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Results 401 - 450 of 1180
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Clausen M R - - 1997
Lactulose is one of the most frequently utilised agents in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy because of its efficacy and good safety profile. The key to understanding the possible modes of action by which lactulose achieves its therapeutic effects in these disorders lies in certain pharmacological phenomena: (a) ...
Young A R - - 1997
Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend ...
von Ingersleben G - - 1997
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the effect of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) (OA), a lipidic carrier, on the intestinal absorption rate and T1 relaxation time of manganese (III) mesoporphyrin (Mn-mesoporphyrin), a prototype hepatobiliary contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Mn-mesoporphyrin was formulated with OA at various concentrations. Small ...
Tsujinaka T - - 1997
Since dietary nucleotides play an important role in the growth and development of the intestine, supplementation of a nucleic acid solution (OG-VI) may support the optimal growth and integrity of the intestine under total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Supplementation of OG-VI to a TPN solution improved mucosal morphologic and functional changes, ...
Koike K - - 1997
A new form of P450 designated P450ib2 was purified from rabbit small intestine microsomes. This P450 had properties very similar, to P450ib (CYP2J1), and showed 88% identity with CYP2J1 in its first 20 NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, excluding 3 undetermined residues. Both P450ib and P450ib2 were immunohistochemically detected in the ...
Tokaji Z - - 1997
The photocycle of the acid-purple form of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was studied by multiwavelength absorption kinetic measurements. The data were evaluated using a new method based on the differences in the kinetics of the absorption changes at different wavelengths [Tokaji, Zs. (1995) FEBS Lett. 357, 156-160]. The evaluation indicates that, in ...
Qiu H - - 1997
Extensive absorption of the topical insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) causes systemic and local toxicities. This report describes the preparation and characterization of a new insect repellent formulation (FA), a PEG-polyacrylic acid polymer system, for its DEET release, in vitro skin permeation, and in vivo transdermal absorption properties; and for ...
Cherbut C - - 1997
Besides their action on gut morphology and function, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates in the colon, influence gastrointestinal motility. As they are not present in the stomach and proximal small intestine, SCFAs do not directly affect motility of these segments. However, caecal infusion of SCFAs ...
Jenkins D J - - 1997
Food components which are incompletely absorbed in the small intestine or not absorbed at all but are delivered to the colon have been part of the diet throughout the course of human evolution. Our great ape cousins may derive 30% or more of their dietary calories from colonic uptake of ...
Tripuraneni J - - 1997
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diarrhea associated with shellfish poisoning is poorly understood. The responsible toxin, dinophysistoxin 1, has been identified as okadaic acid, a potent phosphatase inhibitor, but its effects on intestinal epithelia have not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of okadaic acid on ...
Christl S U - - 1997
Colectomy is performed for inflammatory bowel disease, familial polyposis syndrome and colorectal carcinoma. Surgical procedures are ileostomy with or without pouch, ileorectal anastomosis or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. One of the major functions of the intact large intestine is to absorb water and electrolytes. After colectomy, as much as 400-1000 ml ...
Bast G E - - 1997
Isolated rabbit ears were single-pass perfused with a protein-free medium. Permethrin (0.05-23.5%, w/w) was applied in four distinct ointments. Permethrin, 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid were analysed by HPLC. Permethrin was not detected in the effluent. The permeation coefficient, calculated from the detection limit was < 7.3 x 10(-12) ...
Reicht G - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative assessment of intestinal absorption of total and single amino acids in a hydrolysed bovine serum albumin solution over a 6-h period. DESIGN: Ten healthy volunteers underwent segmental jejunal perfusion using a multi-lumen tube assembly with a proximal occluding balloon. Prehydrolysed bovine serum albumin served as protein source. In ...
Schiano T D - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: Clinical thiamine deficiency can occur in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without thiamine supplementation. Because considerable breakdown of thiamine may occur in the presence of bisulfite-containing amino acid solutions, subclinical thiamine deficiency may develop with the use of these solutions, even with appropriate thiamine supplementation. The current American ...
Tovar J - - 1996
Despite their important contribution to seed weight, carbohydrates in pulses have received limited attention. However, experimental evidence accumulated during the last two decades indicate that legumes are rich sources of slowly digestible starch promoting moderate postprandial glycernic and insulinemic responses. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are not completely understood, ...
Li S - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of extended parietal cell vagotomy (EPCV) on long-term nutritional status and digestive-absorption function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients undergoing EPCV were compared with 30 patients with subtotal gastrectomy (SG) 7-14 years after operation. The patients were evaluated in terms of nutritional status, gastric secretion, gastrointestinal ...
Riordan S M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Small intestinal hypomotility is an important cause of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, yet assessment of small intestinal motility in this setting is problematic. This study was performed to investigate the validity of a bacteriological method for detecting small intestinal hypomotility. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects without previous gastric surgery were studied ...
Fhölenhog K - - 1996
It is established that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) influences cell differentiation and proliferation. Less is known, however, if such changes also influence the flow of nutrients from the intestinal lumen to the portal circulation. In the present study, we tested if IGF-I treatment (0.3 mg IGF-I/24 hr and kg) ...
Moll-Navarro M J - - 1996
Previous studies showed that the in situ absorption of baclofen in rat jejunum was inhibited by beta-alanine, a nonessential amino acid, and therefore mediated, at least in part, by some beta-amino acid carrier. In this paper a similar study was undertaken using taurine, a sulfonic beta-amino acid, in order to ...
Aldini R R Istituto di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Bologna, - - 1996
A structure-activity relationship for bile acid (BA) intestinal absorption is known to exist. To better understand the BA structural requirements for optimal BA intestinal absorption, rabbit ileal perfusion studies were performed. Unconjugated BA: Ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) and ursocholic acid (UCA) with methyl (6MUDCA and 6MUCA) or fluoro group (6FUDCA and 6FUCA) ...
Kashimura J - - 1996
We carried out a balance study to examine the effects of isomaltulose, lactose, isomalt, and isomaltulose-based oligomers (IBOs) on mineral (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron) absorption and retention. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each and fed a basal diet or diet the containing ...
Holmes A K - - 1996
Measurements of ultrasonic absorption in the frequency range 2 to 60 MHz have been made on solutions of the amino acid histidine, dipeptides glycyl tyrosine and histidyl tyrosine, and proteins lysozyme and bovine serum albumin. Measurements were carried out at 37 degrees C and covered the pH range 6.8 to ...
Yokoyama S - - 1996
Vision and the circadian rhythms of various biological functions are triggered by phototransduction. The retinal and nonretinal (pineal gland-specific) opsins are traced back to a single common ancestor. Evolutionary analyses of these opsins identify amino acid changes that are potentially important in the regulation of wavelength absorption of photosensitive molecules-visual ...
Tanaka K - - 1996
The transport characteristics of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and its chemically modified derivative with lauric acid (Lau-TRH) across the rat small or large intestine were estimated by means of an in vitro everted sac experiment. Both compounds were especially absorbed from the upper small intestine. The penetration of TRH across the ...
Alles M S - - 1996
There is a need for studies on colonic fermentation in order to learn more about health and diseases of the colon. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fate of two different doses of fructo-oligosaccharides (5 and 15 g/d) v. glucose in the intestine of healthy men. ...
Hoekstra J H - - 1996
The facilitating effect of glucose on free fructose absorption has been suggested to be due to a sucrase-related transport mechanism. In contrast, the conditions influencing the absorption of sorbitol have hardly been investigated. As amino acids promote transcellular water flow, we investigated their effects on the absorption of fructose and ...
Komnick H - - 1996
The isolated digestive juice of Aeshna cyanea larvae hydrolysed trioleoylglycerol preferentially at the terminal 1 and 3 positions, yielding 1, 2-dioleoylglycerol as first intermediate. Hydrolysis continued to 1- and 2-monooleoylglycerol as second intermediate. Separate incubation of monooleoylglycerol revealed that hydrolysis could proceed to completion. Inadequate inhibition of mono[1-14C]oleoylglycerol hydrolysis in ...
Narayanan V S - - 1996
Dietary triacylglycerol is acted upon by lipolytic enzymes in the stomach and the proximal small intestine, releasing fatty acids and monoacylglycerol as the ultimate products. These digestive products are solubilized by bile released from the gall bladder, resulting in the formation of two product phases-vesicles and micelles-depending upon the concentration ...
Batt R M - - 1996
The normal gastrointestinal tract contains an enormous number of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria which normally enjoy a symbiotic relationship with the host but can have adverse effects with local and systemic consequences. The small intestine constitutes a zone of transition between the sparsely populated stomach and the luxuriant bacterial flora ...
Buchman A L - - 1996
Glutamine is a nonessential amino acid which can be synthesized from glutamate and glutamic acid by glutamine synthetase. It is the preferred fuel for the rat small intestine. Animal studies have suggested both glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition and enteral diets may prevent bacterial translocation. This effect is thought to be modulated ...
Takahashi K - - 1996
The effects of a series of polyol fatty acid esters (sefsols) on diclofenac permeation through rat skin were investigated using in vitro and in vivo methods. Four monoesters and one diester of sefsol were selected as a vehicle components. The effects of each sefsol on in vitro diclofenac permeation were ...
Andon M B - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice. METHODS: Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = ...
Maenz D D - - 1996
Broiler chicks were fed diets supplemented with DL-methionine or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methyl-thiobutanoic acid. At 4 wk of age the chicks were subdivided into thermoneutral (22 degrees C) and heat-exposed (32 degrees C) groups and maintained under these conditions for 48 h. Highly purified 3H-L-methionine (3H-L-Met) and 3H-L-2-hydroxy-4-methyl-thiobutanoic acid (3H-L-HMB) were used to ...
Mesonero J E - - 1996
Cadmium compounds are widely spread in the environment. Animal exposure to cadmium compounds occurs mainly through foods or drinks contaminated by this metal. Cadmium has been shown to produce several negative effects on the gastrointestinal tract such as inhibition on sugars and amino acids absorption. The aim of the present ...
Diener M - - 1996
The short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate induced a concentration-dependent increase of short-circuit current (Isc) in the rat distal small intestine in vitro. They were ineffective in the proximal small intestine. The increase of lsc in the distal small intestine was dependent on the presence of Cl- and HCO3- ...
Ortigues I - - 1996
The objective of this study was to describe in preruminant calves the circadian patterns in net nutrient fluxes across the portal-drained viscera, the liver, and the hindquarters and to relate them to previously published variations in tissue energy expenditure. In vivo arterio-venous techniques were used, and animals were fed a ...
Wapnir R A - - 1996
The absorption of some minerals has been shown to be affected by the presence of unhydrolyzed dietary triglycerides and free fatty acids generated from their partial hydrolysis. Since copper (Cu) can form poorly soluble soaps with long-chain fatty acids, we examined whether the uptake of Cu from the intestinal lumen ...
Hotokezaka M - - 1996
A terminal ileal transposition procedure, in which a distal jejunal segment is interposed between the terminal ileum and the anus following proctocolectomy, is described. Adult mongrel dogs had either terminal ileal transposition (n = 5) or ileoanal anastomosis (n = 6) following two-stage proctocolectomy. Untreated dogs were used as controls ...
Kinouchi Y - - 1996
The effects of some amino acids such as L-glutamine (Gln), L-arginine (Arg) and L-methionine (Met) on rectal irritation caused by sodium caprate were studied in rats. Rectal irritation was assessed by the balloon method in fasting conscious rats. This method is based on measuring rectal contractions due to possible irritation ...
Napolitano L M - - 1996
Alterations in intestinal permeability and immune function were investigated in a murine femur fracture (FFx) model. We postulated that soft tissue injury associated with closed FFx (crush injury) would result in greater immunosuppression that open FFx (surgical division). AKR mice were randomized to four groups (Normal, Sham, Open FFx, Closed ...
Leone-Bay A - - 1996
PURPOSE: Herein we report the discovery of a group of derivatized alpha-amino acids that increase the oral bioavailability of sodium cromolyn. METHODS: We prepared three N-acylated alpha-amino acids and used these compounds to demonstrate the oral delivery of cromolyn in an in vivo rat model. In vitro experiments, including permeation ...
Constantinides P P - - 1996
PURPOSE: Water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions have been developed which, in addition to non-ionic medium-chain glycerides, incorporate ionic lipids, primarily medium-chain fatty acids, such as caprylic (C8) capric (C10) and lauric (C12) acids and their corresponding sodium salts. The absorption enhancing activity of w/o microemulsions incorporating these lipids was evaluated in the ...
Andersen R - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Non-ionic, water-soluble radiographic contrast media have been suggested as intestinal permeability probes. We studied the permeability of the isosmolar contrast medium iodixanol and 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) from the non-perforated colon after induction of colonic inflammation. METHODS: Colonic inflammation and ulcerations were induced by luminal colonic instillation of trinitrobenzenesulfonic ...
Pirot F - - 1996
Copper and zinc percutaneous absorptions were assessed in vitro using sliced human skin and both petrolatum and hydrophilic gels as vehicles. Applied quantities were largely in excess for the duration of the experiment (72 h). The absorption of sulphates and chlorides was compared. The cumulated amount recovered in receptor fluid ...
Alvisi V - - 1996
Several controlled release formulations of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are currently available. However, none of these results in an optimal bioavailability of the active ingredient as a function of the absorption windows for bile acids found at the gastroduodenal level. Nonsaturated passive absorption of bile acids occurs at these sites, while ...
Kagawa K - - 1996
Globin digest (GD), prepared from globin by acidic protease treatment, suppressed the elevation of serum triglyceride level in not only total but also chylomicron fraction after oral administration of olive oil. By screening with this lowering activity, we concluded that Val-Val-Tyr-Pro (VVYP) would be most effective constituent having hypotriglyceridemic action ...
Rodriguez Yoldi M C - - 1996
Zinc is a nutritionally essential trace element required for many biological functions to be successfully carried out. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of zinc on the intestinal absorption of L-threonine and on the aminopeptidase N activity in rabbit jejunum, after in vitro addition and/or ...
Kobayashi S - - 1996
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of absorption enhancers in dry powders and in liquids, pulmonary absorption of salmon calcitonin (sCT) in various formulations was measured. METHODS: The dry powder of sCT was prepared by a freeze-drying method with a jet mill. After intratracheal administration of sCT dry powder and liquid ...
Fernandez-Borrachero O - - 1996
This study was designed to determine the intestinal in vivo absorption of folic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) by the caecum surface at different times after 20 weeks of 30% ethanol ingestion. The absorption results were compared to the data of control rats. Chow and fluid consumption and body weight were ...
Lin H H - - 1995
Preparation of the fatty alcohol propylene glycol (FAPG) ointment base plays an important role in controlling the physicochemical properties of ointments. These essay investigates the effects of preparative conditions such as cooling rate and stirring rate on the percutaneous absorption of norfloxacin from FAPG ointment. The influence of process-induced variation ...
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