Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1317
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Shaw-Allen Patricia L - - 2005
Shifts in tissue nitrogen isotope composition may be a more sensitive general indicator of stress than measurement of high-turnover defensive biomolecules such as metallothionein and glutathione. As a physical resource transmitted along the trophic web, perturbations in protein nitrogen metabolism may also help resolve issues concerning the effects of contaminants ...
Ikeda Ikuo - - 2005
Tea catechins, rich in (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate, or heat-treated tea catechins in which about 50% of the (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate in tea catechins was epimerized to (-)-gallocatechin gallate and (-)-catechin gallate, were fed to rats at 1% level for 23 d. Visceral fat deposition and the ...
Donnelly Kerry L - - 2005
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of excess liver triacylglycerol (TAG), inflammation, and liver damage. The goal of the present study was to directly quantify the biological sources of hepatic and plasma lipoprotein TAG in NAFLD. Patients (5 male and 4 female; 44 +/- 10 years ...
Tamura Shinji - - 2005
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a component of the metabolic syndrome, with a clinical spectrum ranging from simple fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The primary event of NAFLD is the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in hepatocytes. In this issue of the JCI, Donnelly et al. report ...
Alwayn Ian P J - - 2005
The presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease often precludes potential organs from being used for transplantation. To date, there is no adequate treatment for hepatic steatosis, and it is expected that, because of increased obesity in Western society, the incidence of this disorder will increase. We investigated the effect of ...
Yokoyama Tadaaki - - 2005
A clearer picture of the hepatic metabolic pathways affected by fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) would help develop nutritional support and nonsurgical therapies for FHF. We characterized the evolution of hepatic metabolism in a rat model of FHF using an isolated perfused liver system together with a mass-balance model of intermediary ...
Leevy Carroll M - - 2005
Development of ethanol-induced fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis has been attributed in part to nutritional deficiencies for many years. Special attention must be focused on treating alcohol-induced liver disease while providing replacement of deficient amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Avoidance of alcohol intake is required to eliminate ...
Canbay A - - 2005
The data currently available favor a model for the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that is based on an apparent sequential relationship of intrahepatic apoptosis, inflammation and fibrogenesis. Based on both hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance, the hepatocellular accumulation of triglycerides, termed steatosis, initially leads to an altered metabolism ...
Alwayn Ian P J - - 2005
Prolonged use of total parenteral nutrition can lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, ranging from hepatic steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure. It has been demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids are negative regulators of hepatic lipogenesis and that they can also modulate the inflammatory response in mice. Furthermore, they may ...
Murase Takatoshi - - 2005
Insulin resistance-related obesity and diabetes mellitus are the predominant causes of fatty liver disease. Here we examine the effects of dietary diacylglycerol (DG), which is a minor component of plant oils, on lipid accumulation and the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver. The animals were fed ...
Pacheco Maria Teresa Bertoldo - - 2005
This study was designed to compare the effects of diets prepared with enzymatic hydrolysate of a whey protein concentrate (WPC) by pancreatin, protamex (Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark), and alcalase proteases on the hepatic glutathione content in mice. The undenatured WPC was produced in a pilot plant by membrane technology (microfiltration/diafiltration) ...
Verhoeven N M - - 2005
This paper describes the second patient found to be affected with a deficiency of transaldolase (TALDO1; EC 2.2.1.2). Clinically, this patient presented in the neonatal period with several signs of severe liver failure: severe coagulopathy, low serum protein, elevated blood ammonia, and hypoglycaemia. She had generalized oedema, moderate muscular hypotonia, ...
Lee S K - - 2005
Based on recent results that 1,2-dibromopropane (1,2-DBP) causes hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity in female BALB/c mice as well as a reduction of hepatic glutathione levels, the possible formation of glutathione conjugates and mercapturic acids of 1,2-DBP was investigated in vivo in the present studies. The following four metabolites were identified in ...
Szabó A - - 2005
Feed was totally withdrawn from laying hens (n = 30, Hy-Line Brown, 608 d of age, 2.04 +/- 0.07 kg of mean BW) to induce molting. Ten birds were slaughtered on d 0 and 12, and the hepatic and myocardial triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition, as well ...
Baffy György - - 2005
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common form of hepatic disorders in the developed world. NAFLD is part of the metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance as a primary underlying derangement. The natural history of NAFLD may extend from simple steatosis over steatohepatitis into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. ...
Outlaw William M - - 2005
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is the most severe form of illness within the spectrum of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Liver disease, usually consisting of mild serum transaminase elevation, occurs in almost 50% of patients with HG. While multiple risk factors have been proposed, the etiology and underlying mechanism of maternal ...
Fujii Yasutomo - - 2004
To assess the feasibility of a new system that uses the finite amplitude method and makes possible the assessment of the degree of nonlinear generation in vivo we adopted a method for agar-gel phantoms, using varying lipid concentrations and human livers in vivo. Instead of calculating the nonlinearity parameter B/A ...
Videla Luis A - - 2004
Human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with obesity is characterized by depletion of hepatic n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), with lower LCPUFA product/precursor ratios and higher 18:1n-9 trans levels in adipose tissue, both in patients with steatosis and in those with steatohepatitis. These changes point to modification of ...
Picard Nicolas - - 2005
Mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of the immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil is primarily metabolized by glucuronidation. The nature of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in this pathway is still debated. The present study aimed at identifying unambiguously the UGT isoforms involved in the production of MPA-phenyl-glucuronide (MPAG) and MPA-acylglucuronide (AcMPAG). A liquid ...
Bobe G - - 2004
Fatty liver (i.e., hepatic lipidosis) is a major metabolic disorder of many dairy cows in early lactation and is associated with decreased health status and reproductive performance. In severe cases, milk production and feed intake are decreased. Therefore, a practical preventative or an efficacious treatment of fatty liver could save ...
Pawlosky Robert J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The amount and type of dietary fat seem to be important factors that modulate the development of alcohol-induced liver steatosis and fibrosis. Various alcohol-feeding studies in animals have been used to model some of the symptoms that occur in liver disease in humans. METHODS: Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were ...
Pacifici G M - - 2004
Sulfotransferase catalyzes the transfer of sulfate, donated by 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, to an acceptor substrate that may be a hydroxy group or an amine group. Man is exposed daily to drugs and dietary chemicals that can inhibit sulfotransferase activity. The aim of this study was to review the literature concerning the inhibition ...
Kyogoku Shinsuke - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and sonographic features of focal sparing of fatty liver at segment 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sonographic database was searched over the preceding three years. The criteria for sonographic diagnosis of focal sparing of fatty liver was an area of liver parenchyma of relatively low ...
Wallace John L - - 2004
Severe liver injury as a result of overdose or chronic use of acetaminophen (paracetamol) remains a significant clinical problem, accounting for as much as 40% of cases of acute liver failure. The mechanisms underlying the liver injury caused by acetaminophen have become much better understood in recent years. In this ...
Purohit Vishnudutt - - 2004
Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of illness and death in the United States. In the initial stages of the disease, fat accumulation in hepatocytes leads to the development of fatty liver (steatosis), which is a reversible condition. If alcohol consumption is continued, steatosis may progress to hepatitis and ...
Nanji Amin A - - 2004
Both dietary fatty acids and alcohol play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Findings of studies in rats show a steatogenic role for dietary fat. A role for polyunsaturated fatty acids in alcoholic liver disease is supported by results of studies, which show that pathologic changes ...
Senthilkumar Rajagopal - - 2004
1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the administration of glycine, a non-essential amino acid, on blood alcohol levels and tissue fatty acid composition in experimental rats. 2. Liver cell damage was induced by the administration of ethanol (7.9 g/kg bodyweight) for 30 days ...
Bourre Jean-Marie - - 2004
The minimum dietary intake of oleic acid that is indispensable to maintain a normal content of this fatty acid in several tissues (heart, muscle, kidney and testis) was determined in the rat. For this purpose, a dose-effect study was conducted using an experimental protocol with 7 groups of rats who ...
Feldstein Ariel E - - 2004
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious health problem. Although NAFLD represents a form of lipotoxicity, its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the cellular mechanisms involved in free fatty acid (FFA)-mediated hepatic lipotoxicity. FFA treatment of liver cells resulted in Bax translocation ...
You Min - - 2004
Alcohol has long been thought to cause fatty liver by way of altered NADH/NAD(+) redox potential in the liver, which, in turn, inhibits fatty acid oxidation and the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle reactions. More recent studies indicate that additional effects of ethanol both impair fat oxidation and stimulate lipogenesis. ...
Reddy Srikanth P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Normothermic perfusion has been shown to resuscitate and maintain viability of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) livers that have undergone significant warm ischemic injury. However, the logistics of clinical organ retrieval are complex, and a period of cold storage before warm preservation would simplify the process. We have investigated the effects ...
Wang Hong - - 2004
The mammalian CYP2C subfamily is one of the largest and most complicated in the cytochrome P450 superfamily. In this report, we describe the organization of the mouse Cyp2c locus, which contains 15 genes and four pseudogenes, all of which are located in a 5.5-megabase region on chromosome 19. We cloned ...
Durazo Francisco A - - 2004
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in developed countries has increased significantly over the years. Among the most popular are the weight loss supplements or "fat burners." Liver failure due to these popular remedies has been widely recognized. Usnic acid has been an ingredient of dietary supplements that ...
Takahashi Hiroaki - - 2004
The microparticles (MPs) of an anti-hepatotoxic drug, glycyrrhetic acid (GLA), were prepared using poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) as a drug carrier, and their in-vitro properties, biodistribution and therapeutic effects were investigated. The MPs showed a particle diameter distribution of 1.0-1.4 microm and a drug content of approximately 10% (w/w). In the ...
Singh Shivaram Prasad - - 2004
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinical condition which is fast assuming importance as a possible precursor of more serious liver disorders, including cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are no data in the published English literature on the prevalence of NAFLD in India. The present ...
Deiana Monica - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: L-ergothioneine is a fungal metabolite exhibiting antioxidant functions in cells. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral administration of L-ergothioneine on the oxidative damage in vivo caused by the Fenton reagent ferric-nitrilotriacetate. METHODS: Rats were supplemented with L-ergo prior to the administration ...
Park Eun-Jeon - - 2004
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of acanthoic acid, a diterpene isolated from the root bark of Acanthopanax koreanum, on liver injury induced by either tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH) or carbon tetrachloride in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the cellular leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ...
Kushiro Masayo - - 2004
The effect of sesame (Sesamum orientale) lignan preparation containing equivalent amounts of sesamin and episesamin on hepatic fatty acid metabolism was compared in rats, mice and hamsters. Animals were fed on either a diet free of lignan or a diet containing 2 g lignan/kg for 15 d. The lignan preparation ...
Honda Takashi - - 2004
Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex catalyses the committed step in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway. In many cases of liver failure, the serum BCAAs/aromatic amino acids ratio (Fisher's ratio) decreases, and BCAAs have been administered to patients with liver failure to correct this ratio. We conducted an ...
Te Sligte K. - - 2004
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a metabolic liver disorder that is seen in 2-6% of the general population. It manifests itself by elevated liver enzymes, frequently without symptoms. The histological findings include steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Three case reports are presented to illustrate features of NASH. A two-hit model has ...
Kondomerkos D J - - 2004
The effects of glucagon on the ultrastructural appearance and acid glucosidase activities in the liver and heart of newborn rats were studied. Liver or heart glycogen-hydrolyzing activity of acid glucosidase increased 3 hours after birth and gradually decreased from 3 to 9 hours. Maltose-hydrolyzing activity of acid glucosidase also rose ...
Suzuki Kazuyuki - - 2004
We discuss branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) treatment for the management of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). PEM is closely associated with the prognosis of patients with LC independently of liver function. Therefore, adequate protein and energy intake is a fundamental management to ...
Tomiya Tomoaki - - 2004
Although the functions associated with differentiation are thought to be suppressed when cells proliferate, recent studies have shown that several mitogens can stimulate functions such as protein production under certain physiological conditions. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is now considered to be a pluripotent factor and has been shown to stimulate ...
Carreño Flávia R - - 2004
The effect of liver denervation on the activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system, which catalyses the transfer of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, was studied in rats. Noradrenaline content in phenol-denervated liver (D) was reduced by 87%. CPT I and II activities (measured by radioassay after detergent separation ...
Awoyelu C O - - 2004
Ascorbic acid levels in 30 subjects in their third trimester of pregnancy were estimated. Their haematological parameters (packed cell volume, haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentration) were also determined. The values were compared with that of 30 non-pregnant women (control group). The ascorbic acid status of newly born babies using ...
Booth E D - - 2004
1. The metabolism of [1,2-(14)C]-ethylene glycol and [1,2-(14)C]-glycolic acid was studied in vitro using precision-cut tissue slices prepared from the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand white rabbits and humans. The time-course for production of metabolites formed from ethylene glycol at concentrations from 3 to 40 mM was determined ...
Lieber Charles S. - - 2004
The pathology of the liver in alcoholic steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is remarkably similar to that of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), suggesting some common pathogenic mechanism. Studies carried out over the last three decades of possible mechanisms involved revealed one common link, namely the ...
Stipanuk Martha H - - 2004
The first-pass metabolism of dietary sulfur amino acids by the liver and the robust upregulation of hepatic cysteine dioxygenase activity in response to an increase in dietary protein or sulfur amino acid level gives the liver a primary role in the removal of excess cysteine and in the synthesis of ...
Sato Hiroshi - - 2004
To elucidate possible relationships between triglyceride (TG) levels and fatty acid composition in bovine liver, hepatic TG and seven individual fatty acids were measured in 23 Holstein dairy cows, of them 6 are healthy. Liver TG level was greater than 3 % in 12 cows which were ruled fatty liver. ...
Crabb David W - - 2004
Alcohol has classically been thought to cause fatty liver by way of altered redox potential in the liver, which inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Additional effects appear to play a role both in impairing fat oxidation and stimulating lipogenesis. Alcohol reduces the DNA binding and transcription-activating properties of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ...
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