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Iwakiri Katsuhiko - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Combined multi-channel intra-luminal impedance and pH (Mll-pH) monitoring can detect gastro-esophageal reflux and identify acid and non-acid reflux (NAR) events. It can be used for patients with persistent symptoms who are having proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of acid ...
Martres Paul - - 2009
The discovery of HM74a as a high affinity receptor for nicotinic acid has opened up new areas for investigation. Since its discovery, several new chemical entities have been reported as HM74a agonists. One of them, MK-0354, has been tested in phase II studies, but despite significant decreases in Free Fatty ...
Agrawal A - - 2009
Twenty-four-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) esophageal monitoring detects both acid and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux episodes. The MII-pH catheter contains six impedance segments placed 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, and 17 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). A pH electrode at 5 cm above the LES identifies the ...
Gill Simerpal Kaur - - 2009
Background. Heartburn and acid reflux (HB/RF) are associated with increased severity of nausea and vomiting. The ability of acid-reducing drugs to reduce symptoms of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy has not been previously tested. Objective. To determine whether acid-reducing pharmacotherapy decreases the severity of NVP symptoms. Methods. We studied a ...
Xiao Ying L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data on combined esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) monitoring in the Chinese population. GOALS: To define the normal range and compare the parameters to those of the Western population. STUDY: Healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent 24-hour ambulatory combined MII-pH monitoring. Gastroesophageal ...
Franke Deanna D H - - 2011
Background: Acids account for 20% of all chemical exposures through various routes. Caustic acids such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acid are common ingredients in many household and industrial products. Due to the corrosive properties of these substances, tissue injury caused by oral exposure can lead to severe esophageal and gastrointestinal ...
Rozenberg Aleksandr - - 2008
Quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase (QPRTase) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of quinolinic acid (QA) to nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NAMN), a key step on the de novo pathway for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. We describe herein a theoretical study of the intrinsic energetics associated with the possible mechanistic ...
Lin Hung Wen HW Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL 62702, - - 2008
Nitric oxide (NO) is identified as the endothelium-derived relaxing factor and a neurotransmitter with a superfusion bioassay cascade technique. By using a similar technique with rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) as donor tissue and rabbit endothelium-denuded aortic ring as detector tissue, we report here that a vasodilator, which is more ...
Wang Victor S - - 2009
Esophageal motility has been well studied in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and acid reflux, but not in nonacid reflux. Consecutive patients who had both 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) and esophageal motility tests for suspected GERD were studied. Patients were grouped into nonacid refluxers, acid refluxers, and nonrefluxers based on ...
Pauwels Ans - - 2009
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is one of the three most common causes of chronic unexplained cough. Diagnosing GER-related cough is challenging since many patients do not have esophagitis or an increased esophageal acid exposure during 24 h esophageal pH-metry. A significant time association between acid reflux and cough can be demonstrated ...
Iwakiri Katsuhiko - - 2009
The pathophysiology of excessive esophageal acid exposure, including the way refluxed acid extends towards the proximal esophagus, in patients with reflux esophagitis (RE), is not yet clear. For 3 h after a meal, concurrent esophageal manometry and pH monitoring was carried out on 14 patients with severe RE, 15 patients ...
Kajikawa Masataka - - 2009
Plants in the Nicotiana genus produce nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids as a part of their chemical defense against insect herbivores. These alkaloids are formed by condensation of a derivative of nicotinic acid, but the enzyme(s) involved in the final condensation step remains elusive. In Nicotiana tabacum, an orphan reductase ...
Belenky Peter - - 2009
NAD+ is a co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and an essential substrate of ADP-ribose transfer enzymes and sirtuins, the type III protein lysine deacetylases related to yeast Sir2. Supplementation of yeast cells with nicotinamide riboside extends replicative lifespan and increases Sir2-dependent gene silencing by virtue of increasing net NAD+ synthesis. ...
Banerjee Banani - - 2009
The excitatory amino acid glutamate plays an important role in the development of neuronal sensitization and the ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is one of the major receptors involved. The objective of this study was to use a cat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) to investigate the expression of the ...
Ford Kevin A - - 2008
The metabolism of seven commercial neonicotinoid insecticides was compared in spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) using HPLC-DAD and LC-MSD to analyze the large number and great variety of metabolites. The parent neonicotinoid levels in the foliage following hydroponic treatment varied from differences in uptake and persistence. The metabolic reactions included nitro ...
Zepf Florian Daniel - - 2009
Decreased neurotransmission of serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be related to the development of depressive symptoms, whereas recent preliminary evidence suggests that acute mania may be related to a hyperserotonergic state. The reduction of central nervous 5-HT synthesis achieved by a new modification of the dietary rapid tryptophan depletion technique, ...
Conchillo J M - - 2009
Background  Intra-oesophageal impedance monitoring can be used to assess the clearance of a swallowed bolus (oesophageal transit) and to detect gastro-oesophageal reflux independent of its acidity. Aim  To discuss the clinical application of the impedance technique for the assessment of bolus transit and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Methods  Review of the literature ...
Grigolon Ausilia - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is supposed to result from normalization of esophageal acid exposure; however, recent data in selected severe patients have challenged this concept. The aim of the study was to investigate 24-hour esophagogastric pH in unselected patients ...
Ji Kyunghee - - 2008
Because of their global distribution, persistence, and tendency to bioaccumulate, concerns about perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are growing. We determined the toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in several freshwater organisms, including two cladocerans, Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa, and the teleost Oryzias latipes. In general, PFOS ...
Lu Shanyun - - 2008
Nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NaMNAT; EC 2.7.7.18) is the penultimate enzyme in the biosynthesis of NAD(+) and catalyzes the adenylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) by ATP to form nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD). This enzyme is regarded as a suitable candidate for antibacterial drug development; as such, Bacillus anthracis ...
Kim Jin-Soo - - 2008
To assess the occurrence of gastric acid reflux into the esophagus in endoscopically confirmed prolapse gastropathy syndrome (PGS). Using ambulatory esophageal pH measurement (BRAVO(TM) wireless esophageal pH monitoring system), twenty-six patients with PGS were compared with twenty-one patients with erosive esophagitis (EE) as controls. We assessed several reflux parameters, including ...
Oh Mi Mi - - 2008
PURPOSE: We assessed whether differences exist in the rates of acute photon defect and scar formation using dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy according to the presence and grade of vesicoureteral reflux. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 389 patients with a first febrile urinary tract infection were enrolled. For all patients ultrasonography, ...
Osman Mohammad M Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71103-3932, - - 2008
Although ingestion of alkali-based and/or hypochlorite-based household cleaners as well as strong acids remains a major cause of esophageal wall injury, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the injury response to these toxic agents. This study examined the roles of vascular dysfunction and inflammation to the esophageal injury ...
Shen Hong C - - 2008
Pyrazolopyrimidines were discovered as the first class of allosteric agonists for the high affinity nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A. In addition to its intrinsic activity, compound 9n significantly enhances nicotinic acid binding to the receptor, thereby potentiating the functional efficacy of nicotinic acid.
Semple Graeme - - 2008
The discovery and profiling of 3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-cyclopentapyrazole (5a, MK-0354), a partial agonist of GPR109a, is described. Compound 5a retained the plasma free fatty acid lowering effects in mice associated with GPR109a agonism, but did not induce vasodilation at the maximum feasible dose. Moreover, preadministration of 5a blocked the flushing effect induced ...
Tsai Dai-Hua - - 2008
This study compared commuters' exposures to particulate matter (PM) while using motorcycles, cars, buses, and the mass rapid transit (MRT) on the same routes in Taipei, Taiwan. Motorcycle commuters who had the shortest travel time (28.4+/-4.2 min) were exposed to the highest concentrations of PM(10) (112.8+/-38.3 microg/m(3)), PM(2.5) (67.5+/-31.3 microg/m(3)), ...
Zhang Renyi - - 2008
The atmospheric effects of soot aerosols include interference with radiative transfer, visibility impairment, and alteration of cloud formation and are highly sensitive to the manner by which soot is internally mixed with other aerosol constituents. We present experimental studies to show that soot particles acquire a large mass fraction of ...
Kahrilas Peter J PJ Department of Medicine, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2951, USA. - - 2008
Both high-resolution manometry (HRM) and impedance-pH/manometry monitoring have established themselves as research tools and both are now emerging in the clinical arena. Solid-state HRM capable of simultaneously monitoring the entire pressure profile from the pharynx to the stomach along with pressure topography plotting represents an evolution in esophageal manometry. Two ...
Zhang Hui Ying - - 2008
We hypothesized that, in esophageal squamous epithelial cells, there are differences among individuals in the signal transduction pathways activated by acid reflux that might underlie the development of Barrett's esophagus. To explore that hypothesis, we immortalized nonneoplastic, esophageal squamous cells from patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with (NES-B3T) and ...
Perez Locas Carolina - - 2008
Although it is generally assumed that the reactivity of sucrose, a nonreducing sugar, in the Maillard reaction is due to its hydrolysis into free glucose and fructose, however, no direct evidence has been provided for this pathway, especially in dry and high temperature systems. Using specifically (13)C-labeled sucrose at C-1 ...
Conchillo José M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive esophagitis (EE) are the most common phenotypic presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To assess acid and non-acid reflux patterns in patients with EE and NERD using combined esophageal pH-impedance monitoring. METHODS: A total of 26 GERD patients off acid-suppressive medication and ...
Mims James W - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present paper examines the recent literature on extra-esophageal reflux and discusses how it affects patient testing and treatment of upper respiratory track inflammatory disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Assays for pepsin have been developed casting more insight into the pathophysiology of extra-esophageal reflux as well as looking at ...
Hampton Sylvie - - 2008
Fungating wounds are unlikely to heal and therefore, the prime consideration should be the treatment and, where possible, the elimination of symptoms such as malodour. Malodour is the byproduct of bacteria and the fatty acids that are part of necrotic tissue. Application of dressings that block the odour, such as ...
Tutuian Radu - - 2008
Gastroesophageal reflux monitoring is a key investigation in managing gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal pH monitoring is used to quantify esophageal acid exposure and the association of symptoms with acidic reflux episodes. Recently available wireless pH monitoring systems allow reflux monitoring over prolonged periods and increase patient comfort during the procedure. ...
Ge Hongfei - - 2008
G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) has been identified as a receptor for short-chain fatty acids that include acetate and propionate. A potential involvement of GPR43 in immune and inflammatory response has been previously suggested because its expression is highly enriched in immune cells. GPR43 is also expressed in a number ...
Agrawal Amit - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Because impedance changes have been shown to be a sensitive and reliable means to detect fluid or gas movement within the esophagus, numerous studies worldwide have addressed the potential for impedance determinations to provide a sensitive measure of either esophageal transit function or the presence and extent of gastroesophageal ...
Makarovsky Igor - - 2008
HF is a corrosive mineral acid. It has extremely harmful systemic effects through any route of exposure. In dilute solutions the onset of symptoms is latent. It is important for caregivers to remember that HF has distinct clinical signs and a specific antidote, namely calcium gluconate. The industrial use of ...
Tutuian Radu - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Persistent symptoms on acid suppressive therapy are due to either acid or nonacid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) episodes or are not related to reflux. AIM: To compare physical and chemical characteristics of GER episodes associated with symptoms in patients on acid suppressive therapy. METHODS: Patients with persistent symptoms on acid ...
Gutschow Christian A - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Gastroesophageal reflux is the most important factor in the development of Barrett's metaplasia. The effect of acid reflux is commonly accepted today, but there is controversy about the role of non-acid reflux. With introduction of combined esophageal pH-impedance monitoring, a precise diagnostic test for acid and non-acid reflux is ...
Kline Michael M - - 2008
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fifty percent of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms and negative endoscopy have negative 24-hour pH testing, suggesting that symptoms are not caused by abnormal esophageal acid exposure. Multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII)-24-hour pH allows the recognition of major acid, minor acid, nonacid, and gas reflux. Recorded symptoms ...
Hashimoto Satoru - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil elastase (NE) may play a key role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS. NE activity (NEA) was measured in patients with ALI treated with a selective NE inhibitor. METHODS: NEA and NE-alpha1-antitrypsin (NE-AT) complex were measured in plasma before, during and after ...
Koek G H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Exposure to acid and duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux (DGOR) both increase with oesophageal lesions in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). It is unknown whether DGOR exposure is an independent risk factor for oesophageal lesions. A multivariate analysis was performed on the relationship between oesophageal lesions and demographics and acid and DGOR exposure. ...
Cannon C P - - 2008
Whilst statin monotherapy is often sufficient to reach LDL-C goals, treatment may not reach all lipid goals in individuals with mixed dyslipidaemia typically associated with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. Double or triple combination therapy, which provides the opportunity to address multiple lipid abnormalities simultaneously, may be required to ...
Yang Chen-Chang - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Formic acid decomposes upon contact with strong acids producing carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide poisoning from such a source, however, is extremely rare. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old man committed suicide by mixing 2.5 L of formic acid and 2.5 L of sulfuric acid in three beakers and staying in a ...
Nováková Michaela - - 2008
The determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a marker of recent alcohol consumption, in human serum by hyphenation of capillary ITP (CITP) and CZE is reported. For CITP step, 1 x 10(-2) M hydrochloric acid adjusted with epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) to pH 4.4 was used as the leading electrolyte, and 1 ...
Savarino Vincenzo - - 2008
[table: see text] A consistent subset of patients with NERD suffers from symptoms centered in the upper part of the abdomen that are more characteristic of functional dyspepsia than reflux disease. The cause of this overlap is still unclear, but acid has been implicated as one of the possible common ...
Rutter Guy A - - 2008
NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is a derivative of NADP (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate), which differs by the presence of a nicotinic acid instead of a nicotinamide moiety. This small structural difference makes NAADP one of the most powerful second messengers known, able to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ in a wide range ...
Blondeau K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is increased in cystic fibrosis (CF), but its prevalence, characteristics, association with gastric aspiration and respiratory impact are not well characterised. We investigated acid and weakly acidic reflux, aspiration and respiratory symptoms/function in adult CF patients. METHODS: Thirty-three CF patients [19 men; 29 (18-55) years, [10 ...
Ida Chieri - - 2008
Changes in gene expression levels of c-myc and CD38 were examined during the differentiation of HL-60 cells to granulocytes due to three nicotinic acid-related compounds. CD38 expression was increased by isonicotinic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Nicotinamide and nicotinamide N-oxide drastically decreased c-myc expression, but isonicotinic acid had no effect, ...
Araujo Ana Carla S - - 2008
Among the possible mechanisms explaining the worsening of asthma due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the increase in bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The effects of GERD on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with bronchial asthma have yet to be studied in significant detail. The aim of this study was to determine the ...
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