Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1180
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Buddington Randal K - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To measure nutrient absorption by the intestine during postnatal development of dogs. ANIMAL: 110 Beagles ranging from neonatal to adult dogs. PROCEDURE: Rates of absorption for sugars (glucose, galactose, and fructose), amino acids (aspartate, leucine, lysine, methionine, and proline), a dipeptide (glycyl-sarcosine), and linoleic acid by the proximal, mid, ...
Hambidge Michael - - 2003
Three selected aspects of human zinc homeostasis and requirements are reviewed with special reference to studies undertaken by the author and his colleagues: 1) the implications for the calculation of physiologic requirements for zinc of the interrelationship between two key variables of zinc homeostasis, intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc and ...
Man Dikla - - 2003
Proteorhodopsins, ubiquitous retinylidene photoactive proton pumps, were recently discovered in the cosmopolitan uncultured SAR86 bacterial group in oceanic surface waters. Two related proteorhodopsin families were found that absorb light with different absorption maxima, 525 nm (green) and 490 nm (blue), and their distribution was shown to be stratified with depth. ...
Miyake Masateru - - 2003
We previously reported that the combinatorial use of sodium laurate (C12) with several amino acids such as taurine (Tau) and L-glutamine (L-Gln) enhanced the colonic absorption of phenol red with attenuating the local toxicity caused by C12. However, even these amino acids could not protect epithelial cells from being damaged ...
Oleksiak Marjorie F MF Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, - - 2003
Three genes cloned from Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) define a new P450 subfamily, CYP2P. Structurally, the CYP2Ps are related to fish CYP2Ns and mammalian CYP2Js. CYP2P transcripts are expressed predominantly in liver and intestine. CYP2P3 coexpressed with P450 oxidoreductase in a baculovirus system catalyzed benzphetamine-N-demethylation and arachidonic acid oxidation, forming 14,15-, ...
Yokoyama Shozo - - 2003
Using site-directed mutagenesis and multiple regression analysis, we have studied the molecular genetics and evolution of short wavelength-sensitive (SWS2) pigments in vertebrates. These analyses suggest that the SWS2 pigment in the vertebrate ancestor had the wavelength of maximum absorption (lambda(max)) of approximately 440 nm and that various lambda(max)'s of the ...
Tsukahara Takamitsu - - 2003
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is caused by the treatments of broad-spectrum antimicrobials that seriously affect the activity and composition of the large intestinal microflora. The pathogenic bacteria or low concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) has been repeatedly discussed in relation to AAD. Recently, we reported the detection of a large ...
Marounek M - - 2003
Twenty weaned rabbits were fed ad libitum two granulated feeds containing lucerne meal, barley, oats, wheat bran, oilseed meals and sugarbeet pulp in different proportions. Phytate P in these feeds represented 28.6 and 29.3 % of the total P. Digestibility trials were carried out in rabbits 7 and 10 weeks ...
Almansa E - - 2003
The temperature dependence for Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase has been examined in the proximal-distal axis of the intestine of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), i.e. pyloric caeca (PC), anterior intestine (AI) and posterior intestine (PI). Data derived from the Arrhenius plots showed differences in terms of temperature discontinuity points ( Td) (13.29 degrees C, ...
Vree Tom B - - 2003
The aims of this investigation were to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, and to identify parameters that may affect their observed differences in absorption. Data were obtained from plasma concentration-time curves from four different open, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover Phase I bioequivalence studies, with the ...
Sinha Rajeshwar P - - 2003
Wavelength-dependent induction of a mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) was studied in a nitrogen-fixing rice-field cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune. HPLC studies showed the presence of shinorine, a bisubstituted MAA containing both glycine and serine groups and having an absorption maximum at 334 nm. Exposure of cultures to simulated solar radiation in combination ...
Fang Jia-You - - 2003
The effect of enhancers/retarders on the transdermal absorption of flurbiprofen from cellulose hydrogels was studied in vitro. The release rate of flurbiprofen and the viscosity of hydrogel matrices were also examined. The flux of flurbiprofen from cellulose hydrogels approximated that from aqueous buffers, whereas the skin reservoir of flurbiprofen was ...
Sosogi A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is used in the treatment of rheumatic disease, sometimes along with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and is actively co-transported with H+ in the small intestine, mediated by a reduced folate carrier (RFC). The co-administration of NSAIDs with MTX might cause a decrease in MTX absorption through the ...
Röpke Cristina D - - 2002
Antioxidants such as vitamins E and C are known to play a significant role in ameliorating or preventing oxidative damage to the skin. However, to provide a satisfactory protection they must first permeate the skin, which serves as a permeation barrier. In this study we evaluated the influence of three ...
Van Der Schoor Sophie R d - - 2002
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Animal studies have shown that more than half of the dietary protein intake is used by the gut and that a large proportion of this utilization is devoted to (glyco-)protein synthesis. Recycling of these secretions may play a critical role in the regulation of overall dietary amino ...
Rouquayrol Marielle - - 2002
PURPOSE: [corrected] This study is dedicated to the permeation of various amino acid-, D-glucose-, and PEG-conjugates of indinavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir across monolayers of Caco-2 cells as models of the intestinal barrier. This screening is aimed at detecting the most promising prodrugs for improving the intestinal absorption of these protease ...
Yokoyama Shozo - - 2002
Visual systems of vertebrates exhibit a striking level of diversity, reflecting their adaptive responses to various color environments. The photosensitive molecules, visual pigments, can be synthesized in vitro and their absorption spectra can be determined. Comparing the amino acid sequences and absorption spectra of various visual pigments, we can identify ...
Ekeroth Johan - - 2002
The synthesis of a series of thiols containing phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated serine, threonine, and tyrosine amino acid residues is described. The synthesized molecules, based on 3-mercaptopropionic acid, were assembled onto gold and subsequently characterized using infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle goniometry. The ellipsometric analysis indicates ...
Goudriaan Jeltje R - - 2002
Increasing evidence has implicated the membrane protein CD36 (or fatty acid translocase, FAT) to be involved in high affinity fatty acid uptake. CD36 is expressed in tissues active in fatty acid metabolism, like adipose tissue and skeletal and cardiac muscle, but also in intestine. CD36 is localized in the intestine ...
Adams Christina L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Phytic acid reduction in cereal grains has been accomplished with plant genetic techniques. These low-phytic acid grains provide a strategy for improving the mineral (eg, zinc) status in populations that are dependent on grains, including maize (Zea mays L.), as major dietary staples. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare ...
Secor Stephen M - - 2002
Python intestine responds rapidly to luminal nutrients by increasing mass and upregulating nutrient transport. Candidates for luminal signals triggering those responses include mechanical stimulation, single or several dietary nutrients, and endogenous secretions. To identify signals, we infused into the python's small intestine either a nonnutrient solution (saline) or a single- ...
Ennifar E - - 2002
Multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) using brominated derivatives is considered a common and convenient technique for solving chemically synthesized nucleic acid structures. Here, it is shown that a relatively moderate X-ray dose (of the order of 5 x 10(15) photons mm(-2)) can induce sufficient debromination to prevent structure determination. The decrease ...
Jørgensen J R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Compared with short and long chain fatty acids, medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been shown to provide the highest colonic absorption of substrate carbon. Moreover, colonic epithelial cells fulfil their basic energy requirements as easily from MCFAs as from short chain fatty acids. AIMS: To further characterise octanoate ...
Tamaki N - - 2002
This study quantitatively compares the inhibition of calcium phosphate (CaP) precipitation by the salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) statherin and histatin-1. Saliva and CaCl2 in 125 mM imidazole buffer (pH 7.0) were incubated with potassium phosphate and a hydroxyapatite (HAP) suspension, for 30 min at 25 degrees C, then filtered ...
Geschonke K - - 2002
Postprandial fat absorption is supposed to be a major factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome. In recent years, the assimilation of plasma triglycerides has been the focus of several groups, revealing a number of specific fat or fatty acid transporters. The intestinal fatty acid binding protein, I-FABP-2, participates ...
Fasick Jeffry I - - 2002
The wild-type mouse ultraviolet (UV) and bovine blue cone visual pigments have absorption maxima of 358 and 438 nm, respectively, while sharing 87% amino acid identity. To determine the molecular basis underlying the 80 nm spectral shift between these pigments, we selected several amino acids in helices II and III ...
Vree Tom B - - 2002
The aims of this investigation were to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters and to identify parameters, based on individual plasma concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in cats, that may govern the observed differences in absorption of both drugs. The evaluation was based on the data from plasma concentration-time curves ...
Ouyang H - - 2002
The coumarinic acid-based cyclic DADLE (H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH) prodrug 1a exhibited more favorable physicochemical properties than did DADLE for permeation across the intestinal mucosa. However, prodrug 1a, whose bioconversion to DADLE was slow, was subject to extensive biliary clearance when administered to rats in vivo. To increase the rate of esterase-catalyzed bioconversion ...
Edafiogho Ivan O - - 2002
The ultraviolet (UV) spectra of selected enaminones were determined in acidic, alkaline and neutral media and compared to their anticonvulsant activities. The wavelength of maximum absorption and molar absorptivity were compared with the anticonvulsant activity of the selected secondary and tertiary enaminones, and general inferences were made. The UV spectra ...
Guo Jianxia - - 2002
Glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes of the small intestine and colon of female A/J mice have been purified and characterized to determine their interrelationships with other murine GSTs. Cytosolic GST activity in the small intestine was at least due to six isoenzymes with isoelectric points (pI) of 9.5, 9.3, 9.1, ...
Endo Yoko - - 2002
Several amino acids, including L-glutamine (L-Gln), were found to protect the intestinal epithelial cells from the local toxicity caused by a drug absorption enhancer, sodium laurate (C12), in our previous study. To develop more efficient and safer formulations for enhancing drug absorption, the mechanisms of cytoprotection by amino acids were ...
Nutting David F - - 2002
Many advances in the study of nutrient absorption have been made with the use of molecular and genetic techniques; however, standard in vivo studies have provided interesting and important new information. Omega-3 long-chain fatty acids have unexpected effects on lipoprotein formation and secretion in neonatal intestinal cells; this needs to ...
Wadhwa D R - - 2002
The reticulorumen is now recognised to be an important site of net absorption of phosphate ions from ruminal fluid containing phosphate concentrations appropriate to those found in normal farming practice. These rates of absorption were measured in vivo from solutions placed in the washed reticulorumen, isolated in situ, in conscious, ...
Radwant M A - - 2002
Poly(ethylcyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanospheres have been employed as biodegradable polymeric carriers for oral (po) delivery of insulin. The main goal of this investigation was to screen various absorption enhancers, which were used to protect insulin-loaded PECA, by following their in vivo performance after oral administrations to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The nanospheres ...
Drucker D J - - 2002
The glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2 are synthesised and then released from enteroendocrine cells in the small and large intestine. GLP-1 promotes efficient nutrient assimilation while GLP-2 regulates energy absorption via effects on nutrient intake, gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying, nutrient absorption, and mucosal permeability. Preliminary human studies indicate ...
Smialowski-Fléter Sylvie - - 2002
Immunoblotting analyses revealed the presence of carboxylesterase in the porcine small intestine, liver, submaxillary and parotid glands, kidney cortex, lungs and cerebral cortex. In the intestinal mucosa, the pI 5.1 enzyme was detected in several subcellular fractions including the microvillar fraction. Both fatty monoacylated and diacylated monomeric (F1), trimeric (F3) ...
Sinha R P - - 2002
A polychromatic action spectrum for the induction of an ultraviolet-absorbing/screening mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) has been determined in a filamentous and heterocystous nitrogen-fixing rice-field cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) studies revealed the presence of only one type of MAA, which was identified as shinorine, a bisubstituted MAA containing ...
Merrell D Scott - - 2002
The ability of pathogenic bacteria to survive in the face of host defense systems is intimately linked to virulence. This is exemplified by gastrointestinal pathogens that must survive exposure to extreme acid conditions within the stomach and organic acid conditions within the small intestine. These organisms have evolved complex systems ...
Aponte Gregory W - - 2002
An essential process for fatty acid digestion, absorption and assimilation is the constant replacement of mature intestinal epithelial cells by differentiating stem cells. Free fatty acids (FFA) and PYY may act in concert to alter mucosal cell differentiation through the cytoskeletal-extracellular matrix interactions. PYY induced expression of tetraspanins and intestinal ...
Kuchimanchi K R - - 2002
Cosalane and its amino acid conjugates are potent inhibitors of HIV replication. The purpose of this study was to investigate: (1) the pharmacokinetic disposition of the diglycine (GC) and the diaspartic acid (ASPC) conjugates of cosalane in male Sprague-Dawley rats; (2) intestinal absorption of cosalane and its amino acid conjugates ...
Wen Ten-Chin - - 2002
In-situ spectroelectrochemical studies on the copolymerization of o-toluidine (OT) with diphenylamine-4-sulfonic acid (DPASA) were carried out on ITO electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 for different feed ratios of OT and DPASA. The early stages of copolymerization of OT with DPASA have been identified through spectroelectrochemical techniques. The results revealed the ...
Walther M - - 2002
We present well-resolved absorption spectra of biological molecules in the far-IR (FIR) spectral region recorded by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). As an illustrative example we discuss the absorption spectra of benzoic acid, its monosubstitutes salicylic acid (2-hydroxy-benzoic acid), 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in the spectral region ...
Glover Chris N - - 2002
The composition of the intestinal lumen is likely to have considerable influence upon the absorption, and consequently the nutrition and/or toxicity, of ingested zinc in aquatic environments, where zinc is both a nutrient and a toxicant of importance. The effects of amino acids upon intestinal zinc uptake in freshwater rainbow ...
Biziulevicius G A - - 2001
Polyferm and Fermosorb are oral acid resistant antimicrobial enzyme preparations designed specifically for therapy/prophylaxis of intestinal infections in animal neonates. Both are authorized for use throughout the former Soviet Union, but until now only Fermosorb is being applied on a large scale. The comparative studies on these two preparations, described ...
Ramírez M - - 2001
Lipids have physical, chemical, and physiological properties that make them important factors in human nutrition. They form a group of compounds of varied chemical nature that have the common property of being soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water. This basic property affects their digestion, absorption, and transport in ...
Chen M - - 2001
Fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 is one of several putative plasma membrane long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) transport proteins; however, its role in intestinal absorption of LCFA is unknown. We hypothesized that FAT/CD36 would be differentially expressed along the longitudinal axis of the gut and during intestinal development, suggesting specificity of function. ...
Kumke M U - - 2001
To find out more on the structure of humic substances (HS), isolated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) samples from a brown water lake and a wastewater effluent were fractionated and subjected to alkaline hydrolysis. UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as size-exclusion chromatography with on-line detection of UV absorption, fluorescence and ...
Hardcastle J - - 2001
Ursodeoxycholic acid possesses choleretic and cytoprotective properties and in cystic fibrosis (CF) it is used to treat the hepatobiliary symptoms of the disease. This study investigated the effects of this bile acid on the transport function of the small intestine in normal and CF mice. The effects of ursodeoxycholic acid ...
Noy Y - - 2001
This study examined in posthatch chicks the partition of yolk utilization between transport to the circulation and secretion to the intestine and determined absorption and plasma concentrations of some metabolites. The presence of feed in the gastrointestinal tract enhanced yolk secretion to the small intestines. Absorption of glucose, methionine, and ...
Yata T - - 2001
To develop the safe absorption-enhancing formulation attenuating the local toxicity caused by an absorption enhancer, sodium laurate (C12), the effects of amino acids on the local toxicity by C12 were examined in rats. The absorption of phenol red, an unabsorbable marker drug, was significantly enhanced by 10 mM C12 in ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >