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Results 451 - 500 of 1180
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Schröder J - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with intestinal atrophy and dysfunction possibly attributed to the absence of the nonessential amino acid glutamine from commercially available TPN solutions because of the instability of the monoamino acid during heat sterilization and storage. The use of stable dipeptides may overcome this problem. ...
Postlethwait E M - - 1995
Inhaled 'NO2 is absorbed by a free radical-dependent reaction mechanism that localizes the initial oxidative events to the extracellular space of the pulmonary surface lining layer (SLL). Because 'NO2 per se is eliminated upon absorption, most likely the SLL-derived reaction products are critical to the genesis of 'NO2-induced lung injury. ...
Healy M J - - 1995
Lipid malabsorption is a common clinical manifestation of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Its pathogenesis, however, remains controversial. Bacteroides melaninogenicus ssp. intermedius, an anaerobic bacterium, is commonly isolated from the upper bowel of patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The effects of a culture supernate of this organism and deoxycholate, an ...
Matthews J C - - 1995
The absorption of carnosine, methionine, and methionylglycine (using 35S-methionine and 35S-methionylglycine as representative markers) across ruminal and omasal epithelia collected from four (carnosine) and seven sheep (methionine and methionylglycine) were studied using parabiotic chambers that were repeatedly sampled over a 240-min incubation. The quantity of all substrates transferred was linearly ...
Davidsson L - - 1995
The absorption of manganese from soy formula was studied in adult volunteers by extrinsic labeling of test meals with 54Mn, followed by whole-body retention measurements for approximately 30 d after intake. Eight subjects participated twice in each of the two studies, acting as his or her own control. Soy formula ...
Gardiner K R - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Sepsis has been shown to impair the barrier function and metabolism of the intestine. This study was done to investigate the effect of sepsis on intestinal absorption of proline, leucine, glutamic acid, and aminoisobutyric acid. STUDY DESIGN: Rats (six per group) were studied 24 hours after cecal ligation and ...
Shirasaka N - - 1995
A fatty acid containing a furan ring was detected in the cellular lipids of marine bacteria, Shewanella putrefaciens, Marinomonas comunis, Enterobacter agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, etc., which were isolated from the intestinal liquor of fishes. Analytical data indicated that the fatty acid was 10,13-epoxy-11-methyloctadeca-10, 12-dienoic acid. Therefore, we propose that furan ...
Gallagher P A - - 1995
Macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, oleandomycin, spiromycin, and tylosin are found to react with Fe(3+) in the presence of an acetic acid-sulfuric acid mixture to form a colored product having a useful absorption band at 592 nm. Troleandomycin forms only a weakly colored product upon reaction. The molar absorptivity is ...
Kerner J - - 1995
Although the barrier function of the intestinal mucosa is impaired after hemorrhage, it remains unclear whether this is associated with a deficit in mucosal function. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine whether trauma-hemorrhage affects the in vivo lipid absorptive capacity of the gut and, if so, to ...
Holtug K - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Models of short-chain fatty acid absorption have focused on the stimulation of sodium absorption, an effect mainly located in the proximal colon of man. With the present efforts to utilize butyrate enemas as a treatment of ulcerative colitis, it seemed important to assess the transport in the rectum. METHODS: ...
Kudo G - - 1995
Oral co-administration of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid, PteGlu) potentiates the decrease of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-CH3-H4PteGlu) concentration induced by pyrimethamine (PYR) in rats. To clarify the mechanisms of this potentiated decrease, we examined the effects of PteGlu and PYR on intestinal absorption of folates in rat jejunum loops, because plasma ...
Eastwood M A - - 1995
Beeturia is the excretion of red beetroot pigment (betalaine) in urine and faeces. It occurs in about 14% of humans. Betalaine is a redox indicator whose colour is protected by reducing agents. We investigated pigment-decolourizing systems in the intestinal tracts of beeturic and non-beeturic subjects. Betalaine was decolourized by hydrochloric ...
Deacon C F - - 1995
The human colon contains many open-type endocrine cells which express the preproglucagon gene and possess glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) immunoreactivity, but the molecular form of the peptide is unknown. Acid ethanol extracts of human colon (n = 4) were subjected to gel filtration and successive purification by high-pressure liquid chromatography, monitored ...
Sauer P - - 1995
Chronic administration of cyclosporin A may induce cholestasis and this effect has been attributed to impaired hepatic bile salt synthesis, metabolism and transport. We investigated the effect of cyclosporin A on intestinal absorption of bile acids in the ileum of rat. Ileal bile acid absorption was measured by in vivo ...
Bengmark S - - 1995
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that preservation of the ecology of the gastrointestinal tract and the surface protection system--surfactants, mucus, and fiber--is important for the outcome in postoperative trauma patients, patients after bone marrow and liver transplantation, and patients with HIV or AIDS. Approximately 50% of the nourishment of the ...
Brink E J - - 1995
In this study the effect of the positional distribution of stearic acid (18:0) and oleic acid (18:1) in a triacylglycerol on absorption of fat, energy and nutrients was investigated in young rats. In addition the effect of dietary calcium on these variables was studied. Forty rats were fed purified diets ...
Sasaki H - - 1995
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the improvement in corneal penetration of ophthalmic beta-blockers of various lipophilicities afforded by absorption promoters and to compare the corneal against conjunctival penetration in response to absorption promoters. METHODS: The penetration of the beta-blockers, atenolol, carteolol, tilisolol, timolol, and befunolol, in ...
Ahlman B - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a standard moderately severe surgical operation on the mucosal amino acid content of the duodenum and the colon. DESIGN: Open study. SETTING: University hospital, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Nine patients who were to undergo elective open cholecystectomy. INTERVENTIONS: Endoscopically obtained biopsy specimens from the intestinal mucosa. ...
Hughes M F - - 1995
The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro dermal absorption of [14C]dimethylarsinic acid. This organic arsenical is used as a herbicide and is a product of the mammalian metabolism of inorganic arsenic. Discs of preclipped dorsal skin were cut from adult female B6C3F1 mice and mounted in ...
Bach Knudsen K E - - 1995
The recovery of inulin, a naturally occurring beta (2-->1)-fructan isolated from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), in the small intestine of man was studied in ileostomy subjects. The ileostomists were given a low-dietary-fibre diet based on white wheat bread and virtually free of inulin, and the same diet with the ...
Christensen M S - - 1995
Fat absorption may be compromised by pancreatic or bile insufficiency, resulting in low uptake of essential fatty acid and energy. Using a rat model of malabsorption, we examined the absorption of defined triglycerides with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) in the sn-1,3 positions and essential fatty acids in the sn-2 position ...
Asada H - - 1995
Absorption characteristics of insulin derivatives chemically modified with various fatty acids in the intestine were determined by in situ loop and in vitro modified Ussing chamber methods. The pharmacological activities of these acyl derivatives, as assessed by their hypoglycemic effects after intravenous administration, were reduced upon increasing the carbon number ...
Isler D - - 1995
Orlistat, a selective inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipases, was used to investigate triacylglycerol absorption. Using mice and a variety of emulsified dietary lipids we found that the absorption of radiolabelled tripalmitin (containing the fatty acid 16:0), but not of triolein (18:1n-9) or tri-gamma-linolenin (18:3n-6), was incomplete from meals rich in esterified ...
Stiehl A - - 1995
Absorption of bile acids by diffusion occurs in all parts of the intestine whereas the active transport is only located in the terminal ileum. Absorption of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the small intestine is slow and incomplete due to the poor solubility of this bile acid. After oral administration, UDCA ...
Komata Y - - 1995
The permeation and accumulation of lauric acid (12:0) in rat skin as an enhancer for the percutaneous absorption of thiamine disulfide (TDS), using propylene glycol as a vehicle, were determined in vitro. 12:0 barely permeated through skin, and accumulated in skin. The accumulated amount increased increasing concentrations in the vehicle ...
Böhm G A - - 1995
Water-soluble UV-A/B-absorbing pigments are secreted by cells of the cosmopolitan terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. The pigments constitute a complex mixture of monomers with molecular masses of up to 1801 Da. Two different chromophores with absorption maxima at 312 and 335 nm are linked to different amino acids and to oligosaccharides ...
Tso P - - 1995
We compared the intestinal absorption of trilinolein (1,2,3-tri-[1-14C]linoleyl-sn-glycerol) with two different structured triglycerides containing one linoleic acid (C18:2) and two octanoic acids (C8:0), 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-[1-14C]linoleyl-sn-glycerol (2-linoleate) and 1,2-di[1-14C]octanoyl-3-linoleyl-sn-glycerol (1,2-octanoate), respectively. Lymphatic radioactive lipid output of 2-linoleate resembled that of trilinolein rats but remained significantly lower during the lipid infusion. Radioactive lipid ...
Chang B S - - 1995
The vast diversity in spectral sensitivities in the vision of many organisms is mediated mostly (although not entirely) through variation in the photosensitive visual pigments (opsins) of the eye. Specifically, shifts in absorption maxima of visual pigments are thought to be a result of interactions within the binding pocket of ...
Umejima H - - 1995
Rectal absorption of the hydrophilic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in rats was studied with Eudispert hv gels with or without fatty acids as the rectal bases. In the absence of fatty acids, absolute bioavailabilities of 5-FU for Eudispert hv hydrogel and xerogel preparations increased approximately 2.5 times compared with those of Witepsol ...
Noy Y - - 1995
Digestion, enzyme secretion and intestinal rate of passage were determined in broiler chicks from hatch until 21 d using 141Ce as a nonabsorbed reference substance. Body weight and feed intake increased more rapidly after 10 d posthatch, and, in parallel, time of passage of feed through the intestines decreased by ...
Nakamura T - - 1995
To investigate possible parameters for the differential diagnosis of steatorrhoea in patients with low fat intakes, faecal specimens were analysed from 15 patients with steatorrhoea due to chronic pancreatitis and seven patients with steatorrhoea due to intestinal malabsorption. The fat intakes of the patients ranged from 30.1 to 60 g, ...
Yokoyama S - - 1995
An important unanswered question in phototransduction is how visual pigments (VPs) regulate their wavelength of maximal absorption (lambda max). By constructing the evolutionary tree for 28 opsins with known lambda max values, we can identify the times and directions of lambda max shift of different VPs. A total of 55 ...
Hussain M A - - 1995
A series of enkephalin analogs with varying amino acids on the N-terminus were synthesized and evaluated in rats in situ for their hydrolytic stability and absorption when administered nasally. The amino acids on the N-terminus were tyrosine (Y), alanine (A), serine (S), lysine (K), and aspartic acid (D). These amino ...
Chang T M - - 1995
Oral binders remove intestinal bile acid and prevent its reabsorption and recycling thereby lowering systemic cholesterol levels. The results in this paper demonstrate the presence of another extensive enterorecirculation for amino acids. Pancreatic and other glandular secretions into the intestine contain large amounts of proteins, enzymes and polypeptides. Tryptic digestion ...
Nakazato M - - 1994
Guanylin is a 15-amino acid peptide that acts on intestinal guanylate cyclase, thereby regulating intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport through the second messenger, cyclic GMP. Using synthetic rat guanylin, we prepared an antiserum that recognizes human and rat guanylin equally on a molar basis and developed a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA). ...
Clerici C - - 1994
In an attempt to obtain site-specific delivery of 5-ASA in the intestinal tract, we have determined the extent of absorption and metabolism of a number of novel 5-ASA derivatives, namely, (N-L-glutamyl)-amino-2-salicylic acid (1), (N-L-aspartyl)-amino-2-salicylic-acid (2), 5-aminosalicyl-L-proline-L-leucine (3), and 5-(N-L-glutamyl)-aminosalicyl-L-proline-L-leucine (4), which are selectively cleaved by intestinal brush border aminopeptidase A ...
Yodoya E - - 1994
Three types of chemically modified tetragastrin (TG) with fatty acids such as acetyl-TG, caproyl-TG and lauroyl-TG were synthesized and their in vitro intestinal permeability characteristics were estimated by a modified Ussing chamber system using the isolated intestinal membrane of rats. The penetration of TG across the large intestine was increased ...
Chen Q - - 1994
The effects of ethanol in the rat on the absorption and incorporation of 3H-arachidonic (20: 4, n-6) and 14C-linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) into tissue lipids was examined in jejunal tissue cultures in vivo. The pattern of incorporation earlier seen in the small intestine in vivo, ie. a preferential incorporation of ...
DeVoto E - - 1994
This review discusses recent literature on the chemical and physiological factors that influence the absorption, distribution, and excretion of aluminum in mammals, with particular regard to gastrointestinal absorption and speciation in plasma. Humans encounter aluminum, a ubiquitous yet highly insoluble element in most forms, in foods, drinking water, and pharmaceuticals. ...
Oltmer S - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) originate from microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the hindgut. Mechanisms involved in SCFA absorption are not fully understood. METHODS: The caecum and proximal and distal colon of the guinea pig were perfused in situ. RESULTS: SCFA absorption per gram mucosal dry weight was highest in ...
Takahashi K - - 1994
The enhancing effect of decanoic acid (C10) on the rectal absorption of phenolsulfonphtalein (PSP) was analyzed with a pharmacokinetic model. The transfer index of PSP from the rectal lumen to the epithelial layer in the presence of C10 was proportional to the product of the C10 disappearance rate from the ...
Jensen G L - - 1994
The lymphatic absorption of a structured triacylglycerol vs an equivalent physical mixture of the constituent medium-chain triacylglycerol and fish oils was studied. Each of four canines served as its own control in a crossover feeding design with the investigators unaware of diet contents. Lymphatic absorption of n-3 and medium-chain fatty ...
Guillot E - - 1994
In order to study the influence of pancreatic enzyme secretion on the intestinal absorption of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), three growing pigs (mean body-weight 61 kg) with ligated and severed pancreatic ducts were fitted with a permanent fistula in the duodenum and with two catheters in the portal vein and ...
Aldini R - - 1994
The existence of transporters for bile acids (BA) in liver and intestine has been well documented, but information is still needed as to their respective transport capacity. In the present investigation, we compared the hepatic and intestinal transport rates for BA, using perfused livers and intestines. The livers and intestines ...
Campbell N R - - 1994
A variety of compounds which bind to Fe have substantial reductions in absorption when co-administered with Fe compounds. The binding of both Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions to pteroylmonoglutamic acid and the pteroylmonoglutamate dianion was examined in vitro. In dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) alone, pteroylmonoglutamate formed a 2:1 (pteroylmonoglutamate:Fe3+ ion) complex. However, in ...
Chou C C - - 1994
The cardiovascular response to feeding consists of two phases. The anticipation/ingestion phase is a brief, generalized cardiovascular response mediated by sympathetic neural activity. The digestive/absorptive phase is a longer, locally mediated vascular response to luminal nutrients. This post-prandial hyperaemia is localized primarily to the intestinal segment and tissue layer (mucosa) ...
McLeod A D - - 1994
Chronic colitis, e.g., ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is presently treated with glucocorticoids and other antiinflammatory agents. Side effects limit chronic glucocorticoid therapy. The dose, and consequently the side effects, may be reduced by using prodrugs that selectively deliver drug to the colon. We previously synthesized glucocorticoid-dextran conjugates in which ...
Maskell I - - 1994
Changes in the concentrations of glucosinolates from rapeseed meal and some glucosinolate degradation products during incubation in vitro with myrosinase (EC 3.2.3.1), with pepsin (EC 3.4.23.1)-HCl, and with contents of porcine small intestine and caecum were studied. When rapeseed meal was incubated with myrosinase, 5-vinyl oxazolidinethione (OZT) and butenyl and ...
Yuasa H - - 1994
As a study to assess the potential application of milk fat-globule membrane (MFGM), which is of natural origin and expected to be a safer alternative to synthetic emulsifiers, to pharmaceutical dosage forms, the oral absorption of alpha-linolenic acid was evaluated by the analysis of gastrointestinal disposition after oral administration as ...
Huff W E - - 1994
Field observations suggest that propionic acid-based mold inhibitors reduce the severity of proventriculitis and consequent fragile intestines. Therefore, two studies were conducted to determine the effects of a propionic acid-based mold inhibitor (Mycocurb), calcium propionate, and propionic acid on intestinal strength. Cobb x Cobb male broiler chicks were placed in ...
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