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Results 251 - 300 of 1180
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Jiang Y - - 2001
This study was conducted to determine the effects of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from different sources on intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing soybean oil for 4 wk. Each rat with lymph cannula was infused via a duodenal catheter at 3.0 mL/h for 8 h ...
Larrucea E - - 2001
The influence of oleic acid (OA) on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of tenoxicam (TEN) and its combined effect with propylene glycol (PG) was studied using Franz-type diffusion cells. Furthermore, at defined concentrations of OA, complexes of the drug with cyclodextrins (MbetaCD and gammaCD) were added because their combined use ...
Moya M M Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Universitario San Juan, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, - - 2001
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have beneficial effects in preterm neurophysiological development and are semi-essential. Their levels and variation in plasma and red cells in term and preterms are better known than their intestinal absorption. In this paper the absorption of supplemented arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is ...
Ajayaghosh A - - 2001
[reaction: see text] Polycondensation of 2,5-dialkoxydivinylbenzene-bridged bispyrroles and squaric acid resulted in extensively conjugated polymers with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption around 800-1000 nm, which is a signature of their low band gap (E(g)). Conjugated polymers with such a strong NIR absorption are rare. One of the synthesized polysquaraines showed a ...
Mineo H - - 2001
We examined the effect of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on Ca absorption from the large intestine in rats in vitro. An Ussing-type chamber technique was used to determine the net transport of Ca from the luminal side to the basolateral side of isolated epithelium in cecum and colon preparations. The ...
Venturini-Soriano M - - 2001
As a nonessential element, aluminum may be toxic at both environmental and therapeutic levels, depending on ligand interactions. Dietary acids that normally occur in fruits and vegetables and commonly serve as taste enhancers are good ligands of the Al(3+) ion. Malic acid is one of these and also one of ...
Nishioku Y - - 2001
A spectrally silent transformation in the photolysis of octopus rhodopsin was detected by the time-resolved transient grating method. Our results showed that at least two photointermediates, which share the same chromophore absorption spectrum, exist after the final absorption changes. Previously, mesorhodopsin was thought to decay to the final photoproduct, acid ...
Twiss I M - - 2001
RATIONALE AND AIMS Some bisphosphonates induce gastrointestinal side effects, but the localization in the gastrointestinal tract and the underlying mechanism are unknown. The feasibility of the sugar absorption test was investigated to assess the gastrointestinal effects of oral enteric-coated pamidronate. The sugar absorption test measures the urinary excretion of lactulose, ...
Weber L P - - 2001
Dietary absorption of lipophilic contaminants may be a significant route of exposure in aquatic organisms. Bile salts, lipids, and humic acids are important factors that may influence the intestinal absorption of a contaminant such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). We hypothesized that bile salts, monoglycerides, and free fatty acids would increase BaP ...
Keefe K A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether 2 photosensitizers, benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid ring and 5-aminolevulinic acid, are selectively absorbed by dysplastic cervical cells after topical administration. STUDY DESIGN: This phase I clinical trial involved 18 women with biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at the Beckman Laser Institute, Irvine, Calif. ...
Johnson S - - 2001
Clostridia are normally found in the healthy colon, where their numbers are kept in check by other bacteria. However, when they establish themselves in the ileum they become formidable foes. They produce medium-length fatty acids that increase water absorption, causing hypertension and drying up the feces, causing constipation.Furthermore, they can ...
Kim C H - - 2001
The alanine to threonine substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr) of the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene has been reported to be associated with increased fat oxidation and insulin resistance in several populations. It has been hypothesized that Ala54Thr substitution results in enhanced intestinal uptake of fatty acids and ...
Carbonaro M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Dietary polyphenols, which are contained in several foods of plant origin, have been reported to be effective protective agents against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, data on their absorption from the gastrointestinal tract are still scarce and, often, contradictory. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this report, evaluation of polyphenol ...
Jørgensen J R - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are main fuels of the colonic epithelium, and are avidly absorbed by the colon of animal and man. The current knowledge on colonic metabolism and absorption of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) is limited. In some clinical situations, colonic absorption of high-energy substances could ...
Higaki K - - 2001
The absorption enhancement by the sodium salts of several fatty acids was investigated in rat large intestine for model compounds having a wide range of molecular weight. Sodium caprylate (C8), sodium caprate (C10), sodium laurate (C12), which are categorized in medium-chain fatty acid, and sodium oleate (C18:1), long-chain unsaturated fatty ...
Yang C - - 2001
The objective of this research is to explore the amino acid carrier-mediated pathway for nasal uptake of tyrosine-linked model compounds. These molecules were synthesized by ether linkage between the aromatic hydroxyl group of L-tyrosine and the terminal hydroxyl group of model compounds. An enzymatically stable linkage was utilized to link ...
Berven G - - 2001
The diarrhetic shellfish toxin, okadaic acid, administered to rats by intragastric intubation, caused intestinal damage, diarrhea and death, but had no detectable effect on the liver. In contrast, okadaic acid administered intravenously had little effect on intestinal function, but caused a rapid dissolution of hepatic bile canalicular actin sheaths, congestion ...
Pappenheimer J R - - 2001
Pre-epithelial "unstirred" layers (abbr. pL) are generally regarded as undesirable diffusion barriers that impede access to absorptive cells of exogenous hexoses, amino acids or other experimental probes added to fluids bathing the mucosal surface. In the present paper it is suggested that the pL may have a functional role. Diffusion ...
Larsen M - - 2001
The small intestinal digestibility of microbial amino acids and the apparent re-absorption of endogenous amino acids were estimated in three ruminal, duodenal and ileal fistulated lactating dairy cows. The cows were assigned to a 3 x 3 Latin square and fed diets low in amino acids, composed of straw, starch, ...
Lin H C - - 2001
Chronic diarrhea may occur when gastrointestinal transit is abnormally rapid. We hypothesized that oleic acid given prior to a meal would slow gastrointestinal transit and reduce diarrhea by activating nutrient-triggered inhibitory feedback mechanisms in the small intestine. Transit time was measured in eight normal subjects following ingestion of a control ...
Davidsson L - - 2001
Infant formula based on pea (Pisum sativum)-protein isolate has been suggested as an alternative to soybean formula in countries where soybean is not a native crop, or when soybean protein cannot be used due to allergic reactions or intolerances. In the present study, Fe absorption from experimental infant formulas based ...
Roediger W E - - 2001
The main substrates fuelling ion absorption in the mucosa of the small intestine and large intestine are respectively glutamine and short-chain fatty acids. Measurements now reported showed that derivation of both glutamine and fibre for short-chain fatty acid production can be achieved from a single foodstuff--macerated groundnuts. Macerated groundnuts may ...
Lode H - - 2001
Twelve healthy subjects (6 females, 6 males; age range 18-40 y) participated in this trial. Linezolid was given as 600 mg tablets b.i.d. for 7 d and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as 1000 mg tablets o.d. for 7 d. The washout period between the administration of the 2 antibacterial agents was 4 ...
Buddington R K - - 2001
Amino acids originating from the diet are the principal metabolic fuels for the small intestine, and although the developing intestine is exposed to dramatic changes in the types and amounts of protein, there is little known about rates of amino acid absorption across the apical membrane during development. Therefore, rates ...
Giami S Y - - 2001
The chemical composition and functional properties of ungerminated and germinated seeds of four advanced lines of cowpeas (IT81D-699, IT82E-18, IT84S-2246-4 and TVx 3236) were investigated. Ungerminated seeds contained 20.1 to 25.8% crude protein, 2.0 to 2.2% lipid, 115.1 to 210.0 mg phytic acid/100 g and 8.9 to 9.6 mg iron/100 ...
Ramakrishna B S - - 2001
Improvements in characteristics of solutions used for oral rehydration therapy, to provide significant reductions in amount and duration of diarrhea, are expected to contribute to wider use of these fluids. Recent studies suggest that these may come about from reducing the osmolality of the solution, and by providing short chain ...
Jeppesen P B - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Positive effects of high dose growth hormone and glutamine (GH + GLN) on body composition in short bowel patients have been described. Lack of effects on intestinal absorption found in some studies has been ascribed to concomitant essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. This study describes changes in body weight ...
Murota K - - 2000
Long-chain fatty acids are important nutrients, but obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in humans. In this study we investigated the effect of oleyl alcohol on the intestinal long-chain fatty acid absorption in rats. We administered [14C]oleic acid and oleyl alcohol as lipid emulsion intraduodenally in unanesthetized lymph-cannulated rats ...
Tatariunas A - - 2000
We report here on a retinoid model of the phenomenon discovered in 1980, in which ceroid-lipofuscin cytosomes (CLC) increased their intrinsic fluorescence when exposed to fluorescence-exciting (lambda(ex)=365nm) ultraviolet (UV) light. We modeled this effect in vitro, irradiating a methanolic solution of retinyl palmitate (RP) either synthetic or extracted from the ...
Secor S M - - 2000
Juvenile pythons undergo large rapid upregulation of intestinal mass and intestinal transporter activities upon feeding. Because it is also easy to do surgery on pythons and to maintain them in the laboratory, we used a python model to examine signals and agents for intestinal adaptation. We surgically isolated the middle ...
Reynisson J - - 2000
Four diamino acid-Nalpha-substituted oligopeptide (DNO) oligomers substituted with pyrenyl as photophysical probes were synthesized. The excimer formation and ground-state association of the pyrenyl groups were investigated by means of absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy together with time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The photophysical parameters obtained from the different derivatives reflect the secondary ...
Akao T - - 2000
Glycyrrhizin (1.0 mm GL), glycyrrhetic acid (1.0 mm GA) and glycyrrhetic acid monoglucuronide (1.0 mM GAMG), as well as a combination of all components added to medium at the start of growth and at the maximal stage of intestinal flora were cultured for 24 and 12 h, respectively. GL alone ...
Takaku K - - 2000
Arachidonic acid is a precursor for biosynthesis of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and lipoxins. Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) plays a key role in the release of arachidonic acid as the substrate of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) or COX-2. We found that the level of cPLA(2) mRNA was markedly elevated in the ...
Meijerink E - - 2000
The alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferases (FUT1 and FUT2) contribute to the formation of blood group antigen structures, which are present on cell membranes and in secretions. In the present study we demonstrate that both FUT1 and FUT2 are expressed in the pig small intestine. FUT1 polymorphisms influence adhesion of F18 fimbriated Escherichia coli ...
Takahashi T - - 2000
The bacterial level of soft feces is higher than that of hard feces in nutrias. This suggests the heterogeneity of bacterial density in the large intestine. To show the heterogeneity of bacteria in the contents of the large intestine in nutrias, we divided the contents of the large intestine into ...
Hirayama F - - 2000
6(A)-O-(n-Butanoyl)-beta-cyclodextrin was prepared and its hydrolysis behavior in aqueous solutions and in rat intestinal fluids was investigated. Furthermore, the enzymatic hydrolyses of the n-butyric acid-beta-cyclodextrin conjugate using alpha-amylase and esterase were studied to gain insight into the release behavior of n-butyric acid from the conjugate. The hydrolysis of the conjugate ...
Kajita M - - 2000
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of an emulsion incorporating unsaturated fatty acids to improve the mucosal absorption of poorly absorbed drugs from rat intestinal loops in situ, using a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion. Vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) was used as a model drug with low oral ...
Lee Y - - 2000
PURPOSE: In this study, conjugates of heparin and deoxycholic acid were synthesized in order to enhance the heparin absorption in the GI tract. Oral delivery of heparin is a preferred therapy in the treatment of patients who are at high risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. METHODS: Several ...
Deng Z - - 2000
Aluminum (Al) is toxic to certain biological systems and has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Intestinal absorption of Al is very low (0.1%), but many organic dietary components are potential chelators of Al and may enhance its absorption and tissue distribution. We examined ...
Chilcott R P - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to measure the absorption and intra-epidermal fate of 35S-radiolabelled sulphur mustard (35SM) in human breast skin in vitro. Skin (full-thickness or heat-separated epidermis) was placed into static diffusion cells and was exposed to droplets of liquid 35SM or saturated 35SM vapour. Amounts of 35SM ...
Fahmy K - - 2000
A highly conserved carboxylic acid residue in rhodopsin, Glu(134), modulates transducin (G(t)) interaction. It has been postulated that Glu(134) becomes protonated upon receptor activation. We studied the interaction between rhodopsin and G(t) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy combined with attenuated total reflection (ATR). Formation of the complex between ...
Wächtershäuser A - - 2000
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), especially butyrate, play central metabolic roles in maintaining the mucosal barrier in the gut. A lack of SCFA, leading to endogenous starvation of enterocytes, may be the cause of ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory conditions. The main source of SCFA is dietary fibre, but they ...
Tsao C C - - 2000
We recently identified five different murine CYP2C cDNAs from a murine cDNA library. When expressed in a bacterial cDNA expression system, all five recombinant proteins metabolized arachidonic acid but produced distinctly different profiles. In addition, some CYP2C mRNAs were found in extrahepatic tissues, as well as in liver. Immunoblots with ...
Ito E - - 2000
A new type of food poisoning resulting from ingestion of mussels produced in Ireland occurred in the Netherlands in 1995 and then reoccurred in Ireland in 1997. As the causative agent, azaspiracid, was isolated in pure form and revealed to have a structure entirely unlike other known algal toxins, in ...
Sauer P - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accumulation of toxic bile acids in cholestasis contributes to liver injury and depends on their synthesis, secretion and intestinal absorption. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cholestasis on the active ileal absorption of bile acids in vivo and the adaptation of transporters involved in ileal bile ...
Ogihara T - - 2000
The present study was designed to establish the significance of carrier-mediated transport in the intestinal absorption of monocarboxylic acids by examining the stereoselectivity of transepithelial transport of chiral monocarboxylic acids. The transport of L- and D-lactic acids was examined in vitro using rat intestinal tissue sheets and in situ by ...
Metges C C - - 2000
Among the reasons suggested for the discrepancy between N balance and tracer-derived indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirement estimates is the possibility that the metabolic requirement is met not only by the diet but also by IAA synthesized de novo by the gastrointestinal microflora, which are then absorbed. It is therefore ...
Prado I M - - 2000
The arrangement of the bundles of muscular fibers in the transition between the small and the large intestines was studied in 12 male adult crossbred swine by dissection, after immersion in 50% nitric acid solution. The connection between the small and the large intestines was formed by the association of ...
Barada K A - - 2000
The calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) is widely distributed in the enteric nervous system and gut afferents. Its role in normal digestion and absorption is not characterised. This study is conducted to elucidate whether CGRP regulates amino acid absorption in the small intestine. In in vivo experiments using the single-pass ...
Allemann M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of various concentrations of sodium butyric acid and sodium valerianic acid, as well as various osmolarities, on contractility of ex-vivo intestinal wall specimens obtained from the cecum and spiral colon of each of several healthy cows. SAMPLE POPULATION: Full-thickness preparations of intestinal wall, dissected parallel ...
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