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Wierzbicki M - - 2009
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR;s) serve as lipid sensors and when activated modify gene expression of proteins highly involved in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. Recently, the accumulation of lipids in liver was shown to be depended on the excessive protein-mediated transmembrane transport of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). The ...
Awazawa Motoharu - - 2009
Adiponectin, one of the insulin-sensitizing adipokines, has been shown to activate fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle, thus maintaining insulin sensitivity. However, the precise roles of adiponectin in fatty acid synthesis are poorly understood. Here we show that adiponectin administration acutely suppresses expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein ...
Kim Woo Sik - - 2009
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating whole body energy homeostasis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that berberine (BBR) exerts antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in obese and diabetic rodent models through the activation of AMPK in peripheral tissues. Here we show that BBR improves lipid dysregulation and ...
Li Yan - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Many nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with diphenylamine structure induce severe hepatotoxicities. We evaluated the role of diphenylamine structure in liver injuries induced by these NSAIDs. METHODS: Effects of diphenylamine, diclofenac and tolfenamic acid on mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and efflux of calcium in isolated liver mitochondria as well as ...
Øverbye Anders - - 2009
Seven different forms of the enzyme COMT (catechol O-methyltransferase) were found in isolated rat hepatocytes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting: five small variants (S-COMT) and two large variants (L-COMT). The identities of these COMT forms were verified by tryptic fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight) MS, and by amino ...
Donati Alessio - - 2009
The functioning of macroautophagy declines with increasing age in the liver of ad libitum fed animals, whereas it is preserved in rats submitted to antiaging caloric restriction. In this perspective, monitoring autophagy during aging may provide a useful biomarker of aging. Here we describe a procedure for the quantification of ...
Zaima Nobuhiro - - 2009
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common liver disease. NASH is characterized by fatty liver, along with inflammation. Most people with NASH are not aware of their condition, even though NASH can lead to hepatic cirrhosis. Several approaches have been tested to clarify the pathology of NASH. However, the mechanism of ...
Finn Robert D - - 2009
The liver is responsible for key metabolic functions, including control of normal homoeostasis in response to diet and xenobiotic metabolism/detoxification. We have shown previously that inactivation of the hepatic cytochrome P450 system through conditional deletion of POR (P450 oxidoreductase) induces hepatic steatosis, liver growth and P450 expression. We have exploited ...
Zeng Qi - - 2009
New imidazole-functionalized disubstituted polyacetylene was synthesized by utilizing the postfunctional strategy. In addition, its ability to sense copper ions and α-amino acids by fluorescence quenching has been studied. The quenching of the fluorescence of the imidazole-functionalized disubstituted polyacetylene was observed at a very low level of Cu(2+) (7.0 × 10(-7) mol · L(-1) ). ...
Yu Min M Department of Microbiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2008
The fatty acid synthesis type II pathway has received considerable interest as a candidate therapeutic target in Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood-stage infections. This apicoplast-resident pathway, distinct from the mammalian type I process, includes FabI. Here, we report synthetic chemistry and transfection studies concluding that Plasmodium FabI is not the target ...
Griffitts J - - 2009
Current detection methods (computed tomography, ultrasound, and MRI) for hepatocarcinogenesis in humans rely on visual confirmation of neoplastic formations. A more effective early detection method is needed. Using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we show that alterations in the integral ratios of the bis-allyl to vinyl hydrogen protons in ...
Nakamuta Makoto - - 2008
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be associated with metabolic syndrome; however, a number of NAFLD patients are not obese. To explore any differences in lipid metabolism between obese and non-obese patients, we determined the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Expression levels of target genes were quantified ...
Ferrigno Andrea - - 2008
The effects of Celsior solution were compared with those of the University of Wisconsin solution (UW) after 18 or 48 hours of cold storage in a perfused rat liver model. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hyaluronic acid (HA) uptake, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), tissue reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and ATP ...
Lam Vincent W - - 2008
Altered protein and energy metabolism is a hallmark of chronic liver disease, characterized by decreased plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and increased plasma aromatic amino acids (AAA). Overwhelming evidence has indicated that the incidence of complications of chronic liver disease increases with malnutrition. Hence nutritional management in patients with chronic ...
Nishiya Takayoshi - - 2008
Tienilic acid is reported to be converted into electrophilic metabolites by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in vitro. In vivo, however, the metabolites have not been detected and their effect on liver function is unknown. We previously demonstrated that tienilic acid decreased the GSH level and upregulated genes responsive to oxidative/electrophilic stresses, ...
Verna Elizabeth C - - 2008
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans a spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis. Simple steatosis is the substrate upon which the more serious entities in the spectrum develop; it is the first "hit" in the multistep pathogenesis of NASH, which is considered the hepatic manifestation of ...
Yin Hu-Quan - - 2009
Alcoholic liver disease involves hepatocellular injury induced by the acute or chronic consumption of ethanol. Fatty infiltration is usually followed by inflammation and focal necrosis, which can lead to cirrhosis if not treated properly in the initial stage. There have been many attempts to develop effective therapies for the disease, ...
Kotronen Anna - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 1) hepatic ceramide and diacylglycerol concentrations, 2) SCD1 activity, and 3) hepatic lipogenic index are increased in the human nonalcoholic fatty liver. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 16 subjects with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) histologically determined nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL(+) and ...
Gudbrandsen Oddrun Anita - - 2009
It has been demonstrated that the absorption of EPA and DHA is significantly lower for ethyl esters than for the corresponding free fatty acids. Since these fatty acids exist in nature and are catabolized by beta-oxidation, we instead wanted to investigate the absorption, distribution and biological effects of a non-beta-oxidizable ...
Baud Sébastien - - 2008
Due to the high reduction level of the carbons in fatty acids, the oxidation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) releases much more energy than the oxidation of other storage compounds like carbohydrates or proteins. TAGs are synthesized in many animal and plant species to act as an energy reserve. Here, we review ...
Miwa Satomi - - 2008
'Mitochondrial dysfunction', which may result from an accumulation of damaged mitochondria in cells due to a slowed-down rate of mitochondrial turnover and inadequate removal of damaged mitochondria during aging, has been implicated as both cause and consequence of the aging process and a number of age-related pathologies. Despite growing interest ...
Rudnick David A - - 2009
ALF is a serious, often fatal condition. Up to half of PALF patients do not survive without liver transplantation; however, early identification of those least likely to survive spontaneously remains difficult. Clinical experience suggests that recovery from ALF depends on the ability of the liver to regenerate. Based on this, ...
Hart Kimberly - - 2008
Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have emerged as global environmental contaminants. Studies have reported the widespread occurrence of PFCs in biota from marine coastal waters and in remote polar regions. However, few studies have reported the distribution of PFCs in biota from offshore waters and open oceans. In this study, concentrations of ...
Svanovsky E - - 2008
Hyaluronic acid (HA), is a high molecular weight (HMW) glucosaminoglycan with significant acitivity, and which influences a number of physiological and pathological processes such as tumorogenesis, arthritis, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the difference in the biodistributional pathways of 111In-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-hyaluronic acid (111In-DTPA-HA) molecule of ...
Doege Holger - - 2008
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a serious health problem linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes. To investigate the biological outcome and therapeutic potential of hepatic fatty acid uptake inhibition, we utilized an adeno-associated virus-mediated RNA interference technique to knock down the expression of hepatic fatty acid transport protein 5 ...
Komano Torai - - 2008
D-Galactosamine (GalN) induces acute hepatitis in experimental animals and this hepatitis has been shown to be suppressed by preceding ingestion of amino acids such as Gly, L-Ser, and L-Gln. However, little is known about the mechanism of its action. The present study shows for the first time that IL-18 reduction ...
Choi Steve S - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. The hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is hepatocyte accumulation of triglycerides. We will review the role of triglyceride synthesis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression and summarize recent findings about triglyceride ...
Wu Xudong - - 2008
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and affects millions of people worldwide. Despite the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, the exact molecular/cellular mechanisms remain obscure and effective therapeutic strategies are still limited. It is well-accepted that free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipotoxicity plays a pivotal role in ...
Giovanoli Olivier - - 2008
The purpose of our study was to describe the MR signal characteristics of histologically proven liver adenomatosis in three patients using gadoxetic acid, a newly developed liver-specific MR contrast agent. In all three patients, more than 100 liver adenomas revealed no metabolism of the new liver-specific contrast agent in the ...
Pusl Thomas - - 2008
Delivery of free fatty acids to the liver in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may render hepatocytes more vulnerable to glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-induced apoptosis. Fat overloading was induced in HepG2-Ntcp cells and primary rat hepatocytes by incubation with palmitic or oleic acid. Apoptosis was quantified by measuring caspase 3/7 activity ...
Gentile Christopher L - - 2008
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a serious obesity-related disorder. NAFLD encompasses a wide spectrum of hepatic derangements ranging from a surfeit of fat in the liver (steatosis) to lipid surplus accompanied by fibrosis and cellular death (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH). The most widely accepted model to explain ...
Niedworok E - - 2008
The influence of magnesium and ethanol on the fatty acid content in isolated rat hepatocytes was examined in this study. The isolated liver cells were obtained according to the Selgen method and then subjected to ethanol alone or both ethanol and magnesium activity. MgCl2 was used in two concentrations: 2 ...
Wergedahl Hege - - 2008
Increased oxidative stress was observed in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of obese rats with tetradecylthioacetic acid for 12 weeks increased the H(2)O(2)-production, but decreased plasma malondialdehyde, changed the serum fatty acid profile, increased liver fatty acid binding protein mRNA, and lowered serum insulin, thereby enhancing the antioxidant defense system.
Kohjima Motoyuki - - 2008
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease whose prevalence has increased markedly. We reported previously that fatty acid synthesis was enhanced in NAFLD with the accumulation of fatty acids. To clarify the disorder, we evaluated the expression of genes regulating fatty acid synthesis by real-time PCR using ...
Lee Kyung Jin - - 2008
This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the phenethyl ester of caffeic acid (CAPE) against carbon tetrachoride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicities in mice. Pretreatment with CAPE prior to administration of CCl(4) significantly prevented the increases in serum alanine, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, hepatic lipid peroxidation formation, and ...
Gudbrandsen Oddrun Anita - - 2008
There is growing evidence that dietary proteins may interfere with lipid metabolism. We therefore examined the effects of feeding obese Zucker rats a single cell protein (SCP) with low ratios of methionine:glycine and lysine:arginine for 6 weeks. SCP feeding reduced the hepatic steatosis and lowered the plasma transaminase levels when ...
Mak Ki M - - 2008
Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) is a lipid droplet-associated protein that coats cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The present study evaluated whether alcohol feeding enhances ADRP expression and whether ADRP is a lipid droplet marker in alcoholic fatty liver of rats. Because medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) reduce alcoholic hepatosteatosis, their effects on ADRP were ...
Grummer Ric R - - 2008
Fatty liver occurs in dairy cattle during periods of elevated blood non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Elevated blood NEFAs are associated with hormonal changes at parturition and negative energy balance. Approaches for preventing fatty liver include inhibition of fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissues and altering hepatic metabolism to enhance fatty ...
Carpentier Yvon A - - 2008
The bolus intravenous administration of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion to second generation rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids was recently found to enrich within 60 min the content of both plasma and liver lipids in such omega3 fatty acids, this coinciding with correction of the perturbation ...
Postic Catherine - - 2008
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD represents a large spectrum of diseases ranging from (i) fatty liver (hepatic steatosis); (ii) steatosis with inflammation and necrosis; and (iii) cirrhosis. Although the molecular mechanism leading to the development of hepatic steatosis in ...
Bilska Anna - - 2008
This work aimed to investigate the effect of lipoic acid (LA) on sulfane sulfur (S(*)) level and rhodanese activity in rat tissues. In vitro studies conduced so far have indicated that dihydrolipoic acid serves as an S(*) acceptor in the rhodanese-catalyzed S(*) transfer. This study revealed a significant increase in ...
Foti R S - - 2008
Usnic acid is a component of nutritional supplements promoted for weight loss that have been associated with liver-related adverse events including mild hepatic toxicity, chemical hepatitis, and liver failure requiring transplant. To determine if metabolism factors might have had a role in defining individual susceptibility to hepatotoxicity, in vitro metabolism ...
Hanagama Masakazu M Department of Forensic Medicine and Sciences, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu City, Mie 514-8507, - - 2008
Sudden deaths are often encountered in schizophrenic patients prescribed with antipsychotic drugs, and fatty liver may be more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate the adverse effects of antipsychotic drugs on fatty liver. We administered haloperidol intraperitoneally to fatty liver rats and examined ...
Larter Claire Z - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We determined the effects of dietary lipid composition on steatohepatitis development with particular attention to the nature of lipid molecules that accumulate in the liver and pathways of hepatic triglyceride synthesis. METHODS: Mice were fed methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diets supplemented with 20% fat as lard (saturated) or ...
Marra Fabio - - 2008
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is characterized by fatty infiltration of the liver, inflammation, hepatocellular damage and fibrosis. Progress has been made in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of this condition, therefore, we here review recent developments regarding the basic ...
Agusa Tetsuro - - 2008
Total arsenic (As) and its compounds were determined in liver, kidney, muscle, and stomach contents of green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Total As concentrations in the muscle were higher than those in the kidney and liver. Arsenobetaine (AB) was the predominant compound in all the three tissues and its levels were ...
Curran Ivan - - 2008
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is one of a class of industrial chemicals known as perfluoroalkyl acids, which have a wide variety of uses as surfactants and stain repellants. The presence of fluorochemical residues in human blood, plasma, or serum from sample populations worldwide is indicative of widespread human exposure. Previous studies demonstrated ...
Tipoe George L - - 2008
The variety of animal models used in the study of alcoholic liver disease reflects the formidable task of developing a model that replicates the human disease. We show that oral feeding of fatty acids derived from fish oil and ethanol induces fatty liver, necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Together with the ...
Sokolović Milka - - 2008
The contribution of individual organs to the whole-body adaptive response to fasting has not been established. Hence, gene-expression profiling, pathway, network and gene-set enrichment analysis and immunohistochemistry were carried out on mouse liver after 0, 12, 24 and 72 hours of fasting. Liver wet weight had declined approximately 44, approximately ...
Huong Doan Thi Thanh - - 2008
Effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid on hepatic and serum lipid concentrations and the activity and mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes were examined in rats. Rats were fed experimental diets containing varying amounts of lipoic acid (0, 1, 2.5, 5 g/kg) for 21 d. Lipoic acid profoundly decreased serum and liver ...
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