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Results 101 - 150 of 1180
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Inoue Keiichi - - 2007
Photoreverse reactions of octopus rhodopsin (Rh) from acid-metarhodopsin (Acid-Meta), which is the final product of the photoreaction of Rh, to Rh were studied by the time-resolved transient absorption and transient grating methods. The time course of the absorption signal showed a rapid change within 500 ns followed by one phase ...
Tuomasjukka S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Absorption of stearic acid from natural oils has been shown to be efficient, but it is claimed to be lower from short- and long-acyl-chain triacylyglycerol molecules (Salatrim). The aim was to measure the apparent absorption of stearic acid from Salatrim fat in an acute test meal. DESIGN: Double-blind crossover ...
Sundaram Uma - - 2007
Neutral Na-amino acid cotransport by system ATB(0) [e.g., Na-alanine cotransport (NAcT)] is an important means of assimilation of amino acids in the intestine. NAcT is inhibited during chronic intestinal inflammation by an alteration in the affinity for the amino acid. How glucocorticoids, a standard of treatment for diseases characterized by ...
Riedijk Maaike A - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neonates typically show rapid growth. Nutrient absorption in the neonatal period is higher than during any other time in life so as to meet the requirements for this rapid growth. Generally, nutrients are administered enterally, and in the past the gut was considered to absorb and digest ...
Kim Hyong-Ha - - 2007
The photodegradation mechanism of recombinant human interferon-alpha2a (IFNalpha2a) has been investigated using absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, and fluorescence photobleaching kinetics measurements under various conditions. After photobleaching, the absorption profile of aromatic amino acid residues in IFNalpha2a was almost absent, and an absorption profile showing a monotonic increase ...
Fu Jin J Department of Pharmacology and Center for Drug Discovery, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, - - 2007
Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid mediator that inhibits food intake by activating the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. In the rodent small intestine OEA levels decrease during food deprivation and increase upon refeeding, suggesting that endogenous OEA may participate in the regulation of satiety. Here we show that feeding stimulates ...
Wang Shu - - 2006
We conducted this study to determine whether green tea constituents, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, affect the intestinal absorption of cholesterol (CH), fat, and other fat-soluble compounds. Ovariectomized rats with lymph cannula were infused intraduodenally with a lipid emulsion containing 14C-labeled CH (14C-CH), alpha-tocopherol (alpha TOH), triolein, and sodium taurocholate, ...
Martín-Venegas R - - 2006
dl-Methionine or its corresponding hydroxy analogue, DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio) butanoic acid (DLHMB), are commonly added to commercial animal diets to satisfy the TSAA requirement. The utilization of DLHMB as a supplementary source of Met begins with its conversion to L-Met via a 2-step mediated process. L-Methionine can then be transsulfurated to L-Cys, ...
Vicens Marta - - 2007
To pharmacologically interrupt bile acid enterohepatic circulation, two compounds named BAPA-3 and BAPA-6, with a steroid structure and 1 or 2 positive charges, were obtained by conjugation of N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,3-propanediamine with one or two moieties of glycocholic acid (GC). Both BAPA-3 and BAPA-6 inhibited Na+-dependent taurocholate (TC) uptake by Xenopus laevis ...
Konishi Yutaka - - 2006
The intestinal absorption characteristics of phenolic acids (PAs) have been elucidated in terms of their affinity for the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT). Recently, the involvement of the stomach has been implicated in the absorption of polyphenols. The present work demonstrates that the gastric absorption efficiency of each PA is apparently ...
Steel Daniella M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease (CD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa with disturbed epithelial transport. The fatty acid (FA) composition of intestinal membranes is important for epithelial function, and disturbances may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. We aimed to evaluate whether the intestinal mucosal FA ...
Sepponen K - - 2007
Lactate, formed mainly in the stomach and small intestines, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) formed in the colon, are ionised and require transporter proteins such as monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) for absorption. The amounts of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4 and CD147, an ancillary protein for MCT1 and MCT4, were measured by immunoblotting ...
McDonnell Shane O - - 2006
[reaction: see text] The synthesis and sensing characteristics of a new class of organic colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensor which operates in the 850-650 nm spectral region is outlined. Judicious placing of amine substituents on the BF2-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethene chromophore generates a triple absorption and emission responsive sensor. Dramatic pH responsive absorption ...
Ueno Yuko - - 2006
The quantitative analysis of amino acids by terahertz (THz) time-domain absorption spectroscopy is demonstrated. The optical densities of the amino acids were found to be linearly proportional to the concentration. The molar absorption coefficients of L-glutamic acid (L-Glu), L-glutamic acid sodium salt (Na-L-Glu), L-glutamic acid hydrochloric salt (HCl-L-Glu), L-cysteine (L-Cys), ...
Gaenko Alexander V - - 2006
Absorption and fluorescence spectra of 2-R-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (R = H, methyl, tert-butyl, trifluoromethyl, amino, phenyl, benzyl) were studied experimentally and by time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. In acidic media a substantial red shift is observed due to the presence of conjugate acid forms. Two conjugate acid forms (3H and ...
Griffin Brendan T - - 2006
Saquinavir is a lipophilic, poorly water-soluble HIV protease inhibitor that undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and exhibits poor oral bioavailability. Redirection of the absorption pathway of anti-HIV compounds from the portal blood to the HIV-rich intestinal lymphatics may enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce the extent of the first-pass effect. This study ...
Lafay Sophie - - 2006
The absorption and metabolism in the small intestine of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), the main phenolic acid in the human diet, and of caffeic acid were studied in rats in order to determine whether chlorogenic acid is directly absorbed or hydrolysed in the small intestine. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids were ...
Cheng Chi-Hing C - - 2006
Phylogenetically diverse polar and subpolar marine teleost fishes have evolved antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) to avoid inoculative freezing by internalized ice. For over three decades since the first fish antifreeze (AF) protein was discovered, many studies of teleost freezing avoidance showed hepatic AF synthesis and distribution within ...
Fernández E - - 2007
The influence of acidity upon the pyridine-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline (PADA) absorption spectrum has been studied. The obtained results allowed us to calculate the acidity constants of PADA. The spectra resolution method has been used to determinate the constants. The absorption spectrum was decomposed in two sub-bands for the neutral form of the ...
Iwashita Akira - - 2007
Microwave-acid digestion (MW-AD) followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) were examined for the determination of various elements in coal and coal fly ash (CFA). Eight certified reference materials (four coal samples and four CFA samples) ...
France Michael - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus is an important clinical problem that can lead to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. A variety of mucosal ablation strategies are now being applied in an attempt to prevent this, although they all can cause complications. Animal experiments that suggest that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could be a novel agent for ...
El-Kadi Samer W - - 2006
This study was intended to establish the extent which amino acids (AAs) and glucose are net metabolized by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminant sheep when intestinal protein supply is varied. Wether sheep (n = 4, 33 +/- 2.0 kg) were fitted with catheters for measurement of net absorption by ...
Lafay Sophie - - 2006
The bioavailability of chlorogenic acid, a major polyphenol of the human diet that is particularly abundant in coffee and various fruits, was explored in rats. To identify the form under which it is absorbed through the gut mucosa and the site of absorption along the gastrointestinal tract, rats were fed ...
Robayo-Torres Claudia C - - 2006
Sugars normally are absorbed in the small intestine. When carbohydrates are malabsorbed, the osmotic load produced by the high amount of low molecular weight sugars and partially digested starches in the small intestine can cause symptoms of intestinal distention, rapid peristalsis, and diarrhea. Colonic bacteria normally metabolize proximally malabsorbed dietary ...
Wu Licheng - - 2006
Acidified feeding formulas have been proposed as a method of controlling gastrointestinal colonization and nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. We examined possible mechanisms by which chronic acid water feeding might protect the host against lethal gut derived sepsis by assessing its effect on both local intestinal epithelial barrier function ...
Wolpert Martina - - 2006
In this work, we present the absorption spectra and molar coefficients of all 20 amino acids in aqueous solutions down to 500 cm(-1). The spectral region between 1200 and 500 cm(-1) was yet disregarded for protein infrared spectroscopy, mainly due to the strong H(2)O absorption. Absorption spectra were obtained mainly ...
Jung Yunjin - - 2006
We previously reported that 5-aminosalicyltaurine (taurine-conjugated 5-ASA, 5-ASA-Tau) showed a potential as a colon-specific prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) by in vitro evaluation. In this report, we in vivo-evaluated 5-ASA-Tau as a colon-specific prodrug for treatment of experimental colitis. Taurine conjugation of 5-ASA greatly reduced absorption of 5-ASA from the ...
Okada Makoto - - 2006
Inosine is absorbed via a N1 transporter that is selective for purine nucleosides. It is conceivable that inosine and inosinic acid might affect the intestinal absorption of mizoribine, an imidazole nucleoside that inhibits the de novo production pathway of guanine ribonucleotide. An in situ loop experiment was performed using four ...
Li Wei - - 2006
Study on NO(2) absorption aimed at seeking a better NO(2) absorption chemical at pH 4.5 approximately 7.0 for application to existing wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The results from the double-stirred reactor indicated that ascorbic acid has very high absorption rate at this pH range. The rate constant of ascorbic ...
Birecki Celina J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The intestine adapts morphologically or functionally in response to environmental stimuli. Dietary lipids modify brush border membrane (BBM) permeability and nutrient transporter activities. Gangliosides (GANG) are glycolipids in human milk that are present only in low amounts in infant formula. Exogenous GANG are incorporated into cell membranes and increase ...
Aguilar-Nascimento José Eduardo de - - 2006
PURPOSE: Investigated the effect of intraluminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on the intestinal mucosa in the presence of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Six blind sacs of the small bowel (3 at the jejunum and 3 at the ileum) were created in ten Wistar rats. The lateral sacs of both bowel ...
Ariga Toyohiko - - 2006
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has a long history as being a food having a unique taste and odor along with some medicinal qualities. Modern scientific research has revealed that the wide variety of dietary and medicinal functions of garlic can be attributed to the sulfur compounds present in or generated ...
Starokadomskyy P L - - 2006
Drug delivery across the buccal mucosa is convenient and safe transport method. The efficiency of the buccal system of peptide delivery is, however, not yet satisfactory. To improve the buccal transport new absorption promoters should be developed to be sufficiently active and at the same time causing no side effects ...
Takatsuka Shinya - - 2006
The effect of co-administration of a mucolytic agent with a penetration enhancer was assessed on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran with average molecular weight of ca. 4.4 kDa (FD-4) was used as a model compound, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as a mucolytic agent. ...
Gharbi Myriam - - 2005
Argininosuccinate synthetase, an ubiquitous enzyme in mammals, catalyses the formation of argininosuccinate, the precursor of arginine. Arginine is recognised as an essential amino acid in foetuses and neonates, but also as a conditionally essential amino acid in adults. Argininosuccinate synthetase is initially expressed in enterocytes during the developmental period, it ...
Cal Krzysztof - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The terpenes disturb lipid arrangement in the intercellular region of the stratum corneum (SC) that leads to the increased permeability of the skin. This effect is used in technology of transdermal drug forms and depends on physicochemical properties of terpenes and their amounts penetrated to the stratum corneum; however ...
von Unruh Gerd E - - 2005
The objective of the study is to evaluate the post-operative effect of an orthotopic ileal neobladder or a Mainz pouch I bladder replacement on the extent of intestinal oxalate absorption. Gastrointestinal oxalate absorption was measured in six patients with an orthotopic ileal neobladder and in six patients with a Mainz ...
Mu Huiling - - 2005
The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure in addition to the overall fatty acid profile is of importance when considering the nutritional effect of a dietary fat. This review aims at summarizing our current knowledge of the digestion, absorption, uptake, and transport of structured TAGs, with particular emphasis on the following aspects: gastric ...
Mizuhara Yasuharu - - 2005
In the course of our clinical studies of Kampo medicine (traditional Japanese medicines), we observed the pharmacokinetic interactions between two herbs. When Onpito (TJ-8117, Kampo medicine) containing licorice and rhubarb was administered orally to human subjects, we observed that the AUC(0-lim) and Cmax of glycyrrhetic acid (GA) in plasma were ...
Ruiz-Santaella J P - - 2006
Cyhalofop-butyl (CB), 2-[4-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenoxy)phenoxy]propanoic acid, butyl ester (R), is an aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) herbicide for postemergence use in rice to control grasses, mainly Echinochloa spp. Similar to other AOPP and cyclohexanedione herbicides, the site of action of CB is acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase), an enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. The mechanisms involved ...
Richards J D - - 2005
Poultry diets are typically supplemented with DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA, or the hydroxy analog of methionine) or DL-methionine (DLM). Although HMTBA and DLM provide methionine activity, they are structurally distinct molecules with different physiological characteristics until they are converted to L-methionine. The relative rates of intestinal HMTBA vs. DLM absorption ...
Femenía-Font A - - 2005
The effects of percutaneous enhancers on the transdermal absorption of sumatriptan succinate were investigated by in vitro permeation studies. Pretreatment of porcine skin with ethanol (vehicle), polyethylene glycol 600, Span 20, oleic acid, R-(+)-limonene, alpha-bisabolol and 1,8-cineole (at 5% in ethanol, w/w) produced in all cases an increase in the ...
Zubavichus Yan - - 2005
The C, N, and O K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of the 22 most common proteinogenic alpha-amino acids in the zwitterionic form collected from solvent-free polycrystalline powder films in the partial electron yield mode are reported. Spectral features common to all amino acids, as well as distinctive fingerprints ...
Takahashi Yusuke - - 2005
Ultraviolet (UV) and violet vision in vertebrates is mediated by UV and violet visual pigments that absorb light maximally (lambdamax) at approximately 360 and 390-440 nm, respectively. So far, a total of 11 amino acid sites only in transmembrane (TM) helices I-III are known to be involved in the functional ...
Brand Rhonda M - - 2005
Oral ingestion of pesticides can be a major exposure route. These compounds are frequently consumed in the presence of triacylglycerides, which are then hydrolyzed to free fatty acids. The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of two common fatty acids, palmitic (PA) and oleic (OA) acids, and ...
Yamamoto Kohji - - 2005
Frequency-dependent absorption coefficients and refractive indices of amino acids (glycine and l-alanine) and polypeptides (polyglycine and poly-l-alanine) in the wavenumber region from 7 to 55 cm(-1) were measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. A vibrational band was observed at 45.5 cm(-1) for polyglycine, which was assigned as an interchain mode. The ...
Pénzes T - - 2005
In view of their good skin tolerability, glyceryl fatty acid esters were used as organogelators, and their effects in the topical penetration of piroxicam (Px) were investigated. The in vivo skin penetration was evaluated by measuring the anti-inflammatory effect in rats, where we found that Px incorporated into glyceryl fatty ...
Mimuro Mamoru - - 2005
The secondary electron acceptor of photosystem (PS) I in the cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 was identified as menaquinone-4 (MQ-4) by comparing high performance liquid chromatograms and absorption spectra with an authentic compound. The MQ-4 content was estimated to be two molecules per one molecule of chlorophyll (Chl) a', a ...
Shoveller Anna K - - 2005
The metabolism of sulfur amino acids, methionine and cysteine, has been linked to several key aspects of human health and cellular function. In addition, the metabolism of dietary amino acids by the gastrointestinal tract is nutritionally important for normal function. In the case of sulfur amino acids (SAAs), in vivo, ...
Wang Yulan - - 2005
We report details of metabolic profiles for small intestinal samples obtained using high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS) (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Intact samples of jejunum and ileum from male Long Evans rats were analyzed on a 600 MHz spectrometer using standard one and two-dimensional (1)H NMR spectroscopic pulse sequences. The metabolic profiles of ...
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