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Katz Philip O - - 2008
Nocturnal acid breakthrough is misunderstood and infrequently requires treatment in everyday practice. There are important subgroups of patients in whom esophageal reflux occurs in the presence of nocturnal acid breakthrough in which treatment may be needed.
Whitehead Terence R - - 2008
Skatole (3-methylindole) is a malodorous chemical in stored swine manure and is implicated as a component of foul-tasting pork. Definitive evidence for the skatole pathway is lacking. Deuterium-labeled substrates were employed to resolve this pathway in the acetogenic bacterium Clostridium drakei and Clostridium scatologenes and to determine if a similar ...
Lawal Adeyemi A Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, - - 2008
The cingulate and insular cortices are parts of the limbic system that process and modulate gastrointestinal sensory signals. We hypothesized that sensitization of these two limbic area may operate in esophageal sensitization. Thus the objective of the study was to elucidate the neurocognitive processing in the cingulate and insular cortices ...
Taher Yousef A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been implicated in immune suppression and tolerance induction. OBJECTIVE: We examined (1) whether IDO activity is required during tolerance induction by allergen immunotherapy or for the subsequent suppressive effects on asthma manifestations and (2) whether tryptophan depletion or generation of its downstream ...
Leaf David Alexander - - 2008
Chylomicronemia is present when triglyceride levels exceed 1000 mg/dL. Chylomicronemia, when accompanied by eruptive xanthoma, lipemia retinalis, or abdominal symptoms, is referred to as the "chylomicronemia syndrome" and can cause acute pancreatitis. Treatment aimed at reducing triglyceride levels includes lifestyle modifications to promote weight loss with diet and physical activity ...
Gille Andreas - - 2008
Pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid induce a profound change in the plasma levels of various lipids and lipoproteins. The ability of nicotinic acid to strongly increase the plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol has in recent years led to an increased interest in the pharmacological potential of nicotinic acid. ...
Larsson Lennart - - 2008
The microbiological composition of tobacco products was studied using culture and chemical analysis (of tobacco leaves) or chemical analysis only (tobacco and tobacco smoke). The chemical analyses utilized gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining 3-hydroxy fatty acids, muramic acid, and ergosterol as markers of respectively lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan, and fungal ...
Van Vliet Evelyn P M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: General practitioners (GPs) are the first-line physicians who are consulted for upper digestive symptoms. Persons with symptoms may, however, prefer to buy acid inhibitors or antacids in drugstores or pharmacies and bypass a GP. The aim of this work was to study users, reasons for use, and utilization patterns ...
Ghosh S - - 2008
The root nodules of Phaseolus mungo (a herbaceous leguminous pulse) contained a high amount of 3-indolylacetic acid (IAA). A tryptophan pool present in the nodule might play the role of precursor for IAA production. From the root nodule a Rhizobium sp. was isolated. The symbiont produced a large amount of ...
Stairs Douglas B - - 2008
Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant condition whereby the normal stratified squamous esophageal epithelium undergoes a transdifferentiation program resulting in a simple columnar epithelium reminiscent of the small intestine. These changes are typically associated with the stratified squamous epithelium chronically exposed to acid and bile salts as a result of gastroesophageal ...
Wang Changcheng - - 2008
The fundamental abnormality in gastroesophageal reflux disease is exposure of the esophageal epithelium to acidic gastric contents, resulting in histopathologic injury and/or symptoms. With increasing understanding of gastroesophageal reflux disease, non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) is found to account for >50% of cases involving gastroesophageal reflux. There is a good correlation ...
Bogan Katrina L - - 2008
Although baseline requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis can be met either with dietary tryptophan or with less than 20 mg of daily niacin, which consists of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide, there is growing evidence that substantially greater rates of NAD+ synthesis may be beneficial to protect against neurological ...
Bilac Dilek Bayraktar - - 2008
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, toxic pustuloderma, pustular drug eruption) is a not uncommon cutaneous reaction pattern that is usually related to drug administration. The eruption is of sudden onset and appears 7-10 days after the medication is started. A 22-year-old male patient who was a student at a chemical ...
Gerson Lauren B - - 2008
A Stanford University study reported that in asymptomatic GERD patients who were being treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), 50% had pathologic esophageal acid exposure. We considered the possibility that the high prevalence of pathologic esophageal reflux might simply have resulted from calculating acidity as time pH < 4. ...
St-Hilaire Marie - - 2008
In a mature organism, the contact between various liquids and the laryngeal mucosa triggers lower airway protective responses (cough, swallowing, arousal). These laryngeal chemoreflexes (LCR) are essential for preventing aspiration. In contrast, previous studies showed that LCR are responsible for apnea and bradycardia in the neonatal mammal. Consequently, LCR, especially ...
Tsiaoussis John - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Heller's myotomy for esophageal achalasia is associated with less esophageal acid gastroesophageal reflux when combined a Dor's fundoplication. The Aim of the study was to assess the incidence of postoperative esophageal acid exposure after laparoscopic Heller's myotomy and Dor's fundoplication (HM-DF). METHODS: Seventy six patients (37 males) with esophageal ...
Nino Gustavo - - 2007
Laryngeal exposure to acid and aspiration of gastric contents may lead to severe respiratory disorders. This study utilizes the canine model of Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) to identify whether lower esophageal dysfunction is associated with upper and lower airway pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five mongrel dogs underwent GER-creating surgery (partial cardiomyectomy). ...
Smout A J P M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal pH monitoring has been used for three decades to study gastro-oesophageal reflux, but it does not allow detection of non-acid reflux episodes. AIM: To discuss the techniques by which non-acid reflux can be measured and to evaluate the clinical relevance of such measurements. METHODS: Review of the literature ...
Bodor E T - - 2008
Nicotinic acid has been used for decades to treat dyslipidaemic states. In particular its ability to raise the plasma HDL cholesterol concentration has led to an increased interest in its pharmacological potential. The clinical use of nicotinic acid is somewhat limited due to several harmless but unpleasant side effects, most ...
Lehmler Hans-Joachim HJ Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA 52242-5000, USA. - - 2008
This study explores perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) as a potential vehicle for the pulmonary delivery of a series of prodrugs of nicotinic acid using cell culture studies. The prodrugs investigated have PFOB-water (logK(p)=0.78 to >2.2), perfluoromethylcyclohexane-toluene (logK(p)=-2.62 to 0.13) and octanol-water (logK(p)=0.90-10.2) partition coefficients spanning several orders of magnitude. In confluent ...
Constantopoulos Stavros H - - 2008
Mediterranean regions such as Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Corsica and New Caledonia have experienced epidemics of malignant mesothelioma as a result of non-occupational, "domestic" exposure to tremolite asbestos and fibrous erionite. This exposure to tremolite asbestos and fibrous erionite is typified "domestic" due to its prevalence in regions with natural deposits ...
Javorkova N N Department of Pathophysiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin, - - 2008
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough; however, the mechanisms by which GOR initiates coughing are incompletely understood. We address the hypothesis that acidification of oesophagus acutely increases the cough reflex sensitivity in patients with GORD and chronic cough. Nine patients with GORD ...
Hayashi Yoshinori - - 2008
In contrast to Western countries, reflux esophagitis is considered to be less common in the Orient, including Japan. Transient LES relaxation (TLESR) is a major mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux (GER); however, there are no data on the mechanisms of GER in Japanese people. In addition, it is unclear whether or ...
Malfertheiner M V - - 2007
Although the esophagus was initially considered as the "humble" organ, it has in recent times evoked both substantial interest and considerable controversy as esophagitis becomes a global pandemic and the debate over the causes of esophagitis and the management of Barrett's has escalated. The esophagus has always defied easy understanding ...
Jin Zhe Z Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, - - 2007
Our aim was to investigate whether and at what stage hypermethylation of the tachykinin-1 (TAC1) gene is associated with human esophageal neoplastic transformation. TAC1 promoter hypermethylation was examined by real-time methylation-specific PCR in 258 human esophageal specimens and 126 plasma samples from patients or tissues at various stages of neoplastic ...
Kuroiwa Yuichi - - 2008
Combined treatment with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and ascorbic acid (AsA) has already been shown to promote rat forestomach carcinogenesis, possibly due to nitric oxide generation under acidic conditions. We hypothesized that a similar effect might occur in the esophagus when the luminal pH is decreased by acid reflux. To clarify ...
Jovov Biljana - - 2007
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a specialized columnar epithelium (SCE) that develops as replacement for damaged squamous epithelium (SqE) in subjects with reflux disease, and as such it is apparently more acid resistant than SqE. How SCE resists acid injury is poorly understood; one means may involve altered tight junctions (TJs) ...
Said Hamid M - - 2007
This study reports on the functional expression of a specific, high-affinity carrier-mediated mechanism for the transport of niacin (nicotinic acid) in human liver cells. Both human-derived liver HepG2 cells and human primary hepatocytes were used as models in these investigations. The initial rate of transport of nicotinic acid into HepG2 ...
Kawahara Hisayoshi - - 2007
Rikkunshito (TJ-43), a herbal medicine consisting of eight herbs, is used to treat chronic dyspepsia. Studies have shown that TJ-43 improves human gastric emptying. This study investigated the effects of TJ-43 on the clinical symptoms and esophageal acid exposure in children with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Eight children, aged from ...
Matsui Ayu - - 2007
Metabolism of [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide was surveyed in various plant materials including the model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Lotus japonicus. In all plants studied, nicotinamide was used for the pyridine (nicotinamide adenine) nucleotide synthesis, probably after conversion to nicotinic acid. Radioactivity from [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide was incorporated into trigonelline (1-N-methylnicotinic acid) and/or ...
Tipnis Neelesh A - - 2007
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common physiologic phenomenon in infants and children. GER that results in symptoms or complications--hence the evolution to GER disease (GERD)--warrants targeted evaluation and appropriate treatment. Judicious use of acid-suppression therapy remains the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment of GERD. However, recognition of treatment goals and potentials ...
Sankar R - - 2007
The present study was designed to identify the volatile constituents across the oestrous cycle of bovine in order to detect oestrous-specific chemical signal. The bovine saliva was extracted with diethyl ether (1 : 1 ratio, v/v) and analysed by gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry. Numerous compounds were identified during oestrous cycle ...
Bredenoord A J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Whereas it is well documented that fundoplication reduces acid reflux, the effects of the procedure on non-acid and gas reflux and the mechanisms through which this is achieved have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: In 14 patients, reflux was measured with impedance-pH monitoring during a postprandial 90 min stationary ...
Fornari F - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Several studies showed high prevalence of ineffective oesophageal motility (IOM) in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and suggested an important role for ineffective oesophageal motility in increased acid exposure. However, impedance-manometric studies proposed that only severe ineffective oesophageal motility might affect oesophageal clearance. OBJECTIVES: (i) To re-assess the relevance of ...
Zhang Hui-Ying - - 2007
Acid exerts pro-proliferative effects in Barrett's-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. In non-neoplastic Barrett's epithelial (BAR-T) cells, in contrast, we have shown that acid exposure has antiproliferative effects. To explore our hypothesis that the acid-induced, antiproliferative effects are mediated by alterations in the proteins that regulate the G(1)-S cell cycle checkpoint, we ...
Yang Nianjun - - 2008
A novel and sensitive method for the determination of nicotinic acid was proposed and based on voltammetric behavior of nicotinic acid on a self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoacetic acid coated gold electrode. The adsorption-controlled anodic peak current for the oxidation of nicotinic acid on mercaptoacetic acid covered gold electrode was affected ...
Dickman R - - 2007
Oesophageal acid exposure analysis is divided to upright and supine, based on the assumption that the supine-awake period is similar to the supine-asleep period. To determine if the principal acid-reflux characteristics of supine-awake are closer to supine-asleep or upright period. Patients with heartburn underwent an upper endoscopy and pH testing. ...
Pace Fabio - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER) can greatly increase microscopic and macroscopic esophageal mucosal damage caused by acid. The aim of this study was simultaneously to assess the chemical composition of DGER by detecting bilirubin in the refluxate by means of Bilitec and describe its pH and physical properties by impedance monitoring, ...
Lewis Alexander M - - 2007
The measurement of changes in nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) levels in cells has been, and remains, key to the investigation of the functions of NAADP as a Ca2+ -releasing second messenger. Here we provide details of how to isolate NAADP from cells by extraction with perchloric acid and ...
Surratt Jason D - - 2007
The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is closely correlated to increasing aerosol acidity (R2 = 0.979). Direct ...
Miwa H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between acid and dyspeptic symptoms has not been fully understood. AIM: To investigate the type and severity of dyspeptic symptoms induced by direct acid infusion into the stomach of Japanese healthy subjects. METHODS: This was a multi-centre, cross-over, randomized, double-blind study in 27 healthy subjects (mean age ...
Hogan D - - 2007
To demonstrate the pharmacodynamic comparability between oral 40 mg pantoprazole delayed-release granules and tablets. This was a multicentre, randomized, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, 9-week crossover study in patients aged 18-65 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and documented erosive oesophagitis. The primary endpoint was a comparison of the inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated maximum ...
Roman Sabine - - 2007
p63 is a member of the p53 protein family that regulates differentiation and morphogenesis in epithelial tissues and is required for the formation of squamous epithelia. Barrett's mucosa is a glandular metaplasia of the squamous epithelium that develops in the lower esophagus in the context of chronic, gastroesophageal reflux and ...
Farrokhi F - - 2007
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common medical condition affecting approximately 35-40% of the adult population in the western world. The role of GERD in causing extra-esophageal symptoms including laryngitis, asthma, cough, chest pain, and dental erosions is increasingly recognized with renewed interest among gastroenterologists and other specialists. Direct injury ...
Fukuwatari Tsutomu - - 2007
The vitamin nicotinamide is synthesized in the liver from tryptophan, and distributed to non-hepatic tissues. Although it is generally accepted that 60 mg tryptophan is equivalent to 1 mg nicotinamide in humans, the conversion ratio of tryptophan to nicotinamide is changeable. To determine if de novo nicotinamide synthesis from tryptophan ...
Beales Ian L P - - 2007
Obesity and gastro-oesophageal reflux are the main predisposing factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We have examined the effects of transient acid exposure and leptin on OE33 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Leptin and acid individually stimulated proliferation and inhibited apoptosis and the combination was synergistic. Leptin receptor protein levels were unchanged by acid ...
Jacobson Elaine L - - 2007
The effects of myristyl nicotinate (MN), a nicotinic acid derivative designed to deliver nicotinic acid to skin without vasodilatation, on subjects with photodamaged skin have been studied. MN increased skin cell nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by 25% (P = 0.001) demonstrating effective delivery of nicotinic acid to skin. Relative to ...
Dughera L - - 2007
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is known to cause erosive esophagitis, Barrett esophagus and has been linked to the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Currently, endoscopy is the main clinical tool for visualizing esophageal lesions, but the majority of GERD patients do not have endoscopic visible lesions and other methods ...
Carballo-Jane E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to study the role of cutaneous Langerhans cells on a mouse model of nicotinic acid-induced vasodilatation. METHODS: Nicotinic acid-induced vasodilatation was studied in the mouse ear by laser Doppler flowmetry prior to and at intervals after Langerhans cells depletion by treatment with hydrocortisone. RESULTS: Nicotinic acid ...
Emerenziani S - - 2007
Proximal oesophageal acid reflux is increased in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients with oesophageal and extra-oesophageal symptoms, the latter particularly in presence of oesophagitis. This study was aimed to assess the proximal extent of reflux, both acid and weakly acidic, in GORD patients with and without oesophagitis and to characterize, ...
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