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Results 251 - 300 of 1318
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Shabalina Irina G - - 2006
In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of ...
Backes Bradley J - - 2007
Libraries of mifepristone analogs, MP-Acids, were designed and synthesized to increase the chances of identifying GR antagonists that possess liver-selective pharmacological profiles. MP-Acids were uniformly potent GR antagonists in binding and in cell-based functional assays. A high throughput pharmacokinetic selection strategy that employs the cassette dosing of MP-Acids was developed ...
Gloerich J - - 2007
Phytol, a branched-chain fatty alcohol, is the naturally occurring precursor of phytanic and pristanic acid, branched-chain fatty acids that are both ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). To investigate the metabolism of phytol and the role of PPARalpha in its regulation, wild-type and PPARalpha knockout ...
Neumeier Markus - - 2006
Adiponectin protects the liver from steatosis caused by obesity or alcohol and therefore the influence of adiponectin on human hepatocytes was analyzed. GeneChip experiments indicated that recombinant adiponectin downregulates aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) expression and this was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot. AOX1 is a xenobiotic metabolizing protein and ...
Morgan Clive P - - 2006
Mammalian PITPbeta (phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta) is a 272-amino-acid polypeptide capable of transferring PtdIns, PtdCho and SM (sphingomyelin) between membrane bilayers. It has been reported that Ser262 present in the C-terminus of PITPbeta is constitutively phosphorylated and determines Golgi localization. We provide evidence for the expression of an sp (splice) ...
Fülöp Péter - - 2006
Fatty liver is vulnerable to conditions that challenge hepatocellular energy homeostasis. Lipid-laden hepatocytes highly express uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial carrier that competes with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis by mediating proton leak. However, evidence for a link between UCP2 expression and susceptibility of liver to acute injury is lacking. We ...
Svegliati-Baroni Gianluca - - 2006
Insulin resistance induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We used a high-fat, high-calorie solid diet (HFD) to create a model of insulin resistance and NASH in nongenetically modified rats and to study the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and liver. Obesity and insulin resistance occurred in HFD ...
Cheng Jen-Hua - - 2007
The purposes of this study were to explore the interaction of lipid oxidation and pigment oxidation in salted pork patties and to study the mutual relationship between lipid and pigment oxidation caused by replacing sodium chloride with potassium chloride at low salt levels. For fresh pork patties, a(∗) and b(∗) ...
Jadon Anjana - - 2007
Terminalia belerica Roxb. is one of the oldest medicinal herb of India, is an ingredient of Indian Ayurvedic drug 'triphala' used for the treatment of digestion and liver disorders. Present study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Terminalia belerica fruit extract and its active principle, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic ...
Kleveland Ellen Johanne - - 2006
In this study, the effects of in vivo administration of 3-thia fatty acids (FAs) on lipid metabolism in muscle and liver of Atlantic salmon were investigated. Prior to analysis, the fish were kept in tanks supplied with 5 degrees C seawater for 20 weeks. The fish were fed fish meal ...
Faulks Sally C - - 2006
Different levels of calorie restriction (CR) (125, 85, 50, or 40 kcal/wk for 1, 3, and 6 months) were examined in mice by using the paradigm of Weindruch and colleagues. Lean and total body mass increased on 125 and 85 kcal/wk, but there was negligible growth on low-energy intake. There ...
Fernández-López Juana - - 2006
Ostrich (Struthio camelus) liver is an important edible meat by-product. However, it has a low commercial value, and it is underutilized. The present study was conducted to establish the shelf life of ostrich liver, stored at 2 +/- 1 degrees C for 18 days, under different packing conditions. Fresh livers ...
Iwase Yuko - - 2006
Effects of 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol on fatty acid composition of lipid in the liver of rats were investigated. Feeding of male rats with a diet that contained 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol at concentrations of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% (w/w) for 14 d caused a significant increase in proportion and content of ...
Rizki Gizem G Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, - - 2006
Lipogenic diets that are completely devoid of methionine and choline (MCD) induce hepatic steatosis. MCD feeding also provokes systemic weight loss, for unclear reasons. In this study, we found that MCD feeding causes profound hepatic suppression of the gene encoding stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1), an enzyme whose regulation has significant ...
Mano Yuji Y Drug Metabolism Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc, 1-8, Azusawa 1-Chome, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 174-8511, Japan. - - 2006
To assess the uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isozymes involved in the glucuronidation of niflumic acid in human liver. The glucuronidation activity of niflumic acid was determined in liver microsomes and recombinant UGT isozymes by incubation of niflumic acid with UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). Incubation of niflumic acid with liver microsomes and ...
Woo Connie W H - - 2006
Hyperhomocysteinemia, a condition of elevated blood homocysteine level, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia is also found in patients with liver diseases. However, the direct effect of homocysteine on liver injury is not well known. Folic acid supplementation is a promising approach for improving endothelial function in ...
Harano Yuichi - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The fatty liver Shionogi (FLS) mouse, a unique model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is an inbred strain that develops spontaneous hepatic steatosis without obesity or diabetes mellitus. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha controls fatty acid metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ...
Swagell Christopher Dean - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence from in vitro studies that fatty acids can inhibit glucose uptake in liver. However, it is uncertain whether this happens in vivo when the liver is exposed to high levels of glucose and insulin, in combination with fatty acids, after a mixed meal. This study determined ...
Li Yan-Qun - - 2006
Ganoderic acid, from Ganoderma lucidum, at 8 microg/ml inhibited replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HepG2215 cells over 8 days. Production of HBV surface antigen and HBV e antigen were 20 and 44% of controls without ganoderic acid. Male KM mice were significantly protected from liver injury, induced with ...
Chansri Narin - - 2006
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was incorporated into lipid emulsions in an attempt to alter its distribution characteristics and improve its inhibition of liver cancer metastasis. Lipid emulsions composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and soybean oil were the optimized carriers for ATRA delivery, as shown by the submicron particle size and ...
Yancey E J - - 2006
Infraspinatus (IN), gluteus medius (GM), and psoas major (PM) steaks were obtained from A- and B-maturity carcasses with either high (⩾6.0) or normal (⩽5.7) pH, and either Slight or Small marbling. Steaks were vacuum aged either 7, 14, 21, or 35d postmortem, and were broiled and served to a highly ...
Reddy Janardan K - - 2006
Fatty liver disease (FLD), whether it is alcoholic FLD (AFLD) or nonalcoholic FLD (NAFLD), encompasses a morphological spectrum consisting of hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) and steatohepatitis. FLD has the inherent propensity to progress toward the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is generally difficult to distinguish AFLD from NAFLD ...
Lala Sanchaita - - 2006
Bassic acid, an unsaturated triterpene acid isolated from Mimusops elangii, was tested for its antileishmanial properties both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of bassic acid being encouraging, its activity in vivo was evaluated in hamster models of visceral leishmaniasis, both in free form, as well ...
Nave Ruediger - - 2006
Ciclesonide is a new-generation inhaled corticosteroid developed to treat the inflammation associated with persistent asthma. In order to identify the properties of ciclesonide responsible for anti-inflammatory activity, ciclesonide metabolism was investigated in human lung and liver precision-cut tissue slices. Three human lung and three human liver tissue slices were incubated ...
Funk Georg-Christian - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperlactatemia with unexplained absence of metabolic acidosis is observed in acute liver failure. In chronic liver disease offsetting metabolic acid-base disorders could be revealed by means of physical-chemical acid-base analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acidifying effect of lactate is neutralized by the alkalinizing ...
Carpentier Yvon A - - 2006
This study deals with the sustained enrichment of liver phospholipids and triglycerides in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids (omega3) found after the bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion (MCT:FO) to streptozotocin (Type 1) and Goto-Kakizaki (Type 2) diabetic rats. Twenty hours after injection of the MCT:FO ...
Tamaru Shizuka - - 2006
The effect of dietary 5-campestenone (campest-5-en-3-one), a chemical modification product of a naturally-occurring plant sterol, campesterol, on lipid metabolism was examined using a rat liver perfusion system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 140 g were fed a diet supplemented with or without 0.2% 5-campestenone for 14 d. 5-Campestenone feeding resulted ...
Dalgiç Buket - - 2006
Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from lysosomal acid lipase deficiency and is usually characterized by hepatomegaly and hyperlipidemia. This paper reports a two-year-old boy who had hepatosplenomegaly, hyperlipidemia and hypertransaminasemia determined incidentally. The liver biopsy sample was orange-yellow in appearance. Microscopically, microvesicular steatosis and ...
Lindén Daniel - - 2006
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the first committed step in triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid biosynthesis. GPAT activity has been identified in both ER and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. The ER activity dominates in most tissues except in liver, where the mitochondrial isoform (mtGPAT) can constitute up to 50% of the total activity. ...
Bradbury Michael W - - 2006
Hepatic steatosis is a growing public health concern. Nonalcoholic fatty liver is increasingly common in Western societies and may lead to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, possibly triggered by lipid peroxidation. The relation of fatty liver to obesity, type II diabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome is significant. One aspect these related disorders ...
Zhang Qingwei - - 2006
Although biopsy has been considered mandatory in diagnosing liver fibrosis, there is a high demand for alternative effective and noninvasive methods. In this study we aimed to develop a noninvasive and effective method using the plasma amino acid profiles for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. Fifty-three patients with chronic hepatitis ...
Penumathsa Suresh Varma - - 2006
Liver fibrosis is the result of imbalance between extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and breakdown. Ethanol-induced increase in redox state is a sign of major change in hepatic metabolism and this inhibits tricarboxylic acid cycle activity and, fatty acid oxidation and increases fatty acid uptake, thus predisposing fatty liver. Fibrotic changes ...
Lima Leonardo C N - - 2006
The p-coumaric acid, a phenolic acid, occurs in several plant species and, consequently, in many foods and beverages of vegetable origin. Its antioxidant activity is well documented, but there is also a single report about an inhibitory action on the monocarboxylate carrier, which operates in the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. ...
Browning Marsha F - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the relationships between all types of fetal fatty acid oxidation defects and maternal liver disease, including acute fatty liver of pregnancy and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. METHODS: This was a case-control study comparing fetal fatty acid oxidation defects to ...
Gutiérrez Ana María - - 2006
Birds -- particularly long-lived species -- have special adaptations for preventing tissue damage caused by reactive oxygen species. The objective of the present study was to analyse the fatty acid composition and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of mitochondria and microsomes obtained from liver, heart and brain of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), ...
Steckelbroeck Stephan - - 2006
Tibolone [[7alpha,17alpha]-17-hydroxy-7-methyl-19-norpregn-5(10)-en-20-yn-3-one] is used to treat climacteric symptoms and prevent osteoporosis. It exerts tissue-selective effects via site-specific metabolism into 3alpha- and 3beta-hydroxymetabolites and a Delta4-isomer. Recombinant human cytosolic aldo-keto reductases 1C1 and 1C2 (AKR1C1 and AKR1C2) produce 3beta-hydroxytibolone, and the liver-specific AKR1C4 produces predominantly 3alpha-hydroxytibolone. These observations may account for ...
Okada Masahiro - - 2005
Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. To prospectively assess if continuous infusion of galactose-palmitic acid can prolong the duration of hepatic enhancement at ultrasonography over bolus injection, 11 patients received two injections--one bolus injection (2 mL/sec) and one continuous infusion (1.5 mL/min)--with the same dose of galactose-palmitic ...
Miksits M - - 2005
Sulfation of resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound present in grapes and wine with anticancer and cardioprotective activities, was studied in human liver cytosol. In the presence of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, three metabolites (M1-3) whose structures were identified by mass spectrometry and NMR as trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate, trans-resveratrol-4'-O-sulfate, and trans-resveratrol-3-O-4'-O-disulfate, respectively. The kinetics of M1 formation ...
Wang Dong - - 2006
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a relatively new hepatic sequela of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The pathogenesis of liver injury and disease progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, however, is poorly understood. The present study examined the hypothesis that the composition of fatty acids in the steatotic liver promotes ...
Blanco Paola G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are nonoxidative ethanol metabolites shown to produce toxic effects in the liver and pancreas in vivo and in vitro. Because alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis is associated with mutations in the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CFTR), we hypothesized that CFTR dysfunction leads to increased levels ...
Fushimi Takashi - - 2005
The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of acetic acid feeding on the circadian changes in glycogen concentration in liver and skeletal muscle. Rats were provided meal once daily (09.00-13.00 hours) for 10 d. On the 11th day, they were either killed immediately or given 9 ...
Goulet Francine - - 2006
Liver plays a major role in systemic detoxification and drug metabolism. NF-164, a protein of 164 kDa predominantly localized in hepatocyte nuclei, was found to be present in increasing amounts during liver maturation. In addition, fetal rat hepatocytes had ten times, and neonatal five times less of this protein than ...
Tesiram Y A - - 2005
Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Altered lipid metabolism in the liver is a key feature of developing liver nodules and tumors. Methods of analysis vary from the most sophisticated chromatography to the in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this study, we present a ...
Shiota Goshi - - 2005
To explore the role of retinoic acid (RA) in liver, we developed transgenic mice expressing retinoic acid receptor alpha dominant negative form (RARE) in hepatocytes using by albumin promoter and enhancer. At 4 months of age, the RARE transgenic mice developed microvesicular steatosis and spotty focal necrosis. Mitochondrial beta-oxidation activity ...
Saheki Takeyori - - 2005
Citrin, encoded by SLC25A13, is a liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier (AGC), of which deficiency, in autosomal recessive trait, causes neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). NICCD patients have jaundice, hypoproteinemia, hypoglycemia, galactosemia, growth retardation, fatty liver and multiple aminoacidemia including citrulline, methionine, threonine and tyrosine. Some ...
Zhukova N A - - 2005
Morphological study of the effects of semisynthetic derivatives of betulin (betulonic acid and [3-oxo-20(29)-lupene-28-oyl]-3-aminopropionic acid) on the liver of CBA/Lac mice with transplanted RLS lymphoma was studied in the control and after cytostatic polychemotherapy. The number of small focal necroses decreased, while the counts of hepatocytes in a state of ...
Itoh Roichi - - 2005
IMP-hydrolyzing activity (which is reactive with goose anti-pig lung IMP-GMP 5'-nucleotidase (c-N-II: EC.3.1.3.5) serum) was detected in extracts from several tissues (liver, heart, kidney, spleen, stomach, lung and skeletal muscle) from constitutively uricotelic reptiles: a crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis), and three species of lizard (Furcifer oustaleti, Tupinambis rufescens and Varanus gouldi). ...
You Min M Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA. - - 2005
The protective effect of dietary saturated fatty acids against the development of alcoholic liver disease has long been known, but the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We examined the involvement of the adipocyte hormone adiponectin. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly elevated by chronic ethanol administration to mice consuming a ...
Krajka-Kuźniak Violetta - - 2005
Protocatechuic acid, a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, was shown to decrease the mutagenicity and/or carcinogenicity of several amine derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rodents. In this study the effect of protocatechuic acid on murine cytochrome P450 and phase II enzymes was evaluated. The activities of EROD, MROD, PROD, PNPH, ...
Miyazaki Makoto - - 2005
There are four known stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzyme isoforms in mouse and two in humans that are required for the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleate. SCD1 isoform plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism and lipid synthesis, but the roles of the other SCD isoforms have ...
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