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Conrad P G PG 2nd Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045, - - 2000
[equation--see text] Introducing 3-methoxy or 3,5-dimethoxy substituents on the 4-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) photoremovable protecting group has been explored with two excitatory gamma-amino acids, L-glutamic acid and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). These substituents significantly extend the absorption range of the pHP chromophore, e.g., the tail of absorption bands of 2a,b extend above ...
Spencer J P - - 2000
There is considerable interest in the bioavailability of flavonoids and phenolic components of the diet and their bioactivity in vivo. However, little is known of pre-absorption events in the gastric lumen. The effects of the acidic environment, as found in the gastric milieu, on procyanidin oligomers of catechin polyphenols has ...
Kamm W - - 2000
Different absorption enhancing principles for a potent cyclopeptidic alpha(nu)beta(3)-antagonist (EMD 121974) were investigated in monolayers of a human intestinal cell line (Caco-2). Transepithelial transport was quantitated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Cytotoxic effects were characterized by determination of transepithelial electrical resistances (TEERs), propidium iodide (PI)-influx, FITC-phalloidin staining and the release ...
Lönnerdal B - - 2000
Marginal zinc deficiency and suboptimal zinc status have been recognized in many groups of the population in both less developed and industrialized countries. Although the cause in some cases may be inadequate dietary intake of zinc, inhibitors of zinc absorption are most likely the most common causative factor. Phytate, which ...
Doi A M - - 2000
Polychlorinated biphenyls are transferred in the diet along aquatic food chains. This study investigated the effect of dietary micelle composition and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) exposure upon the subsequent systemic bioavailability and intestinal metabolism of [(14)C]-TCB in a catfish in situ intestinal preparation. Initial in vitro experiments examined the solubility of [(14)C]-TCB ...
Vejchapipat P - - 2000
PURPOSE: This study explores the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on various metabolic aspects of the small intestine. METHODS: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion was obtained by clamping and unclamping the superior mesenteric artery in adult rats. Four groups of animals were studied: (A) sham operation for 150 minutes, (B) 90-minute intestinal ischemia, (C) 150-minute ...
Jung Y J - - 2000
A simple synthetic route for the preparation of amino acid conjugate of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was exploited and prepared 5-aminosalicyl-glycine (5-ASA-Gly) in good yield. In vitro and in vivo properties of 5-ASA-Gly as a colon-specific prodrug of 5-ASA were investigated using rats as the test animal. Incubation of 5-ASA-Gly with ...
McCollum M Q - - 2000
Alimet (Novus Inter., Inc., St. Louis, MO) feed supplement (an 88% aqueous solution of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid; HMB) is a source of L-Met commonly used in nonruminants and ruminants. The absorption of HMB across ovine omasal and ruminal epithelia was evaluated in this study. Ruminal and omasal epithelia were collected ...
Michael S - - 2000
The potential of the nontoxic bile salt derivative, cholylsarcosine, to enhance the intestinal absorption of peptides was investigated in vitro and in situ. The permeation of the two model peptides octreotide and vasopressin-[arg(8)CT>/=CS, whereas ursodeoxycholic acid exhibited no absorption enhancement. Determination of the cytotoxic potential of the bile salts revealed ...
Manokas T - - 2000
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) have been demonstrated to at least partially ameliorate chronic intestinal inflammation. However, whether and how intestinal SCFA absorption may be altered during chronic intestinal inflammation is unknown. A rabbit model of chronic ileitis produced by coccidia was used to determine the effect of chronic inflammation on ...
Goh K L - - 2000
Accurate spectral information on formic acid has wide application to radioastronomy since it was the first organic acid found in interstellar space. In this work, the infrared absorption spectrum of the nu1 band of deuterated formic acid (DCOOD) has been measured on a Bomem DA3.002 Fourier transform spectrometer in the ...
Aungst B J - - 2000
This review addresses the field of improving oral bioavailability through the use of excipients that increase intestinal membrane permeability. The critical issues to consider in evaluating these approaches are 1) the extent of bioavailability enhancement achieved, 2) the influence of formulation and physiological variables, 3) toxicity associated with permeation enhancement, ...
Takase I - - 2000
The masking action of the dithiophosphoric acid diacylester (DDTP) for the determination of Bi by hydride generation absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) in the presence of high concentrations of copper was studied. Cu/Bi ratios up to 50x10(3) were found to be tolerable in the presence of 2x10(-3) M chelating solutions in 10% ...
Alpers D H - - 2000
Although the small intestinal mucosa is designed to transport large quantities of all nutrients to the blood, the primary nutrients utilized by the enterocyte for growth and/or maintenance are quite restricted. The major fuels for the small intestinal mucosa are amino acids (glutamine, glutamate, aspartate), whereas glucose and fatty acids ...
Dobson C L - - 2000
Previous work has demonstrated that high doses of oleic acid can activate the ileal brake but the importance of site of delivery has yet to be investigated. The objective of this study was to use modified release capsules to release oleic acid in different regions of the intestine. When tested ...
Punchard N A - - 2000
The absorption and competition kinetics of the essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (alphaLnA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in vivo were studied in the perfused rat jejunum. Uptake of each EFA on its own followed saturable kinetics at low luminal concentrations, suggesting a facilitative transport process, the ...
Mariotti F - - 2000
This paper reviews the recent literature concerning the importance of the gut in extraintestinal protein metabolism. A growing body of evidence suggests that the gut modulates amino acid flux and inter-organ relationships in various metabolic states. This may be particularly true during the absorptive period, when the gut: (1) controls ...
Giami S Y - - 2000
African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seeds were either boiled or roasted and then milled into flour. Chemical composition, functional properties and storage characteristics of raw and treated flours and the effect of partial proteolysis on selected functional properties of the raw flour were determined. Raw flour contained 20.1% crude protein, ...
Udeani G O - - 1999
Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid. Betulinic acid has recently been selected by the National Cancer Institute for addition into the RAID (Rapid Access to Intervention in Development) programme. The agent exhibits potential anti-tumour activity and functions in this regard via apoptosis. The objective of the present study ...
Thorsteinsson T - - 1999
Diacyl glyceryl ester derivatives of naproxen were synthesized and tested for transdermal and dermal administration. Diacyl derivatives of aliphatic acids of various chain length were compared. The pharmaceutical properties of these compounds, such as lipophilicity, hydrolysis in a buffer solution at various pH values and degradation in human serum and ...
Giusti M M - - 1999
The effects of glycosylation and acylation on the spectral characteristics, molar absorptivity, and color attributes of purified acylated and non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives were compared. Pigments were obtained from strawberries, radishes, red-fleshed potatoes, and partially hydrolyzed radish pigments. Individual pigments were isolated by using semipreparative HPLC. Spectral and color (CIELch) attributes ...
Jacobasch G - - 1999
These studies were performed to test the benefit of resistant starch on ulcerative colitis via prebiotic and butyrate effects. Butyrate, propionate, and acetate are produced in the colon of mammals as a result of microbial fermentation of resistant starch and other dietary fibers. Butyrate plays an important role in the ...
Oguri S - - 1999
At the present time, the origin of protein bound D-amino acid (AA) has been fairly well elucidated, but that of free D-AA is still not well understood. To gain greater understanding of this, intestinal absorption in rats of free D,L-AA enantiomers (arginine, alanine and aspartic acid as models for basic, ...
Liu T - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the association of manganese III mesoporphyrin (MnMeso), an oral MR contrast agent, to oleic acid (OA) vesicles will improve absorption and delivery of MnMeso to the liver. METHODS: MnMeso or MnMeso-OA vesicle suspension was intraduodenally administered to rats and the time course of MnMeso concentration in ...
Buchman A L - - 1999
Glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized from glutamate and glutamic acid by glutamine synthetase. It is the preferred fuel for the small intestine in the rat. Results from animal studies suggest that both glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition and enteral diets may prevent bacterial translocation. This effect may ...
Raybould H E - - 1999
It is well recognized that lipid in the intestine is a potent inhibitor of gastric secretomotor function. Progress has been made in the identification of the "sensor" for lipid in the intestinal wall. Long-chain free fatty acids are the stimulus both for release of CCK and for the production of ...
Jandacek R J - - 1999
Olestra is a mixture of compounds comprising sucrose esterified with 6-8 long-chain fatty acids. It is not hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase and as a result is not absorbed from the small intestine. Olestra in general has physical properties similar to those of a triacylglycerol with the same fatty acid composition. ...
Andreyuk G M - - 1999
The interaction of lysophospholipids with human oxy- and methemoglobin was studied. Anionic (acidic) lysophospholipids (lysophosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylinositol, lysophosphatidylethanol, and lysophosphatidic acid) are potent effectors inducing the conversion of both forms of hemoglobin into hemichrome. Zwitterionic lysophospholipids (lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and lysosphingomyelin) did not influence oxyhemoglobin conversion, whereas methemoglobin conversion into hemichrome required ...
Jeppesen P B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the influence of the route of administration (enteral compared with parenteral) on plasma phospholipid EFA concentrations. DESIGN: Intestinal absorption, parenteral supplement of EFAs, and plasma phospholipid EFA concentrations were ...
Andersson H B - - 1999
The ileostomy model is considered to be a reliable model to reflect small bowel absorption. Studies in ileostomy subjects have shown that inulin and oligofructose pass through the small bowel without degradation and without influencing the absorption of nitrogen, fat, starch, calcium, magnesium or zinc. Inulin and oligofructose do not ...
Crespy V - - 1999
Rutin and quercetin absorption and metabolism were investigated in rats after in situ perfusion of jejunum plus ileum (15 nmol/min). In contrast to rutin, a high proportion of quercetin (two-thirds) disappeared during perfusion, reflecting extensive transfer into the intestinal wall. Net quercetin absorption was not complete (2.1 nmol/min), inasmuch as ...
Sola F - - 1999
We present evidence for the toxic effects of fatty acid 18:5n3 (octadecapentaenoic acid) in the gills and intestine of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Light microscopic observation of gills showed strong mucus production and alteration of ionocytes. The Mg- and Na,K-ATPase activities were inhibited, with IC50 values of 10(-3) and ...
O'Toole R - - 1999
Chemotactic motility has previously been shown to be essential for the virulence of Vibrio anguillarum in waterborne infections of fish. To investigate the mechanisms by which chemotaxis may function during infection, mucus was isolated from the intestinal and skin epithelial surfaces of rainbow trout. Chemotaxis assays revealed that V. anguillarum ...
Budi Santosa F X - - 1999
Corn zein has been investigated for fabrication of biodegradable packaging materials. Our objective was to investigate the effect of added plasticizers, oleic and linoleic acids, on tensile properties and water absorption of zein sheets. Moldable resins were precipitated from aqueous ethanol dispersions of zein and fatty acids and rolled into ...
Good D W - - 1999
The role of ANG II in the regulation of ion reabsorption by the renal thick ascending limb is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that ANG II (10(-8) M in the bath) inhibits HCO-3 absorption by 40% in the isolated, perfused medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL) of the rat. The inhibition ...
Bohnert D W - - 1999
Six Angus steers (260+/-4 kg initial BW) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of feeding poultry by-product meal (PBM) on small intestinal flow and disappearance of amino acids. The diets were provided at 2% of ...
Gänzle M G - - 1999
The survival of Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 (bac ) and (bac ) in combination with Escherichia coli LTH 1600 or Listeria innocua DSM20649 during transit through a dynamic model of the human stomach and small intestine (GIT model) was studied. Furthermore, we determined the digestion of curvacin A during gastro-intestinal ...
Katsivela E - - 1999
Bacterial strain LW1, which belongs to the family Comamonadaceae, utilizes 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (1C4NB) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Suspensions of 1C4NB-grown cells removed 1C4NB from culture fluids, and there was a concomitant release of ammonia and chloride. Under anaerobic conditions LW1 transformed 1C4NB into a product which ...
Ramos M G - - 1999
In germfree mice, the administration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) protected the intestinal mucosa from damage produced by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C). Animals receiving SCFA and Ara-C had intestinal morphologies closer to normal than the control animals, which had severe intestinal lesions. We concluded that orally administrated SCFA reduce intestinal lesions, improving ...
Buemann B - - 1999
The addition of 29 g D-tagatose added as a sweetener to a continental breakfast was tested for the appearance of gastrointestinal side effects in a double-blind randomized cross-over study with 29 g sucrose as a control treatment. The subjects reported the side effects during 72 h following the test meal ...
Dobson C L - - 1999
PURPOSE: A human volunteer study was carried out to investigate whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism affects the transit of tablets through the small intestine. METHODS: Oleic acid, which has previously been shown to activate the brake, was delivered to the small intestine in a modified release capsule at ...
Sigalet D L - - 1999
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Treatment of chylous leaks using enteral feeds supplemented with medium chain triglycerides (MCT) is used widely but often ineffective. Few studies have examined the conventional dogma that MCTs and simple sugars are absorbed directly via the portal system. This study tests the hypothesis that significant absorption of MCTs and ...
D'Argenio G - - 1999
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the end products of anaerobic bacteria break down of carbohydrates in the large bowel. This process, namely fermentation, is an important function of the large bowel; SCFAs, mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate account for approximately 80% of the colonic anion concentration and are produced ...
Nakazato M - - 1998
Uroguanylin, a member of the guanylin peptide family, acts on guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) to regulate intestinal and renal fluid and electrolyte transport through the second messenger, cGMP. Using an antiserum raised against synthetic rat uroguanylin, we established an RIA and identified three endogenous molecular forms in the intestine and ...
Adikwu M U - - 1998
Spectrophotometric absorption studies gave evidence for the formation of strongly bonded charge-transfer complexes between moclobemide and promethazine hydrochloride with chloranilic acid in non-aqueous media comprising chloroform and 1,4-dioxane. The transitions involved were detected at wavelengths longer than those of the single pure substances in the visible region. Equilibrium constants from ...
Radominska-Pandya A - - 1998
While UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are known to be expressed at high levels in human liver, relatively little is known about extrahepatic expression. In the present study, UGT2B family isoforms involved in the glucuronidation of steroid hormones and bile acids have been characterized in microsomes prepared from jejunum, ileum and colon from ...
Prost J - - 1998
This study was conducted to compare in vivo the acute effects of heated (+) and (-) gossypol cottonseed flours with those of soybean flour on lipid digestion and absorption in growing rats. Rats were fed by gastric intubation mixed [3H]-oleic acid and [14C]-triolein with heated flours or without flour (control). ...
Prabhakaram M - - 1998
With the objective to investigate 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) mediated lysine crosslinks in vivo, we have isolated a lysine-3-DG-lysine crosslink from in vitro reaction of 3-DG and N-proportional to-acetyllysine (NAL). This crosslink, named as furopyrrolopyridine crosslink (FPPC), has intense blue fluorescence with absorption maxima at 235, 270 and 370 nm and emission ...
Poher I - - 1998
1. The pharmacokinetics of oxolinic acid have been studied in 500 g turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). The fish were kept in seawater at 16 degrees C with a 15 h/9 h photoperiod. Oxolinic acid was administered orally via a stomach tube at a single dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight. ...
Hickman M A - - 1998
Nutritional intervention plays a key role in the successful management of gastrointestinal disease. This article focuses on several novel areas of nutritional intervention that are becoming increasingly important in gastrointestinal disease, including short-chain fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine. Short-chain fatty acids are the principal end-products of bacterial ...
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