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Results 501 - 550 of 1180
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Ahlman B - - 1994
1. The effects of short-term starvation and refeeding on the free amino acid concentrations of the intestinal mucosa were characterized in male subjects (n = 6), using endoscopically obtained biopsy specimens from the duodenum and from all four segments of the colon. 2. The alterations in the amino acid concentrations ...
Kotzé S H - - 1994
The distribution of neutral mucins, sialomucins and sulphomucins was determined histochemically in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The techniques used were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS), high-iron-diamine/alcian blue (HID-AB), alcian blue at varying pH solutions and alcian blue at high temperature ...
Yuasa H - - 1994
The performance of milk fat-globule membrane (MFGM) emulsion as an oral dosage form was evaluated in rats using [14C]alpha-linolenic acid as a lipophilic model solute. For emulsions prepared by homogenization alone, the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) after oral administration tended to be larger for MFGM ...
Coetzer H - - 1994
Intestinal calcium transport is important in whole body calcium homeostasis and it is therefore of interest to understand the mechanism of absorption and its regulation by 1;25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2D3) (vitamin D). Significant changes in lipid composition of membranes have previously been shown in response to vitamin D3 administration. Deficiency ...
Gardiner K R - - 1994
Systemic sepsis is associated with reduced mesenteric blood flow and impairment of metabolic and barrier functions of the small intestine. A study was performed in the rat to investigate the effect of sepsis induced by caecal ligation and double puncture on intestinal absorption of leucine and proline in vivo. Absorption ...
Takahashi K - - 1994
The enhancing action of decanoic acid (C10) and its derivatives on mucosal absorption of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) in the jejunum or colon was analyzed using pharmacokinetics in rats. After administration of a solution containing PSP and an enhancer [C10, 2-hydroxydecanoic acid (2-OHC10), or 3-hydroxydecanoic acid (3-OHC10)] into the jejunal or colonic ...
Strum D P - - 1994
Absorption of anesthetic into soda lime may delay induction of anesthesia and degradation by soda lime may produce toxic products. We determined whether the moisture content of soda lime influences the mechanisms underlying absorption (saturable uptake), degradation, and solubility (nonsaturable uptake). We placed liquid anesthetic (sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, enflurane, or ...
Das S - - 1994
Giardia lamblia is a primitive protozoan and a major cause of waterborne enteric disease throughout tropical and temperate zones. The ability to grow the infective trophozoites in culture as well as the discovery of the method of in vitro encystation made it possible to study the biology of this primitive ...
Velasquez O R - - 1994
Although lipids are essential nutrients in the mammalian diet, we have shown that fatty acids are injurious to epithelial cells of developing piglet intestine during luminal perfusion. Furthermore, the intestine of young animals sustains greater injury than that of older piglets. In an effort to understand the mechanism for this ...
Rabinowitz J L - - 1994
Rats were orally administered separately one dose of three labelled long-chain fatty acids: [1-14C] oleic, [1-14C] palmitic or [1-14C] stearic. Samples of lymph were obtained from previously cannulated thoracic ducts and analyzed for the composition and content of labelled fatty acids. Most of the newly recovered and labelled fatty acids ...
Mesonero J E - - 1994
Cadmium has been recognized as an environmental contaminant. In oral cadmium intoxication, the immediate target organ is the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of cadmium on the intestinal absorption of L-threonine and on the aminopeptidase N activity in rabbit jejunum, after in ...
Schwack W - - 1994
The acid hydrolysis products (CS2, COS, and H2S) of thiram (tetramethylthiram disulphide, TMTD) absorbed in a methanolic amine reagent (ethylenediamine, piperidine) were investigated by second derivative UV spectroscopy. When the hydrolysis temperatures are below the boiling point the formation of the side products COS and H2S at the expense of ...
Booth I W - - 1994
The spectacular success of parenteral nutrition in supporting patients during small intestinal adaptation after massive resection, tends to obscure the prolonged periods often needed for such adaptation to take place. After neonatal small intestinal resection for example, it may take more than five years before adaptation is complete. There is ...
Scheppach W - - 1994
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the products of colonic bacterial degradation of unabsorbed starch and non-starch polysaccharide (fibre). They are important anions in the colonic lumen, affecting both colonocyte morphology and function. The three main acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) stimulate colonic sodium and fluid absorption and exert proliferative ...
Mahajan A - - 1994
Rapeseed preparations viz. rapeseed meal, concentrates and isolates were prepared using different processing treatments involving organic solvents, acids, alkali, steaming and boiling. Their anti-nutritional constituents and functional properties were studied in comparison to undefatted meal. Percent decrease in phytic acid and phenolic content was maximum in seeds boiled for 30 ...
Stephen A M - - 1994
Much of the present research on the physiological effects of dietary fiber and starch has been done on sources isolated from the parent material, and it is not clear whether they have the same effects if fed in the intact or whole grain. For dietary fiber, physiological effect depends on ...
Bezuidenhout A J - - 1993
The caecum of the ostrich was observed to contain a fold that spiralled approximately 30 times, transforming the lumen into a long, spiral-shaped cavity. The fold consisted of mucosa, muscularis mucosa and submucosa. The proximal part of the fold also contained a central core of muscle originating from the inner ...
Welz B - - 1993
A flow injection (FI) manifold is described which makes possible on-line microwave-assisted acid digestion, followed by pre-reduction of As(V) to As(III) and its determination by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The merging zone technique is used in order to reduce acid consumption for digestion. The efficiency of acid digestion is ...
Yagi N - - 1993
The bioavailability of bumetanide following the oral administration of tablets, or the rectal administration of either macrogol suppositories or suppositories with and without weak acids were evaluated in human subjects. The absorption of bumetanide from those suppositories containing bumetanide without weak acids (control suppositories) was extremely poor, while the absorption ...
Jenkins H R - - 1993
In infants, adequate colonic function is vital in preventing electrolyte and water depletion. In certain species, short-chain fatty acids have been shown to increase colonic Na absorption. Using an in vitro voltage-clamp technique, we have studied the characteristics of electrolyte transport in isolated preparations of human left-sided colonic mucosa and ...
Imaeda H - - 1993
Effects of absorption of long and middle chain fatty acids on IgA secretion into the intestinal lumen and intestinal lymph and the factors which evoke changes in IgA secretion during the absorptive process were examined in rat small intestine. Bidirectional secretion of IgA from the intestinal mucosa into the intestinal ...
Coomer J C - - 1993
In Exp. 1, four Holstein steers with cannulas in the rumen, abomasum and terminal ileum were used to determine the effects of 1) soybean meal (SBM), 2) heated SBM (HSBM), 3) corn gluten meal (CGM), or 4) a combination of HSBM and CGM (COMBO) as protein supplements on ruminal and ...
Kataoka M - - 1993
The structure of mutant bacteriorhodopsin (bR), D85N, was examined by CD and X-ray diffraction at pH 7. The absorption maximum of D85N at pH 7 is located at 605 nm, which is similar to the acid-blue form of wild-type bR. D85N shows a monophasic CD band, the maximum of which ...
Tenma T - - 1993
In order to improve the intestinal absorption of tetragastrin (TG), we synthesized lipophilic derivatives of TG by acylation of its N-terminal amino group with acetic acid, caproic acid, and lauric acid. The purified TG derivatives, acetyl-tetragastrin (Ac-TG), caproyl-tetragastrin (Cap-TG), and lauroyl-tetragastrin (Lau-TG), were confirmed to be more lipophilic than the ...
Pudleiner P - - 1993
The absorption of vinpocetine (Cavinton) and apovincaminic acid, compounds showing a marked difference in their physico-chemical properties, was studied in rats in in situ loop experiments by using radiolabelled compounds. In the case of apovincaminic acid, the investigations also involved the estimation of the portion of radioactivity excreted in urine ...
Ohara S - - 1993
1. Mucus glycoproteins (mucins) were extracted from the duodenum, small intestine (proximal and distal parts) and colon. 2. Enteromucin subunits were larger than 2 x 10(6). 3. The glycopeptides of enteromucins were essentially the same in size of the subunit. 4. The carbohydrate portion of enteromucins consisted of N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, ...
Oh D M - - 1993
The intestinal absorption mechanisms of cefixime, 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) and 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) were determined from the results of single-pass perfusion experiments in rats by modified boundary layer analysis. The estimated absorption parameters (SEM) were as follows: for cefixime, J*max = 0.016 (0.008) mM, Km = 0.031 (0.015) mM, P*m ...
Ramakrishna B S - - 1993
Faecal concentrations and output of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were assessed on successive days by gas-liquid chromatography in 24 patients with acute watery diarrhoea. Absorption of water and sodium from the rectum was also measured by a dialysis technique in 17 of these patients and in nine normal subjects ...
Pickel V M - - 1993
A sodium-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter (NBAT) from rat kidney was recently cloned and its amino acid sequence deduced. We used light and electron microscopic immunoperoxidase labeling to determine the cellular localization of NBAT in rat kidney and small intestine. The localization was carried out using site-directed antisera ...
Murata K - - 1993
Pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its six metabolites were compared after oral administration in dogs of a multiparticulate sustained-release diltiazem preparation (HER-SR, QD) and a conventional diltiazem preparation (HER, TID). The plasma concentration of diltiazem, its two active basic metabolites (M1, N-monodesmethyl diltiazem; M2, deacetyl diltiazem), and four acidic metabolites [A1, ...
Khin Maung U - - 1993
In vitro uptake of 14C-labelled amino acids was studied in jejunal mucosa biopsy specimens from 64 adults admitted for treatment of cholera (proven by stool culture) within 48 hours of onset of watery diarrhoea to determine the state of amino acid carriers in the jejunal mucosa during actively purging disease. ...
Anthone G J - - 1993
Ileal water and electrolyte absorption exceed jejunal absorption in both the basal and meal-stimulated states. The purposes of these experiments were to determine: (1) if luminal bile acids alter basal or meal-stimulated intestinal absorption, and (2) if there is site specificity or meal stimulation of intestinal bile acid absorption. Twenty-five ...
Sheng S - - 1993
When an aqueous L-asparagine solution was mixed with a dilute ethanolic ninhydrin solution and incubated at temperatures lower than 37 degrees C, the resulting mixture exhibited an ultraviolet (uv)-visible absorption spectrum with the maximum absorption at 340-350 nm. In contrast, the mixtures of several other amino acids with ninhydrin yielded ...
Molly K - - 1993
A five-stage reactor was developed to simulate the gastro-intestinal microbial ecosystem of humans. The small intestine was simulated by a two-step "fill and draw" system, the large intestine by a three-step reactor. A representative supply medium was developed to support a microbial community resembling that of the human gastro-intestinal tract. ...
Rodriguez Yoldi M C - - 1993
Zinc is an essential trace element for life. Many metalloenzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids require zinc for their functions. The aim of this study was to characterize how zinc acts on the intestinal amino acid absorption in rabbit. Results obtained show that zinc ...
Cepinskas G - - 1993
Gastric mucosal injury induced by strong irritants can be dramatically reduced by pretreating the mucosa with mild forms of the same irritant. This phenomenon has been termed "adaptive cytoprotection." The aim of the present study was to use in vivo and in vitro approaches to study adaptive cytoprotection in the ...
Gardiner K - - 1993
Sepsis has been shown to cause a decrease in mesenteric blood flow in association with ultrastructural changes in the small intestine and impaired immune, barrier, and metabolic functions of the gut. These impairments in the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract may have a detrimental effect on the morbidity ...
Christensen H N - - 1993
A linkage between intestinal and tissue absorption of amino acids was perceived by Donald D. Van Slyke and Gustave M. Meyer in 1913, but soon overlooked by later authors. Today, on the 110th anniversary of Van Slyke's birth and the 80th anniversary of publication of their now-classic paper in the ...
Yeoh E K - - 1993
The effects of loperamide-N-oxide, a new peripheral opiate agonist precursor, on gastrointestinal function were evaluated in 18 patients with diarrhoea caused by chronic radiation enteritis. Each patient was given, in double-blind randomised order, loperamide-N-oxide (3 mg orally twice daily) and placebo for 14 days, separated by a washout period of ...
Regnier M - - 1993
The present study compares the stratum corneum of human skin and human reconstructed epidermis by histological examination as well as by estimation of water permeability. Measurement of the percutaneous absorption of benzoic acid, testosterone, and hydrocortisone revealed that under the same experimental conditions the reconstructed epidermis on de-epidermized dermis exhibits ...
Velasquez O R - - 1993
A role for luminal nutrients, in particular products of lipid digestion, in the pathogenesis of mucosal injury to developing intestine has been postulated. We evaluated changes in mucosal permeability and light and electron microscopic histology induced by luminal perfusion with the long-chain fatty acid oleate in developing piglet intestine as ...
Lee S Y - - 1993
The effect of free fatty acids on zinc absorption was studied in a rat model of chronic osmotic diarrhea induced with magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein. In vivo rates of zinc removal from the lumen and analysis of tissue for zinc uptake and metallothionein alterations were monitored. One mmol/L stearate enhanced ...
Tazume S - - 1993
In the intestinal flora of patients with diarrhea, a close correlation exists between a decrease in numbers of anaerobes and a reduction in levels of short-chain fatty acids. The drastic reduction of intestinal volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accompanying decreased counts of anaerobes during the diarrheal state and the increase in ...
Guillot E - - 1993
In order to study the rate of intestinal absorption and hepatic uptake of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), six growing pigs, mean body weight 65 kg, were fitted with a permanent fistula in the duodenum and with three catheters in the portal vein, carotid artery and hepatic vein respectively. Two electromagnetic ...
Sorribas V - - 1993
Nicarbazin is an anticoccidial drug used mainly in birds, but also in rabbits. Besides the anticoccidial activity, nicarbazin has shown several other effects such as inhibition of growth and feed efficiency in poultries, and stimulation of sugar intestinal absorption in rabbits. The present work has been performed in order to ...
Lennernäs H - - 1993
1. A new method for perfusing a 10 cm segment of jejunum in humans has been used in seven subjects to study the effect of the amino acid L-leucine (40 mM) on the intestinal absorption of levodopa (2.5 mM). The tube contains six channels and has two inflatable balloons, which ...
Messer H H - - 1993
The rate of F absorption from the stomach is pH-dependent, with greater absorption at low pH. Since the rate of absorption is also strongly influenced by the rapidity of gastric emptying, we have compared the relative importance of gastric acidity and gastric emptying in overall F absorption. Male rats (350 ...
Ademola J I - - 1993
This study assessed the in vitro percutaneous absorption and metabolism of 3-indolylacetic acid after topical dosing to human skin from four sources. The metabolism of the compound during percutaneous absorption was assessed. The absorbed and metabolized chemicals were analyzed by radioactive scintillation counting and thin-layer chromatography: 1.2% +/- 0.04%, 1.4% ...
Henrikus B - - 1993
Isolated rabbit ears were single-pass perfused with a protein-free Tris buffer solution. Ethyl 4-amino[U-ring-14C]benzoate or 4-amino[U-ring-14C]benzoic acid was applied to the epithelial surface in isopropyl myristate, or perfused arterially. Metabolites in the effusate were extracted and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Five metabolites were separated from ethyl aminobenzoate and identified ...
Miura S - - 1993
The effect of long chain and medium chain fatty acid absorption on transport and mitogen-induced blast transformation of lymphocytes in intestinal lymphatics was investigated. Intestinal lymph was collected from mesenteric lymph duct cannulated rats maintained in Bollman's cage. Following the intraduodenal administration of oleic acid (long chain fatty acid) or ...
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