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Results 651 - 700 of 1163
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Peghini P L - - 1996
OBJECT: To assess the effect of acid infusion on the response of normal subjects to progressive intra-oesophageal balloon distension (IOBD). METHODS: Twenty-one volunteers underwent slow IOBD. Subjects were asked to indicate the first perception of sensation (S1) and the onset of pain (S2), balloon volumes being recorded at both points. ...
Nahum A - - 1996
We separated distal (turbulence-related) and proximal (dead space washout-related) effects of tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) by comparing the effects of straight and inverted catheters. We reasoned that the inverted catheter was unlikely to remove CO2 from conducting airways distal to its orifice. In six normal dogs during TGI at 10 ...
Toth E - - 1996
Using microdialysis, we compared intracerebral and subcutaneous administration of nicotine for the effect on the levels of extracellular amino acids in the hippocampus of anesthetized rats. Administration by microdialysis of 10 mM nicotine, resulting in a nicotine concentration of 0.134 mumol/g in the hippocampus, increased the extracellular levels of aspartic ...
Khan I M - - 1996
The nicotinic agonists, nicotine and cytisine, when administered intrathecally elicit an increase in blood pressure and heart rate as well as a nociceptive response. By using a novel microdialysis procedure, in which a 4-cm dialysis tubing is inserted proximal to the intrathecal injection site, we have examined the release of ...
Hirschowitz B I - - 1996
Simple intermittent heartburn with minor or no esophagitis can be treated with simple measures including lifestyle changes and antacids as needed, or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA), and has a good outcome. Problematic reflux includes resistance to therapy, stricture, Barrett's esophagus and aspiration. Severe reflux esophagitis, often resistant to H2RA therapy, ...
Yelon J A - - 1996
We report a case in which a patient sustained an inhalation injury as a result of aerosolized formic acid. The patient sustained a partial-thickness burn to the face from a chemical spray; however, as a result of aerosolization, he also inhaled formic acid. This resulted in a reversible pulmonary chemical ...
Bartlett D W - - 1996
It is well known that acid regurgitated from the stomach into the mouth will erode teeth. Conditions such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, chronic alcoholism and gastric disturbances cause palatal dental erosion. The common factor in these conditions is the role played by the stomach and oesophagus in the acid ...
Warpman U - - 1996
The effects of tacrine (THA) on extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were investigated in the striatum of freely moving rats, using a microdialysis technique in which tacrine was administered locally via the microdialysis membrane. THA in concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-5) M, significantly ...
Holloway R H - - 1996
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reducing oesophageal acid exposure by suppressing acid secretion with omeprazole is highly effective in healing reflux oesophagitis. Some patients with severe oesophagitis, fail to heal and whether this results from inadequate acid suppression or other factors is unclear. The aim of this study, was to investigate the relation between ...
Parhofer K G - - 1996
The beneficial effect of cholesterol-lowering therapy for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is well established. The therapeutic goal in this situation is a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level of 100 mg/dl. Cholesterol-lowering therapy will not only lead to a reduction in the progression of lesions but ...
Soto-Urzua L - - 1996
The purification and characterization of AAT1, one of two aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.57) in Azospirillum brasilense, is described. Purified AAT1 had a subunit mass of 33 kDa and a nondenatured molecular mass of 66 kDa, suggesting a dimeric structure. Other properties include a pI of 5.04, an optimum ...
Basilisco G - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of body position on oesophageal acid clearance time in patients with systemic sclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients with systemic sclerosis and six healthy subjects underwent oesophageal manometry and an acid clearance test in three body positions (supine, recumbent at 30 degrees and seated ...
Nishitani H - - 1996
We investigated the relative activity of N-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-nicotinic acid as a niacin nutrient in rats and in Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. N-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyl)-nicotinic acid is a detoxified product or storage form of nicotinic acid that is found in plants. The relative activity of N-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)nicotinic acid to nicotinic acid in rats was 1/2.3, ...
Bhatia R - - 1996
The nadC gene from Escherichia coli was isolated and sequenced. The gene was then cloned into an expression vector and, following transformation, the resulting bacteria were able to produce quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase as about 2% of the soluble protein. The enzyme was purified in five steps leading to a homogeneous ...
Messner A H - - 1996
PURPOSE: To determine if gastroesophageal reflux affects the healing of esophageal mucosa damaged by alkaline substances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a rabbit model, the effects of intermittent acid and pepsin exposure (thereby mimicking gastroesophageal reflux) on post-caustic-burn esophageal mucosa were examined. Exposures were group I (n = 9), sodium hydroxide ...
Truscott R J - - 1995
1. Cataract is the single major cause of blindness worldwide; however, the reasons for the development of this condition remain unknown. It has been suggested that the essential amino acid tryptophan may be implicated in the aetiology but definitive evidence has been lacking. 2. The serum levels of tryptophan and ...
Pouderoux P - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The severity of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is generally considered to be related to the extent of oesophageal acid exposure. Current therapies include antisecretory and prokinetic agents. We compared two of these, ranitidine and cisapride, in their ability to lower oesophageal acid exposure in patients with erosive oesophagitis. METHODS: Seven ...
Curran A J - - 1995
Previous authors have demonstrated an association between gastro-oesophageal reflux and globus pharyngeus. With the advent of 24-h pH monitoring the strength of this association has been questioned. A prospective study was performed using a 'Symptom Index' of acid reflux. A positive result was recorded when one out of two globus ...
Shaker R - - 1995
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A variety of otolaryngological abnormalities have been attributed to the contact of gastroesophageal refluxate with respective structures of the aerodigestive tract. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the pharyngoesophageal distribution of gastric acid refluxate between patients with proven laryngitis attributed clinically to gastroesophageal ...
Harding S M - - 1995
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of microaspiration in gastroesophageal reflux-induced bronchoconstriction. DESIGN: Prospective study blinded to the subject. SETTING: Outpatient laboratory of a 908-bed university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty nonsmoking adults divided into two groups: asthmatics with reflux (AR), 20; and subjects with gastroesophageal reflux (R), 10. INTERVENTIONS: Dual esophageal ...
Mandel L - - 1995
It is not unusual for patients who are pregnant or have a hiatal hernia to develop gatroesophageal reflux with the resultant symptoms of heartburn. This article reviews the role reflux plays in causing episodes of increased salivation. Stimulation of the esophagus by gastric acids excites and esophagosalivary reflex. A marked ...
Sozzi M - - 1995
The reasons why few patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease develop oesophagitis are not yet clear. One of the factors whose role is still debatable is the gastric acid secretory state. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether differences exist in nocturnal gastric acidity between patients with oesophagitis and ...
Gibbons L W - - 1995
PURPOSE: To document the prevalence and nature of the side effects that occur with the use of regular and sustained-release nicotinic acid in everyday clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients seen in a private medical clinic who were given 133 separate trials of nicotinic acid during ...
Orr W C - - 1995
AIM: To measure 24-h ambulatory oesophageal pH data in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease prior to, during and after acute treatment with comparable doses of omeprazole and ranitidine. METHODS: The subjects were 20 adults with at least 8% acid contact time. Ten subjects were treated for 1 week with omeprazole ...
Iftikhar S Y - - 1995
Although the aetiology of Barrett's oesophagus or columnar line oesophagus (CLO), remains unknown, bile reflux has been implicated as a factor in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to detect alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux patients using dual probe pH monitoring. Thirty patients with histologically diagnosed CLO, 15 age and sex ...
Linn W S - - 1995
To help assess short-term respiratory responses to summertime air pollution, we exposed 24 asthmatic volunteers aged 11-18 in a chamber to respirable acid aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter 0.66 micron) plus 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2) plus 0.2 ppm ozone (O3). The aerosol contained available hydrogen ions (H-) at an ...
Cordi A - - 1995
Nicotinic acid (CAS 59-67-6) is the only hypolipidemic agent whose activity has been shown both on atherosclerotic lesions and on long term mortality. Unfortunately, its use is hindered by the frequent occurrence ( > 70%) of adverse reactions (i.e. cutaneous rash, pruritus and, most significantly, flush). New prodrugs of nicotinic ...
Olyaee M - - 1995
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by inflammatory cells can contribute to tissue destruction. ROS have been implicated in various gastrointestinal abnormalities, including the acid related peptic diseases. Although the development of oesophagitis and Barrett's columnar epithelium is associated with prolonged reflux of gastric acid, the exact mechanism by which tissue ...
Imai T - - 1995
Seven pyridine nucleotide analogs were synthesized, including nicotinic acid mononucleotide, nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide, and nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotidephosphate, by means of the transglycosidase activity of rabbit spleen pyridine nucleotide glycohydrolase. The velocity ratio of the transglycosidation to the hydrolysis in the presence of 16 mM nicotinamide mononucleotide and 0.3 M nicotinic ...
Vaezi M F - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The role of acid and duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER) in the development of complications in Barrett's esophagus is controversial. We characterized the esophageal reflux constituents in patients with and without complications of Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: Using a new fiber-optic system we studied 12 normal subjects (six male; mean age, 46 ...
Wetscher G J - - 1995
Free radical-mediated esophagitis was studied during duodenogastroesophageal reflux (mixed reflux) or acid reflux in rats. The influence of reflux on esophageal glutathione levels was also examined. Mixed reflux caused more gross mucosal injury than acid reflux. Gross mucosal injury occurred in the mid-esophagus. Total glutathione (GSH) in the esophageal mucosa ...
Brown C M - - 1995
Reflux of gastric acid and pepsins into the lower oesophagus causes symptoms such as heartburn and nausea, and tissue injury leading to erosive oesophagitis and stricture formation. This article reviews the mechanisms involved in protecting the oesophagus against acid-mediated injury, including the role of the lower oesophageal sphincter, secondary oesophageal ...
Bough I D ID - - 1995
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is known to cause a variety of symptoms that lead a patient to seek otolaryngologic care. New advances in the treatment of GERD have enabled otolaryngologists to eliminate most of the signs and symptoms caused by acid reflux. Omeprazole, the most recent pharmacologic advancement, has been ...
Rahal P S - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that cigarette smoking acutely increases gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Patients prescribed transdermal nicotine often complain of pyrosis. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effect of transdermal nicotine on GER. METHODS: Twenty volunteers (12 smokers and eight nonsmokers) were studied with a 24-h pH/motility apparatus ...
Satel S L - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Although cocaine is a potent serotonin (5-HT) reuptake blocker, the role of 5-HT systems in cocaine craving and relapse in humans has been unclear. The authors evaluated whether acute reductions in central 5-HT synthesis modulated craving for cocaine in cocaine-dependent patients. METHOD: Twenty-five cocaine-dependent male inpatients were exposed to ...
Brauer M - - 1995
A large number of studies have indicated associations between particulate air pollution and adverse health outcomes. Wintertime air pollution in particular has been associated with increased mortality. Identification of causal constituents of inhalable particulate matter has been elusive, although one candidate has been the acidity of the aerosol. Here we ...
Esteve-Romero J S - - 1995
The spectrophotometric determination of pyridine and pyridine derivatives by means of the K??nig reaction was studied in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), N-cetylpyridinium chloride and Triton X-100. The sensitivity was largely increased in SDS micellar medium. The attack of the pyridine ring with cyanogen bromide to produce a ...
Frampton M W - - 1995
These studies evaluated symptom and pulmonary function responses of humans sequentially exposed to sulfuric acid aerosol and ozone. Thirty healthy subjects and 30 allergic asthmatic subjects underwent 3-hr exposures in an environmental chamber to 100 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid and sodium chloride (control) aerosols (in random order), followed 24 hr later ...
Barham C P - - 1995
Previous studies of the mechanisms that precipitate acid reflux episodes have used short term hospital based measurements. A 24 hour pH and motility recording system, incorporating a sphincter monitoring device, has been developed to study naturally occurring acid reflux episodes in control subjects and patient groups with different grades of ...
Barham C P - - 1995
Previous studies examining oesophageal acid clearance have employed a variety of techniques to induce or simulate acid reflux. Clearance abnormalities have been deduced from abnormal standard motility studies, barium radiology or from 24-h pH recordings. In this study a 24-h pH and oesophageal motility recording system was used to study ...
Brazer S R - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to correlate the effects of different coffees on esophageal acid contact, heartburn, and regurgitation in patients with coffee-sensitivity. Twenty volunteers with coffee-sensitivity were studied in a double-blind, 3 period, crossover study examining the effect of three regular (caffeinated) coffees (a coffee from the USA--"A"; ...
Sears R J - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: Partial gastrectomy patients with anatomic alterations to the pylorus and acid secretion are excellent models for studying the controversial role of duodenogastric reflux in producing esophageal symptoms and esophagitis. METHODS: We studied 13 partial gastrectomy patients who had recent upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and chronic duodenogastric reflux symptoms. Simultaneously, acid ...
Small P K - - 1995
The relation between symptom severity in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and quantitated oesophageal acid reflux is variable. Furthermore, when oesophageal acid exposure lies within the conventional normal range, the cause of the symptoms is unknown. This prospective study evaluated 24 hour ambulatory oesophageal pH profiles in relation to objective symptom ...
Bowes S M SM - - 1995
Concern about the possible adverse health effects of acid fog has been fed by two observations: air pollution disasters earlier in this century were typically associated with fog, and current samples of fog water can be strongly acid. To study the acute effects of acid fog on the lung, the ...
Hunt R H - - 1995
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is generally considered to be the result of a motility disorder which permits the abnormal and prolonged exposure of the lumen of the oesophagus to the acidic gastric contents. This view is supported by experimental data, intra-oesophageal pH measurement, and the dramatic results of symptom relief ...
el-Fawal H A - - 1995
Air pollution may play some role in the recent increase in severity and prevalence of asthma, but the specific chemical components with the ambient pollutant mix that may be responsible have not been delineated. Since ambient exposures involve mixtures, it is essential to examine airway responses to realistic pollutant mixtures. ...
Hamano T - - 1995
An enzymic method for the determination of nicotinic acid is described, based on the indirect electrochemical monitoring of nicotinic acid via its reaction with oxygen in the presence of nicotinic acid hydroxylase. Derivative amperometric signals due to oxygen depletion enable a one-point kinetic analysis to be carried out. Nicotinic acid ...
Blancaflor E B - - 1995
The kinetics of MT [microtubule] reorientation in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Merit, were examined 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after horizontal positioning. Confocal microscopy of longitudinal tissue sections showed no change in MT orientation 15 and 30 min after horizontal placement. However, after 45 and 60 min, ...
Leith I D - - 1995
Mature grafts of five Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) clones were exposed to simulated acid mist comprising an equimolar mixture of H(2)SO(4) and NH(4)NO(3) (1.6 and 0.01 mol m(-3)) at pH 2.5 and 5.0. Mist was applied to potted plants growing in open-top chambers on consecutive days, four times ...
Galmiche J P - - 1995
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a multifactorial disease. Although it is primarily a motility disorder, several other disturbances can interfere and contribute to determine the severity of symptoms and the degree of lesions. In normal subjects, as in patients with pathological reflux, nearly all the episodes of reflux obey one ...
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