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Konishi Yutaka - - 2005
p-Coumaric and ferulic acid are actively taken up by monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT), whereas gallic acid, caffeic acid (CA), and rosmarinic acid (RA) are absorbed by paracellular diffusion in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, although CA has low affinity for MCT. We previously demonstrated that p-coumaric acid has a much higher ...
Agte Vaishali - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Apparent absorption of eight micronutrients and degradation of phytic acid were studied in human subjects who underwent ileostomy. The prominent factors affecting micronutrient absorption from vegetarian Indian meals (n = 11) were identified. METHODS: Levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and thiamine in food and ileostomy contents were estimated ...
Barone Justin R - - 2006
Converting poultry feather biomass into useful products presents a new avenue of utilization of agricultural waste material. However, not much is understood about the poultry feather structure or methods to process it. In this study, formic acid vapor is systematically allowed to penetrate the feather fiber structure, which is composed ...
Zheng Yu-Guo - - 2005
Valienamine, an aminocyclitol, has been isolated from the enzymolysis broth of validamycins. The absolute configuration of valienamine is similar to that of alpha-D-glucose. The inhibitory effect of this amino-sugar analog of alpha-D-glucose, valienamine, on porcine small intestinal sucrase was examined. Valienamine was found to be potent, competitive reversible inhibitor of ...
Taki Kentaro - - 2005
Intestinal microflora is deranged in hemodialysis (HD) patients as an increase in aerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and a decrease in anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium . Bifidobacteria ferment carbohydrates to produce acetic acid and lactic acid, which inhibit the intestinal putrefaction. Thus, intake of Bifidobacteria effectively restores the ...
Thomas Simmy - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The intestine is increasingly recognized as a primary effector of distant organ damage, such as the lung, after any abdominal surgery. Earlier studies have shown that surgical manipulation of the intestine induces generation of reactive oxygen species in the intestine, resulting in mucosal and lung damage. Because glutamine is ...
Herbert Michael K - - 2005
Inhibition of intestinal peristalsis is a major side effect of opioid analgesics. It is unknown whether non-opioid analgesics, such as acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and dipyrone, exert any effect on intestinal motility. In the current in vitro study we examined the effect of these analgesics on intestinal peristalsis and analyzed some ...
Moretto A - - 2005
Out of all nitrophenyl esters of N(alpha)-protected alpha-amino acids Z-Trp-ONP(o) is the only one which is deep orange colored in the crystalline state. Any change in N(alpha)-protection, nature of amino acid, spatial separation between Trp and the ester-group or position of the nitro-substitutent in the aromatic ring of the ester ...
Zou Meijuan - - 2005
The drug release of the polymer prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was not only dependent on the property of the polymers but also dependent on the solubility of the prodrugs. We prepared several polysaccharide prodrugs of 5-ASA to examine the effect of solubility of prodrugs on the release characteristics of ...
Drochner W - - 2004
A comprehensive review is given on pectin effects in pigs. Its effects on feed passage and digestion in the small intestine, the composition of ileal digesta and fermentation in the colon are described. Pectins promote fermentation at the terminal ileum and in the first part of the colon. It is ...
Kwak Dongmi - - 2004
Treatment with the anthelmintic fenbendazole induces fragmentation of genomic DNA in intestinal cells of Haemonchus contortus. This effect is characterized by DNA fragments with 3'-hydroxyls (OH). Investigation into DNases responsible identified intestinal DNase activities that produce DNA fragments with 3'-OH. However, this interpretation was complicated by a mixture of activities ...
Motojima Kiyoto - - 2004
In order to study the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in mouse intestine, its agonist-induced proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting followed by Northern blot analysis using their cDNAs. One of the most remarkably induced proteins was identified as 17beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase type 11. Its very rapid induction by ...
Weber M P - - 2004
The objectives of the study were to assess overall electrolyte absorption capacity as well as fermentative activity in dogs varying in body size in order to verify whether these parameters can explain the poor faecal quality in large dogs. Four breeds of dogs were used: six Miniature Poodles (MP), six ...
Garrido Margarita Novoa - - 2004
The alterations in the balance of the normal intestinal bacterial flora of chickens exposed to acidified wood-derived litter were analyzed and compared to those of a control group exposed to nonacidified litter. A total of 1,728 broilers were divided into two groups, with six replicates in each. One group was ...
Yokoyama Shozo - - 2004
The wavelengths of maximal absorption (lambdamax) of the rhodopsins of nine squirrelfishes (N. sammara, N. argenteus, S. punctatissimum, S. microstoma, S. diadema, S. xantherythrum, S. spiniferum, N. aurolineatus, and S. tiere) and two soldierfishes (M. violacea and M. berndti) vary between 481 and 502 nm. Phylogenetic and mutagenesis analyses suggest ...
Hoshi Nagahiro - - 2004
Adsorption of the sulfuric acid anion (HSO4- or SO42-) has been studied on Pd(S)-[n(111) x (111)] electrodes (n = 2, 3, 5, 9, 20, infinity) using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). A single band is observed around 1200 cm(-1) on all the electrodes. The band is assigned to ...
Kräbs Gudrun - - 2004
To determine the action spectrum for photoinduction of the ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acid shinorine, specimens of the marine red alga Chondrus crispus were irradiated with monochromatic light of various wavelengths using the Okazaki large spectrograph at the National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan. Fluence response curves were determined ...
Buddington Randal K - - 2004
Only a small percentage of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administered lumenally to pigs appears in the portal circulation. This has been attributed to mucosal metabolism, and possibly by limited absorption. Although transporters for di- and tricarboxylic acids, which includes the sodium-dependent transporter NaDC-1, have been detected in the small intestine, correlations with ...
Hasegawa Hideo - - 2004
Orally ingested ginsenoside passes through the stomach and small intestine without decomposition by either gastric juice or liver enzymes into the large intestine, where ginsenoside is deglycosylated by colonic bacteria followed by transit to the circulation. Colonic bacteria cleave the oligosaccharide connected to the aglycone stepwise from the terminal sugar ...
Konishi Yutaka - - 2004
Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (CA) are absorbed by the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) in Caco-2 cells, although gallic acid (GA) is not. Therefore, the MCT is selective for certain phenolic acids. Absorption of orally administered CA and GA in rats was studied to obtain serum pharmacokinetic profiles and ...
Chang Dong-Eun - - 2004
Whole-genome expression profiling revealed Escherichia coli MG1655 genes induced by growth on mucus, conditions designed to mimic nutrient availability in the mammalian intestine. Most were nutritional genes corresponding to catabolic pathways for nutrients found in mucus. We knocked out several pathways and tested the relative fitness of the mutants for ...
Angelichio Michael J - - 2004
Acid adaptation has previously been shown to increase the infectivity of Vibrio cholerae in the infant mouse model. To better understand this phenomenon, we monitored the spatial distribution and temporal changes in the ratios of acid-adapted cells to unadapted V. cholerae cells in the small intestine, as well as the ...
Mori Saori - - 2004
Intestinal absorption of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as well as unfractionated heparin (UFH) is limited due to its large molecular size and extensive negative charge. Development of its oral formulations would allow outpatient treatment with LMWH and UFH, and contribute a reduction in hospital expenses. The present study was ...
Bohn Torsten - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Phytic acid has been reported to impair the absorption of minerals and trace elements such as calcium, zinc, and iron in humans. However, limited information is available on the effect of phytic acid on magnesium absorption. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of phytic acid on fractional ...
Mu Huiling - - 2004
Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG structure and the ...
Davidsson Lena - - 2004
Infant formulas based on soyabean protein isolate are often used as an alternative to cows'-based formulas. However, the presence of phytic acid in soya formulas has raised concern about the absorption of trace elements and minerals from these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mineral and ...
Matthias A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Echinacea is composed of three major groups of compounds that are thought to be responsible for stimulation of the immune system--the caffeic acid conjugates, alkylamides and polysaccharides. This study has focussed on the former two classes, as these are the constituents found in ethanolic liquid extracts. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ...
Hao Wei-Long - - 2004
The mucosal surface of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is about 200-300 m2 and is colonized by 1013-14 bacteria of 400 different species and subspecies. Savage has defined and categorized the gastrointestinal microflora into two types, autochthonous flora (indigenous flora) and allochthonous flora (transient flora). Autochthonous microorganisms colonize particular habitats, ...
Zárate Gabriela - - 2004
The genus Propionibacterium consists of two principal groups, cutaneous and classical or dairy. Cutaneous species are predominant members of the microbial population of human skin and have also been isolated from the feces of humans and other vertebrate animals. They are often considered opportunistic organisms and have been occasionally associated ...
Tokunaga Takahisa - - 2004
Two key properties of short chain fructooligosaccharides (sc-FOS) which lead to physiological functions are indigestibility in the small intestine and fermentability in the colon. Sc-FOS is converted into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by intestinal bacteria in the colon and absorbed. Through the metabolic pathway, sc-FOS improves gastrointestinal (GI) condition ...
Dahly Elizabeth M - - 2004
The role of enteral or parenteral long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) in the complex process of intestinal adaptation is poorly defined and may involve alterations in eicosanoid synthesis. Our objective was to determine whether provision of parenteral LCT stimulates eicosanoid synthesis and resection-induced intestinal adaptation. We assessed small bowel structural adaptation, the ...
Van Dael Peter - - 2004
Stable isotope tracers are safe and nutritionally relevant tools for the investigation of mineral metabolism in man. Increased research into the functional role of selenium has resulted in a need for well-characterised, isotopically enriched solutions of the element in order to determine the nutritional relevance of selenium fortification of foods. ...
Vissers Yvonne L J - - 2004
Animal studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOS) play a role in the regulation of protein metabolism in endotoxemia. We therefore investigated the role of inducible NOS (NOS2) on intestinal protein and neuronal NOS (NOS1) and endothelial NOS (NOS3) on amino acid metabolism. Three groups of mice were ...
Kawamura Shoji - - 2003
Absorption spectra of visual pigments characterize animal vision. The association between absorption spectra and amino acid (aa) sequences of pigments has been well established for the middle- to-long-wave-sensitive (M/LWS) class of cone visual pigments of vertebrates, known as the "five-sites" rule where amino acid residues at the 180th, 197th, 277th, ...
Baer David J - - 2003
Compared with other saturated fatty acids, stearic acid appears to have different metabolic effects with respect to its impact on risk for cardiovascular disease. These differences may in part reflect biologically important differences in absorption. This study was designed to compare the absorption and the metabolizable energy value of stearic ...
Fidler Meredith C - - 2003
Ascorbic acid and Na2EDTA enhance Fe absorption from the water-soluble Fe compound FeSO4 but their effect on poorly water-soluble Fe compounds such as ferrous fumarate is less well established. In the present study, the effects of ascorbic acid and Na2EDTA on Fe absorption from ferrous fumarate were evaluated in adult ...
Noh Sang K - - 2003
Evidence indicates that phosphatidylcholine (PC) inhibits the intestinal absorption of cholesterol (CH) in rats. This study was designed to determine whether sphingomyelin (SM), structurally similar to PC, also inhibits the lymphatic absorption of CH. Sprague-Dawley rats with lymph cannulae were infused at 3.0 mL/h for 8 h via a duodenal ...
Morris Spencer - - 2003
Ezetimibe (Zetia) is a novel, selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor. Ezetimibe blocks the absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol within the brush-border enzyme system of the small intestine. Ezetimibe does not appear to alter or decrease the absorption of bile acids, fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, or triglycerides. It is labeled for ...
Guirl Michael J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The cause of severe diarrhea in patients with systemic amyloidosis is obscure. We therefore performed pathophysiological studies in three such patients in an effort to determine the mechanism of amyloid diarrhea. METHODS: Epithelial cell absorption rate of electrolytes was measured during steady state GI perfusion of a saline-mannitol solution. ...
Gimeno Ruth E - - 2003
Fatty acid transport protein-4 (FATP4) is the major FATP in the small intestine. We previously demonstrated, using in vitro antisense experiments, that FATP4 is required for fatty acid uptake into intestinal epithelial cells. To further examine the physiological role of FATP4, mice carrying a targeted deletion of FATP4 were generated. ...
Groot Marie Louise - - 2003
Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is a bacterial blue light sensor that induces Halorhodospira halophila to swim away from intense blue light. Light absorption by PYP's intrinsic chromophore, p-coumaric acid, leads to the initiation of a photocycle that comprises several distinct intermediates. Here we describe the initial structural changes of the ...
Werdenberg D - - 2003
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Its treatment is based on the inhibition of proliferation of epidermal cells and interference in the inflammatory process. A new systemic antipsoriasis drug, which consists of dimethylfumarate and ethylhydrogenfumarate in the form of their calcium, magnesium and zinc salts has been introduced in ...
Topouchian A - - 2003
In order to assess the impact of Cryptosporidium parvum on host intestinal physiology, we investigated absorption of the two principal amino acids in dam's milk (leucine, glutamate), using Ussing chambers and RT-PCR analyses. Experiments were performed in both heavily (ileum) and mildly (duodenum) infected segments of the small intestine at ...
Berry Steven M - - 2003
Expressed protein ligation was used to replace the axial methionine of the blue copper protein azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with unnatural amino acids. The highly conserved methionine121 residue was replaced with the isostructural amino acids norleucine (Nle) and selenomethionine (SeM). The UV-visible absorption, X- and Q-band EPR, and Cu EXAFS ...
Kwak Dongmi - - 2003
The anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) induces nuclear DNA fragmentation (DF) in intestinal cells of Haemonchus contortus. The DNA fragments had 3'-OH, which suggests involvement of a neutral DNase. To identify candidate DNase(s) involved, DNase activity in H. contortus intestine and other worm fractions was characterized relative to classic DNases I (neutral) ...
Ding Yanpeng - - 2003
ClC chloride channels are found in all three kingdoms of life though little is known about their functions in prokaryotes. Here we investigated the role of a Vibrio cholerae ClC channel in acid resistance and intestinal colonization. The putative V. cholerae ClC channel was found to confer mild resistance to ...
Shusterman T - - 2003
Reactive oxygen species play a key role in intestinal inflammation, although interventional studies using antioxidants have shown only weak beneficial effects both in humans and animals. Hence, our aim was to examine the possible beneficial effect of the antioxidant 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (Mesna) on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in rats ...
Omura Yoko - - 2003
In monitoring the time course of conformational disorder by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for intact Acholeplasma laidlawii cells grown at 37 degrees C on binary fatty acid mixtures containing oleic acid and for cells grown on pure palmitic acid, an absorption band at 2343 cm(-1) was observed. The band intensity ...
Rowland Ian - - 2003
The term phyto-oestrogen encompasses isoflavone compounds, such as genistein and daidzein, found predominantly in soya products and the lignans, such as matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol, found in many fruits, cereals and in flaxseed. There is evidence that they have potential health benefits in man particularly against hormone-dependent diseases such as breast ...
Srivastava Pratima - - 2003
CDRI-85/92, a new antiulcer drug, acts as a proton pump inhibitor arresting the secretion of acid in the stomach. The absorption kinetics of CDRI-85/92 was evaluated in situ using rat intestinal recirculation perfusion method. The experiment was conducted at pH 2.6 and 7.4 representing the acidic and the mild alkaline ...
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