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Results 201 - 250 of 1685
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Chilukuri Nageswararao - - 2008
The therapeutic value of human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) as a bioscavenger of chemical warfare agents is due to its high reactivity with organophosphorus compounds and prolonged circulatory stability. Native Hu BChE is mostly tetrameric in form while the enzyme produced using molecular cloning technology is a mixture of tetramers, ...
Strynar Mark J - - 2008
The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), have come under increasing scrutiny due to their persistence, global distribution, and toxicity. Given that their human exposure routes remain poorly characterized, the potential role of house dust needs to be more completely evaluated. In this study, new ...
- - 2008
On June 25, 1948, the so-called "Groupement des Acousticiens de Langue Francaise" (GALF) was created, with its first President, Yves Rocard, and was transformed into the "Societe Francaise d'Acoustique" (SFA) in 1986. SFA now has 830 members and is composed of 8 technical groups and 3 regional sections. It is ...
Abu-Hammad Talab - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation is an effective way to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Primary care providers are an important source of information to promote folic acid intake. This study aimed at evaluating primary care physicians' knowledge and attitudes regarding folic acid supplementation for childbearing women. ...
Theunissen Frédéric E - - 2008
Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are highly social animals possessing a complex vocal repertoire. Vocal signals of different types correlate with distinct social circumstances. Groans constitute a very large category in the spotted hyena repertoire which is not well understood. Sounds labeled as groans vary in their acoustical quality from more ...
Patlolla Ram Reddy - - 2008
Lipid nanospheres (LN) are simple colloidal drug delivery systems, which are proven to be useful for the systemic delivery of lipophilic anticancer drugs. Our previous work shows that the encapsulation of etoposide in LN improved the anticancer activity and a further inclusion of polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE-PEG) increased the circulation time ...
Gross Garrett J - - 2008
Previously, we demonstrated (17) that 11,12- and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) produce marked reductions in myocardial infarct size. Although it is assumed that this cardioprotective effect of the EETs is due to a specific interaction with a membrane-bound receptor, no evidence has indicated that novel EET antagonists selectively block the EET ...
Ashraf M Javed - - 2008
Serum folic acid tests are routinely ordered by physicians for evaluating anemia and sometimes ordered for evaluating dementia and altered mental status. To determine the utility of routine folic acid testing for patients with anemia or dementia/altered mental status in the era of folic acid fortification. Retrospective analysis of consecutive ...
Johnson Holly E - - 2008
In the mountains of Peru, globular colonies of Nostoc commune (Nostocales) are collected in the highland lakes by the indigenous people, who call them llullucha. They are consumed locally, traded for maize, or sold, eventually entering the folk markets of Cusco and other neighboring cities. Throughout highland Peru, Nostoc commune ...
Li D - - 2008
Severe deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) results in homocystinuria, with a variety of neurological and vascular complications, and sometimes death in the first year of life. MTHFR (EC 1.5.1.20) catalyses the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) which is required for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Mthfr (-/-) mice are a good animal ...
Stokes Robert J - - 2008
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is shown to give linear and sensitive concentration-dependent detection of folic acid using silver nanoparticles created via ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduction. Optical detection by SERS overcomes the primary limitation of photodissociation encountered during the application of other shorter wavelength ultraviolet (UV)/near-UV techniques such as fluorescence based ...
vanEngelsdorp Dennis - - 2008
Controlling populations of varroa mites is crucial for the survival of the beekeeping industry. Many treatments exist, and all are designed to kill mites on adult bees. Because the majority of mites are found under capped brood, most treatments are designed to deliver active ingredients over an extended period to ...
Samland Anne K - - 2008
The central carbon metabolism is well investigated in bacteria, but this is not the case for archaea. MJ0400-His(6) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii catalyzes the cleavage of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate with a V(max) of 33 mU mg(-1) and a K(m) of 430 microM at 50 degrees C. MJ0400-His(6) ...
Ohrvik Veronica - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Estimated average folate intake in Sweden is less than 55% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) for women of childbearing age (Becker and Pearson in Riksmaten 1997-1998 Kostvanor och näringsintag i Sverige. National Food Administration, Uppsala, pp 34, 44, 121, 2002). Because a good folate status reduces the risk ...
Smith A David - - 2008
Fortification of food with folic acid to reduce the number of neural tube defects was introduced 10 y ago in North America. Many countries are considering whether to adopt this policy. When fortification is introduced, several hundred thousand people are exposed to an increased intake of folic acid for each ...
Knott Anja - - 2008
BACKGROUND: DNA damage as a result of ultraviolet (UV) exposure plays an important role in the progression of cutaneous aging. Both folic acid and creatine have been linked to the process of DNA protection and repair. AIMS: This study aims to investigate the effects of a commercially available folic acid- ...
Widenfalk Anneli - - 2008
In a microcosm study, the importance of different sources of organic matter (humic acids, sterile sediment, sediment, and a microbial extract) for the bioavailability of the hydrophobic pesticide chlorpyrifos to Chironomus riparius larvae was quantified. In the last two treatments biofilms were allowed to grow before (14)C-chlorpyrifos addition. Chlorpyrifos accumulation ...
Pasut Gianfranco - - 2008
Gemcitabine, 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (dFdC), is an antitumor agent effective in the treatment of several solid tumors but its use is hampered by short plasma half-life, rapid metabolism and low selectivity towards tumor tissue. To overcome these limits, bioconjugates of gemcitabine were studied using poly(ethylene glycol) as polymeric carrier. Two types of ...
Sand Håkan - - 2008
So far the vast majority of studies on large carnivore predation, including kill rates and consumption, have been based on winter studies. Because large carnivores relying on ungulates as prey often show a preference for juveniles, kill rates may be both higher and more variable during the summer season than ...
Goldstein T - - 2008
Harmful algal blooms are increasing worldwide, including those of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. producing domoic acid off the California coast. This neurotoxin was first shown to cause mortality of marine mammals in 1998. A decade of monitoring California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) health since then has indicated that changes in the symptomatology ...
Vortherms Anthony R - - 2008
Conjugates of three components namely folic acid, poly(ethyleneglycol) and 3 '-azido-3 '-deoxythymidine (AZT) are presented. Folate-PEG units were coupled to AZT to facilitate delivery of the nucleoside into the cell. A convenient separation of the polydisperse PEGylated-folic acid regioisomers produced upon conjugation is described. This is to select for the ...
Jentink Janneke - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Folic acid intake before and during pregnancy reduces neural tube defects (NTD). Therefore, several countries have enriched bulk food with folic acid resulting in a 26-48% decrease in the prevalence of NTDs. In 2000, the Dutch Health Council advised against folic acid enrichment based on literature research; yet formal ...
Lee, Yong-Kyu
Nanoparticles of Poly(L-glutamic acid) (PG) conjugated to the anticancer drug paclitaxel and targeted moiety folic acid (FA) were synthesized and characterized in vitro. The nanoparticles were designed to take advantage of FA targeting to folate receptor (FR) positive cancer cells. The chemical composition of the conjugate was characterized by <TEX>$^1H-NMR$</TEX>, ...
Liu Mulan - - 2008
Our previous results showed that an extract of the abdomens of mated females of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, deterred oviposition of conspecifics. In this paper, we found that the extract, in addition to reducing conspecifics' oviposition, could elicit strong electroantennogram responses from mated females. The EAG elicitors mainly came ...
Codd Jonathan R - - 2008
In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of 'avian' characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these ...
Sucker C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recombinant hirudin is used as an alternative anticoagulant, particularly in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II. However, bedside monitoring for hirudin is not available. The present study aims to evaluate rotational thrombelastometry regarding its suitability to detect the effects of recombinant hirudin on whole blood coagulation. Hirudin was added ...
Püllen U - - 2008
The importance of preparation technique, culture media and incubation time in the embryonation of the infective egg stages of the intestinal nematode parasite Heterakis gallinarum was studied. Mature H. gallinarum worms were isolated from the caeca of infected chickens and separated by sex. In a first experiment intact female worms ...
Piyathilake Chandrika J - - 2008
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid in the United States is associated with changes in DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt-1) expression in cells involved in cervical carcinogenesis. Archived specimens of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) diagnosed before (1990-1992) and after (2000-2002) mandatory ...
Watanabe Toshihiro - - 2008
Plant roots exude viscous polysaccharides, called mucilage. One of the suggested roles of mucilage is immobilization of toxic metal cations, including aluminum (Al), in the rhizosphere. Mucilage exuded from roots of Melastoma malabathricum (Al accumulator) was characterized in comparison with that of Zea mays (maize; Al nonaccumulator). Removal of mucilage ...
Nguyen Chien N - - 2008
Semisolid matrix capsule formulations of verapamil HCl and diltiazem HCl prepared by hot-melt capsule filling are an especially appealing and simple way to make sustained-release formulations. Semisolid matrices of Gelucire 50/13 and stearic acid combination eroded and disintegrated at various rates, depending on the combination of waxes, and drug release ...
Johnston Richard B RB - - 2008
To reduce neural tube defects (NTDs), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated that by January 1998 all enriched grain products should contain 140 microg of folic acid (FA)/100 g of flour. Groups concerned with optimal prevention of NTDs had argued that the level should be 350 microg/100 g. ...
Hadler Maria Claret Costa Monteiro - - 2008
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and the therapeutic and prophylactic response to ferrous sulfate and folic acid. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted with 196 children 6 to 24 months of age enrolled in municipal daycare centers in Goiânia, Goiás State, ...
Zare Mohammad - - 2008
AIMS: This study was designed to investigate if folate treatment is able to reverse the phenytoin-induced deficiency of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA). METHODS AND MATERIAL: Twenty-five epileptic patients who had been under phenytoin therapy for at least the last 6 months were randomly selected and subjected to folic acid supplementation, ...
García-Fragoso Lourdes - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) varies by race/ethnicity, and the highest rates are among women of Hispanic ethnicity. Women of reproductive age are advised to use folic acid to prevent NTDs and other birth defects. Since 1994, Puerto Rico has had a campaign to promote the use ...
Blackburn William H - - 2008
Small, monodispersed nanogels (~ 50-nm radius) were synthesized by free-radical precipitation polymerization and characterized using a suite of light scattering and chromatography methods. Nanogels were synthesized with either N-isopropylacrylamide or N-isopropylmethacrylamide as the main monomer, with acrylic acid or 4-acrylamidofluorescein as a co-monomer and N, N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) as a cross-linker. By ...
Zeng Lingxia - - 2008
To examine the impact of antenatal supplementation with multiple micronutrients or iron and folic acid compared with folic acid alone on birth weight, duration of gestation, and maternal haemoglobin concentration in the third trimester. Cluster randomised double blind controlled trial. Two rural counties in north west China. 5828 pregnant women ...
Ryan-Harshman Milly - - 2008
Now that flour and pasta have been fortified with folic acid in Canada, do I still need to recommend folic acid supplements to my patients who are of child-bearing age? If I should recommend supplements, when should I recommend them, and what is an appropriate dose? Non-pregnant women should consume ...
Wallace Ian J - - 2008
Quadrupedal locomotion of primates is distinguished from the quadrupedalism of many other mammals by several features, including a diagonal sequence (DS) footfall used in symmetrical gaits. This presumably unique feature of primate locomotion has been attributed to an ancestral adaptation for cautious arboreal quadrupedalism on thin, flexible branches. However, the ...
Yilmaz Hale - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Hyperhomocysteinaemia is related with premature coronary artery disease and adverse cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). It is assumed that hyper-homocysteinaemia causes endothelial dysfunction. In this study, the effect of folic acid and oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapies on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial function were evaluated ...
Metz Jack - - 2007
Folate is essential for DNA synthesis and the survival and growth of the malaria parasite. Folate sufficiency may be associated with an increased risk of malaria. Antifolate antimalarial drugs are of major importance in the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. Folic acid reverses the inhibition by antifolate drugs of plasmodial ...
Djukic Aleksandra - - 2007
Folate is a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex group, and is required for optimal health, growth, and development. In humans, it cannot be synthesized de novo. As a cofactor or coenzyme, folate plays key biological roles in a variety of physiologic processes: maintenance and repair of the genome, regulation ...
Kapur Bhushan M BM Department of Clinical Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. - - 2007
Methanol is endogenously formed in the brain and is present as a congener in most alcoholic beverages. Because ethanol is preferentially metabolized over methanol (MeOH) by alcohol dehydrogenase, it is not surprising that MeOH accumulates in the alcohol-abusing population. This suggests that the alcohol-drinking population will have higher levels of ...
Piccioni G - - 2007
Venus has no seasons, slow rotation and a very massive atmosphere, which is mainly carbon dioxide with clouds primarily of sulphuric acid droplets. Infrared observations by previous missions to Venus revealed a bright 'dipole' feature surrounded by a cold 'collar' at its north pole. The polar dipole is a 'double-eye' ...
Gagkas Z - - 2008
Streamwater was sampled at high flows from 14 catchments with different (0-78%) percentages of broadleaf woodland cover in acid-sensitive areas in the UK to investigate whether woodland cover affects streamwater acidification. Significant positive correlations were found between broadleaf woodland cover and streamwater NO3 and Al concentrations. Streamwater NO3 concentrations exceeded ...
Cambon E - - 2008
The unripe fruit of babaco (Vasconcellea x heilbornii; syn. Carica pentagona) contains a latex, similar to that in Carica papaya, which exhibits lipolytic activity. Herein, the regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and typoselectivity in both hydrolysis and acyltransfer reactions of babaco latex lipases were studied and compared to those of Carica papaya latex. ...
Brocardo Patrícia S - - 2008
Clinical studies have shown that folic acid plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression. However, very few studies have investigated its effect in behavioral models of depression. Hence, this study tested its effect in the forced swimming test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST), two models predictive of ...
Maron Bradley A - - 2007
Numerous retrospective and prospective observational studies support an association between elevated homocysteine and increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Although folic acid therapy substantially reduces homocysteine levels, recent large, randomized controlled trials failed to translate folic acid-induced homocysteine reduction into clinical benefit for the secondary prevention ...
Pietrzik Klaus - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A maternal red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration > 906 nmol/L is thought to be optimal for lowering the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in pregnancy. Whereas the appearance of folate in RBCs has been followed during folic acid supplementation, data on elimination kinetics are not yet available. ...
Solomons Noel W - - 2007
Folic acid (FA) supplementation effectively reduces the rates of children born with neural tube defects (NTDs). Currently, 42 nations practice mandatory FA fortification to combat NTD. In addition to NTD, FA fortification may also have salutary effects on the incidence of orofacial cleft birth defects and have secondary benefits in ...
Liu Qiaoyu - - 2008
Monolauroyl maltose was synthesized by an immobilized lipase that catalyzed condensation of maltose and lauric acid in acetone using a batch reactor or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Mono- and di-lauroyl maltoses were identified by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Monolauroyl maltose was selectively synthesized in a continuous ...
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