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Hoffmann Katrin - - 2011
Functional liver failure remains one of the major complications after liver surgery. Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality after liver resection and transplantation. An ischemia induced activation of Kupffer cells with subsequent release of toxic mediators leads to disturbance of intrahepatic microcirculation, increased oxygen consumption ...
Hou Jian - - 2011
(2E)-2-{6-[(E)-2-carboxylvinyl]-2,3-dihydroxyphenyl}-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propenoic acid, a novel compound designated SMND-309, is a new metabolite of salvianolic acid B. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of SMND-309 on experimental liver fibrosis in rats induced by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride and explore its possible mechanisms on the basis of ...
Sozio Margaret S - - 2010
Hepatic steatosis is now understood to play an important role in the development of advanced liver disease. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver each begin with the accumulation of lipids in the liver. Lipid accumulation in the liver can occur through maladaptations of fatty acid uptake (either through dietary sources or ...
Krawczyk Marcin - - 2010
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disorder in the Western world, is a clinico-histopathological entity in which excessive triglyceride accumulation in the liver occurs. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represents the necroinflammatory form, which can lead to advanced liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH is ...
Abbas Suzanne - - 2011
Parabens (alkyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as preservatives in drugs, cosmetic products, and foodstuffs. Safety concerns have recently increased due to the potential health risks associated to exposure to large amounts of these substances. Biotransformation of parabens mainly includes hydrolysis of the ester bond and glucuronidation reactions. ...
Kalamidas Stefanos A - - 2010
The effects of parenteral administration of glucose, 3-methylglucose (3MG), or 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) on the glycogen autophagy were studied in the newborn rat liver using electron microscopy and biochemical methods. The administration of glucose resulted in hyperglycemia and prevented the mobilization of hepatocytic glycogen. It also prevented the development of autophagic ...
Li Bao-Qiu - - 2010
Adverse reactions induced by Chinese herbal injections have been frequently reported. However, the precise causes of these adverse reactions are not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of chlorogenic acid (a ubiquitous component of Chinese herbs) in the toxicity of Chinese herbal ...
Cole Laura K - - 2010
Tamoxifen is an anti-estrogen drug widely used for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Approximately 43% of breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen develop hepatic steatosis. The mechanism or mechanisms by which tamoxifen may induce lipid accumulation in the liver are unclear. Mice were injected with tamoxifen or vehicle (sesame ...
Ryu Seungho - - 2011
The objective of the study was to assess the prospective association between serum uric acid levels and incident nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a cohort of healthy Korean men. A cohort study was performed on 5741 Korean men, 30 to 59 years of age, with no evidence of fatty liver ...
Matsunami Tokio - - 2011
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most frequent causes of abnormal liver dysfunction associated with synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/R2) and insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1/-2) are known as modulators of these fatty acid metabolisms in the liver; however, the regulatory roles of these receptors in ...
Dobrzyn Pawel - - 2010
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, has recently been shown to be a critical control point in regulation of liver and skeletal muscle metabolism. Herein, we demonstrate that endurance training significantly increases both SCD1 mRNA and protein levels in the soleus muscle, whereas ...
Manna Soumen K - - 2010
Alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of nonaccident-related deaths in the United States. Although liver damage caused by ALD is reversible when discovered at the earlier stages, current risk assessment tools are relatively nonspecific. Identification of an early specific signature of ALD would aid in therapeutic intervention and ...
Hodson Leanne - - 2010
Liver fat represents a balance between input, secretion, and oxidation of fatty acids. As humans spend the majority of a 24-h period in a postprandial state, dietary fatty acids make an important contribution to liver fat metabolism. We compared hepatic fatty acid partitioning in healthy lean (n = 9) and ...
Thum Thomas - - 2010
Oleic acid is a major systemically circulating fatty acid in humans with atheroprotective and immunomodulatory properties. As of today, the contribution of individual cytochrome P450 (CYP) mono-oxygenases to the epoxidation of this fatty acid is unknown. Furthermore, the extent of the oleic acid oxidation product cis-9,10-epoxyoctadecanoic acid (cis-EODA) in humans ...
Westerbacka Jukka - - 2010
Animal studies suggest that endocannabinoids could contribute to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, NAFLD has been shown to be associated with multiple changes in lipid concentrations in liver biopsies. There are no data on splanchnic free fatty acid (FFA), glycerol, ketone body, endocannabinoid, and lipid ...
Cobbold Jeremy F L JF Hepatology and Gastroenterology Section, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary's Hospital Campus, 10th Floor, QEQM Building, Praed Street, London W2 1NY, UK. - - 2010
The worldwide obesity epidemic over the last 20 years has led to a dramatic increase in the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Estimates of prevalence vary depending on the population studied and the methods used to assess hepatic fat content, but are ...
Litherland N B - - 2010
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonists increase fatty acid oxidation in liver of nonruminants. If similar effects occur in dairy cattle, enhanced hepatic oxidative capacity could decrease circulating nonesterified fatty acids and hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation in periparturient cows. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether partitioning of fatty ...
Kim Do-Sung - - 2010
The excessive supply of fatty acids to the liver contributes to hepatic insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated with obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, excess and/or prolonged ER stress contributes to hepatic cell death deteriorating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis. The aim of this study ...
Kalaitzakis Emmanouil - - 2010
This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were ...
Gormaz Juan G - - 2010
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a high occurrence in most countries. Recent studies estimate its prevalence to be near 30% in United States, Italian and Japanese general adult populations. NAFLD commonly presents along with obesity and insulin resistance (IR), pathologies that share with NAFLD metabolic and inflammatory components. These ...
Henry-Vitrac Caroline - - 2010
Glucose-6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase) is a multicomponent system that exists primarily in the liver and catalyzes the terminal step in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Several studies have attempted to identify synthetic or natural compounds that inhibit this enzyme complex for therapeutic use in regulating blood glucose and type 2 diabetes. For this paper ...
Lee Jung Hoon JH Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, - - 2010
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) also known as the dioxin receptor or xenobiotic receptor is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/period AhR nuclear translocator single minded family. The goal of this study was to determine the endobiotic role of AhR in hepatic steatosis. Wild-type, constitutively activated AhR transgenic, AhR null ...
Hagihara Katsunobu - - 2010
Prasugrel, a novel thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, undergoes rapid hydrolysis in vivo to a thiolactone, R-95913, which is further converted to its thiol-containing, pharmacologically active metabolite, R-138727, by oxidation via cytochromes P450 (P450). We trapped a sulfenic acid metabolite as a mixed disulfide with 2-nitro-5-thiobenzoic acid in an incubation mixture containing ...
Michitaka Kojiro K Department of Gastroenterology, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, - - 2010
The aim of this study is to clarify the amino acid imbalance in patients with chronic hepatitis (CH) as well as those with liver cirrhosis (LC). We assayed total branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), tyrosine (Tyr) levels and their ratio (BTR) in sera of 101 patients with CH (37 in fibrosis ...
Byrne Christopher D - - 2010
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. NAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance and is defined by accumulation of liver fat >5% per liver weight in the presence of <10g of ...
Tazoe Jun - - 2010
We report a case of stage 4S neuroblastoma in which CT showed diffuse liver metastases containing a geographical fatty area in the periportal region. MRI showed this abnormality to correspond to an area with an unusual pattern of fatty change. (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy demonstrated increased accumulation throughout the liver, except ...
Neuschwander-Tetri Brent A - - 2010
Lipid droplet accumulation and oxidant stress, once thought to play essential roles in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), may actually represent parallel epiphenomena. Emerging data now point to nontriglyceride lipotoxicity and complex mechanisms of hepatocyte injury and apoptosis as the major contributors to the disease phenotype currently recognized as ...
Soden Jason S - - 2010
Parenteral omega-3 fatty acid lipid emulsions have been evaluated for their potential role in reversing intestinal failure-associated liver disease. We report our experience using Omegaven in 2 patients with irreversible intestinal failure and intestinal failure-associated liver disease. Despite biochemical and histologic improvement in cholestasis, both patients had persisting, significant portal ...
Lupp Amelie - - 2010
Tacrine (CAS 321-64-2) is a reversible acetylcholine esterase inhibitor that, despite exerting beneficial effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD), displays marked hepatotoxicity. Searching for safer drugs and taking into account the multi-pathogenesis of AD, two tacrine-NO donor hybrid molecules (FL16, FL38) as well as a tacrine-ferulic acid hybrid (FL67) were synthesized. ...
Itoh Ayano - - 2010
The mycelia of the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes can be cultured in solid medium containing lignin, and the hot-water extracts (L.E.M.) is commercially available as a nutritional supplement. During the cultivation, phenolic compounds, such as syringic acid and vanillic acid, were produced by lignin-degrading peroxidase secreted from L. edodes mycelia. ...
Kneiseler G - - 2010
The incidence of drug-induced acute liver failure is increasing. A number of drugs can inhibit mitochondrial functions, alter β-oxidation and cause accumulation of free fatty acids within the hepatocytes. This may result in hepatic steatosis, cell death and liver injury. In our case, propofol, an anesthetic drug commonly used in ...
Hu Xiao-Qian - - 2010
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and is becoming increasingly prevalent. Saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) are proven to exhibit various biological activities. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei) on ...
Astarita Giuseppe - - 2010
Reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3), a neurotrophic and neuroprotective fatty acid, may contribute to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated whether the liver enzyme system that provides docosahexaenoic acid to the brain is dysfunctional in this disease. Docosahexaenoic acid levels were reduced in temporal cortex, mid-frontal ...
Ghosh Jyotirmoy - - 2010
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug and is safe at therapeutic doses but its overdose frequently causes liver injury. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that arjunolic acid (AA) has a protective effect against chemically induced hepatotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to explore whether AA ...
Xie Zuoquan - - 2010
Excessive energy intake greatly contributes to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in modern society. To better understand the comprehensive mechanisms of NAFLD development, we investigated the metabolic alterations of rats with NAFLD induced by high-fat diet (HFD). Male Wistar rats were fed a HFD or standard chow ...
Seebacher F - - 2009
Energy metabolism is fundamental for animal fitness because it fuels locomotion, growth, and reproduction. Mitochondrial capacities often acclimate to compensate for negative thermodynamic effects. Our aim was to determine the importance of transcriptional regulation and membrane fatty acid composition in modulating oxidative capacities at body temperatures selected in a cold ...
Araya Julia - - 2010
Steatosis in obese nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients is a clinicopathological condition associated with depletion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), a feature that may be related to PUFA desaturation. Liver Delta-6 and Delta-5 desaturase (Delta-6D and Delta-5D) activities, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), and ferric reducing ...
Glimcher Laurie H - - 2009
Lipogenesis occurs primarily in the liver, where dietary carbohydrates control the expression of key enzymes in glycolytic and lipogenic pathways. We have recently discovered that the transcription factor XBP1, best known as a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is required for de novo fatty acid synthesis in ...
Chen Ming - - 2009
Stress is a risk factor for many diseases. In this study, we used fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis combined MALDI-TOF/TOF and 1H-NMR to monitor the intracellular processes in rat liver at proteomic and metabonomic levels when a rat was treated with restraint stress for 8 weeks. Dynamic changes in 42 proteins ...
Leonardi Roberta - - 2009
Phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in a major pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the ECT gene in mice resulted in normal appearing animals without overt signs of liver injury or inflammation. The molecular species of PtdEtn in the ECT-deficient livers were significantly altered ...
Longmuir Kenneth J - - 2009
Previous work demonstrated that liposomes, containing an amino acid sequence that binds to hepatic heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan, show effective targeting to liver hepatocytes. These liposomes were tested to determine whether they can deliver doxorubicin selectively to liver and hepatocytes in vivo. Fluid-phase liposomes contained a lipid-anchored 19-amino acid glycosaminoglycan targeting ...
Villanueva Claudio J - - 2009
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TGs) and other lipids in the liver, often accompanies obesity and is a risk factor for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. To treat or prevent fatty liver, a thorough understanding of hepatic fatty acid and TG metabolism is crucial. To investigate ...
Rolo Anabela Pinto - - 2009
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a commonly encountered clinical problem and occurs probably as a consequence of irreversible mitochondrial injury. The increased susceptibility of fatty livers to ischemic injury is associated with depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, which is preserved by preconditioning. Mitochondria being the main ATP production source for ...
McNeil Christopher J - - 2009
Previously we have examined the effects of diets deficient in folic acid ( - F) or folate deficient with low methionine and choline ( - F LM LC) on the relative abundance of soluble proteins in the liver of the pregnant rat. In the present study we report the corresponding ...
Liu Z H - - 2009
Ginkgolic acids have been shown to possess allergenic as well as genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. The question arises whether the metabolism of ginkgolic acids in the liver could decrease or increase their toxicity. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of ginkgolic acid (15:1, GA), one component of ginkgo acids, ...
Malaisse Willy J - - 2009
Second-generation rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids were recently proposed as a novel animal model for the metabolic syndrome. In the present study, a dietary deprivation of omega3 acids for 3-7 months was found sufficient to provoke in 6-week-old normal rats the same alteration of the fatty acid ...
Bloemen Johanne G - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetate, propionate and butyrate) are important energy sources for colonocytes and are assumed to play a key role in gut health. Local effects of SCFAs have been investigated, but less is known about whole body metabolism of these SCFAs. The aim of ...
Nagrath Deepak - - 2009
Fatty liver is a significant risk factor for liver transplantation, and accounts for nearly half of the livers rejected from the donor pool. We hypothesized that metabolic preconditioning via ex vivo perfusion of the liver graft can reduce fat content and increase post-transplant survival to an acceptable range. We describe ...
Yu Hong-Yan - - 2009
Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and oxidative stress are two important pathological factors in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Tetracycline-induced fatty liver was partly due to the disturbance of mitochondrial fatty acids beta-oxidation regulated by PPARalpha. Bicyclol was found to protect against high fat diet-induced fatty liver through modulating PPARalpha ...
Bochkis Irina M - - 2009
Bile acids are powerful detergents produced by the liver to aid in the absorption of dietary lipids. We recently reported a novel role for Foxa2 in bile acid metabolism. The winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 is required to prevent intrahepatic cholestasis and liver injury in mice fed a cholic acid-enriched ...
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