clofibric acid at 0.1 mM. The measurement of vimentin and desmin were done by ...
Tutuian Radu - - 2006
Clinical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, chest pain, cough and other extraesophageal symptoms. GERD is known to cause erosive esophagitis, Barrett esophagus and has been linked to the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Currently upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the main clinical tool for visualizing ...
Mancini R A - - 2007
Sodium erythorbate and ascorbic acid were compared as a means to stabilize surface colour of bone-in beef steaks in high-oxygen modified atmosphere (80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide). Bone-in strip loins (n=8) were fabricated into 1.9-cm thick steaks, of which both the lumbar vertebrae and longissimus lumborum were topically treated ...
Boyle John T - - 2006
There continues to be significant controversy related to diagnostic testing for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Clearly, barium contrast fluoroscopy is superior to any other test in defining the anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. Although fluoroscopy can demonstrate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), this observation does not equate to GERD. Fluoroscopy ...
Tutuian R - - 2006
Gastroesophagel reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition encountered in clinical practice. Over the years there has been a continuous interaction between the understanding of the disease, the diagnostic tools and treatments of GERD. The use of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) trials by primary care physicians as diagnostic tool in ...
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