Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1758
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Shimada Atsumi - - 2006
Glyphosate showed a remarkable effect inducing the change of flower symmetry from the actinomorphic to the zygomorphic type in Petunia hybrida. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] reduced the anthocyanin content and showed a weak inhibitory effect against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. L-2-Aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (APA), an inhibitor of PAL activity, reduced the anthocyanin content ...
Hwang Peter H - - 2006
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Retinoids have been shown to be important cofactors in regulating the differentiation and proliferation of ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. In particular, retinoic acid has been shown to enhance the regeneration of paranasal sinus mucosa. The objective of this study is to use scanning electron microscopy techniques ...
Passeri Daniela - - 2006
Retinoic acid controls hematopoietic differentiation through the transcription factor activity of its receptors. They act on specific target genes by recruiting protein complexes that deacetylate or acetylate histones and modify chromatin status. The regulation of this process is affected by histone methyltransferases, which can inhibit or activate transcription depending on ...
Ferguson Sherry A - - 2006
Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally gavaged with 13-cis-retinoic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) or all-trans-retinoic acid (10 or 15 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. Blood was collected out to 8 hr after the last gavage on day 7. HPLC serum concentrations of 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinoic acid, and 13-cis-4-oxo-retinoic ...
Castillo Victor - - 2006
Cushing's disease is almost always caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor, but effective medical therapy is currently limited. Because retinoic acid has been shown to be potentially useful in decreasing corticotroph secretion and proliferation in rodent models, we have studied its action in dogs with Cushing's disease. A randomized treatment ...
Thibonnet J - - 2006
A new class of retinoic acids was synthesized containing a 9,10-rigid bond. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were assigned for eight new compounds (all-E, 13Z) containing a carboxylic acid or tertiobutylester polar end group. Assignments were based on the combination of one- and two-dimensional experiments (APT, COSY, HMBC).
Gao Jay G - - 2006
Retinoic acid at nanomolar concentrations modulates epidermal functions by serving as a transcription factor ligand. Under conditions of retinol sufficiency, it is imperative to limit retinoic acid biosynthesis from serum-derived retinol. In the epidermis, this is accomplished by esterifying retinol with long-chain fatty acids. Retinylester (RE) pools serve as a ...
Bryan Brad A - - 2006
The Rho GTPases are important regulators of neurite outgrowth and pathfinding. We have recently reported that a Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEFT, modulates dendrite spine morphology and basal neurite outgrowth in primary hippocampal neurons and Neuro2A cells, respectively. Here we demonstrate that GEFT protein is highly expressed in all ...
Antoun Joseph - - 2006
CYP4A11, the major fatty acid omega-hydroxylase in human liver is involved in the balance of lipids, but its role and regulation are both poorly understood. We studied the effects of retinoids on the regulation of CYP4A11 in the human hepatoma cell line HepaRG. Treatment of HepaRG cells with all-trans-retinoic acid ...
Rémus-Borel Wilfried - - 2006
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) methods were developed for the study of induced defense metabolites in wheat (Triticum aestivum) against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici). A single HSCCC purification step afforded extraction of mg-quantities of an induced compound with antifungal activity. Subsequent LC-MS and NMR analyses have led to ...
Dao Chinh T - - 2006
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like modifier that forms conjugates with target protein substrates. As its name suggests, its expression and conjugation to other proteins are highly regulated by interferon (IFN). It was recently demonstrated that ISG15 expression, ISG15 conjugation, and several enzymes involved in ISG15 modification are upregulated ...
Styczynski Jan - - 2006
We hypothesised that the intensity of mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia might be decreased by concurrent ex vivo use of compounds with specific blocking or activating properties at different steps of the glucocorticoid intracellular pathway. The following modifiers were used: ciclosporin A, rifampicin, doxycycline, meta-iodobenzylguanidine, buthionine ...
Balcerzak Marcin - - 2006
Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) and all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) interacted with human annexin A6 (AnxA6) as evidenced by AnxA6-induced blue shift of retinoid absorption maxima, by AnxA6-Trp fluorescence quenching and by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer from a Trp residue of AnxA6 to retinol. In addition, both retinoids stimulated the ...
Auldridge Michele E - - 2006
The oxidative cleavage of carotenoids leads to the production of apocarotenoids and is catalyzed by a family of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). CCDs often exhibit substrate promiscuity, which probably contributes to the diversity of apocarotenoids found in nature. Biologically and commercially important apocarotenoids include the phytohormone abscisic acid, the visual ...
Raufast V - - 2006
There are a large number of studies on the pharmacological activity of lineolic acid (LA) on the skin; however, very little work has been carried out to determine how LA targets the follicular structure. The aim of this study was to identify the preferred route of penetration of LA and ...
Berner Martin - - 2006
The saccharomicins A and B, produced by the actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis, are oligosaccharide antibiotics. They consist of 17 monosaccharide units and the unique aglycon N-(m,p-dihydroxycinnamoyl)taurine. To investigate candidate genes responsible for the formation of trans-m,p-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid) as part of the saccharomicin aglycon, gene expression experiments were carried out ...
Wright Marcienne M - - 2006
Nitroalkenes are a class of cell signaling mediators generated by NO and fatty acid-dependent redox reactions. Nitrated fatty acids such as 10- and 12-nitro-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (nitrolinoleic acid, LNO(2)) exhibit pluripotent antiinflammatory cell signaling properties. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is up-regulated as an adaptive response to inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. ...
Verwei Miriam - - 2006
The new EU legislations for chemicals (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals, REACH) and cosmetics (Seventh Amendment) stimulate the acceptance of in vitro and in silico approaches to test chemicals for their potential to cause reproductive effects. In the current study seven compounds with known in vivo developmental effects were ...
Rieber Manuel - - 2006
MEK1/2 inhibitors like U0126 can potentiate or antagonize the antitumor activity of cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin, paclitaxel or vinblastine, depending on the drug or the target cells. We now investigated whether U0126, differentially regulates melanoma signaling in response to UV radiation or betulinic acid, a drug lethal against melanoma. ...
Biagini Christine P - - 2006
The cytotoxicity profile of various chemical entities was evaluated using two in vitro hepatocyte models. Liverbeads is a cryopreserved model consisting of primary hepatocytes entrapped in alginate beads. WIF-B9 is a hybrid cell line obtained by fusion of rat hepatoma (Fao) and human fibroblasts (WI38). Various reference hepatotoxicants were tested ...
Sirbu Ioan Ovidiu - - 2006
Somitogenesis requires bilateral rhythmic segmentation of paraxial mesoderm along the antero-posterior axis. The location of somite segmentation depends on opposing signalling gradients of retinoic acid (generated by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2; Raldh2) anteriorly and fibroblast growth factor (FGF; generated by Fgf8) posteriorly. Retinoic-acid-deficient embryos exhibit somite left-right asymmetry, but it remains unclear ...
Kitagawa Shuji - - 2006
We studied the delivery of retinoic acid to skin by using cationic liposomes consisting of double-chained cationic surfactant, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and retinoic acid in excised guinea pig dorsal skin. Egg yolk PC liposomes contaning retinoic acid at a molar ratio of 4 : 1 increased the delivery of retinoic acid ...
Collop Andrew H - - 2006
Retinoic acid is clearly important for the development of the heart. In this paper, we provide evidence that retinoic acid is essential for multiple aspects of cardiogenesis in Xenopus by examining embryos that have been exposed to retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Early in cardiogenesis, retinoic acid alters the expression of ...
Capote R - - 2006
In this report, we demonstrate a possible molecular mechanism by which a hydrophilic extract of the leaves of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock, PL) blocks ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin photodamage. The extract inhibits UVA and UVB light induced photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (t-UCA), a common photoreceptor located in the stratum corneum, ...
Williams Frederick E - - 2006
The ability of ellagic acid (EA) to modulate dichloroacetic acid (DCA)-induced developmental toxicity and oxidative damage was examined in zebrafish embryos. Embryos were exposed to 20 mM EA administered concomitantly with 32 mM DCA at 4 hours postfertilization (hpf) and 20 h later. Embryos were observed through 144 hpf for ...
Shiraishi-Yokoyama Haruko - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: It has already been demonstrated that the rat esophagus produces retinoic acid from retinol. In this study, this process is further characterized and the effect of acetaldehyde examined to elucidate the possible mechanisms behind the epidemiological evidence that the incidence of esophageal cancer is higher in alcoholics. MATERIAL AND ...
Balkan M - - 2006
AIM: This study was undertaken to assess the effect of intra-operative radiotherapy on intestinal wound healing and prevention of its side effects by retinoic acid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups of (n = 10). All the groups had laparatomies and terminal ileum exteriorization. Group ...
Nguyen J - - 2006
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is involved in inflammation and tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that interferon type I (alpha/beta) and II (gamma) inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-9 (92kDa) gene expression on lymphocytes from patients with B chronic lymphocytic leukemia and human monocytes. Since all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can regulate some interferon -responsive genes, we ...
Montedonico Sandra - - 2006
There is increasing evidence to suggest that the retinoid pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We hypothesised that retinoids are involved in the pathogenesis of associated pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH and therefore designed this study to investigate the effects of retinoid acid on nitrofen-induced hypoplastic ...
Rühl Ralph - - 2006
Retinoic acid isomers, 4-oxo-retinoic acid isomers and retinol are present in the serum of mammals. In this study a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, sample preparation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was established for quick and easy sample preparation and sensitive determination of retinoids such as all-trans-4-oxo-retinoic acid, 13-cis-4-oxo-retinoic ...
Waller J M - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Retinoic acid (RA) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) were studied, comparing their keratolytic efficacy and water barrier disruption to that of salicylic acid (SA), a well-established keratolytic, under similar conditions. PATIENTS/METHODS: Six volunteers were included in this blinded study. Eleven randomized test sites were marked on the volar forearms, containing ...
Kakubari Ikuhiro - - 2006
Effects of various chemicals applied as penetration enhancers on the permeation of formoterol fumarate (FF) across excised rat skin were investigated. Remarkable enhancement was noted with terpenes, fatty acid esters, and higher alcohols, whereas no significant influence was observed in the case of lower alcohols, pyrrolidones, and amines. At high ...
Zapolska-Downar D - - 2005
The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that trans fatty acids can induce apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To test this hypothesis apoptosis was measured in HUVEC treated with 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 mM trans elaidic acid (t-18:1) or linoelaidic acid (t,t-18:2) for 24 hours. ...
Kawakami Shigeru - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution characteristics of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) incorporated in liposomes and polymeric micelles following intravenous administration. [3H] ATRA were incorporated in distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC)/cholesterol (6:4) liposomes. Two types of block copolymers, poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly-(aspartic acid) derivatives with benzyl (Bz-75) groups, were synthesized ...
Chatzimeletiou Katerina - - 2005
Use of a non-contact infrared laser (IRL) or acid Tyrode's for zona drilling before embryo biopsy was compared by assessing blastomere viability using various fluorescent markers or culture of the single biopsied blastomere, and, by cytoskeletal and molecular cytogenetic analysis of the biopsied embryos following culture to the blastocyst stage. ...
Wang Y Alan - - 2005
Retinoic acid (RA), a bioactive chemical compound synthesized from dietary derived vitamin A, has been successfully used as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent through the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis acting via the retinoic acid receptors. Despite two decades of research on the function of retinoic acid, the ...
Kambayashi H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight induces wrinkle formation. Retinoic acid (RA) can markedly improve wrinkles, although RA does have some side-effects, such as skin irritation. As the efficacy and cytotoxicity of RA has been traced to its free carboxylic acid, we synthesized a new molecule, N-retinoyl-D-glucosamine (GRA), in ...
Freccero Mauro - - 2005
[Reaction: see text]. RB3LYP calculations, reported here, indicate that peroxy acid s-cis conformer is more stable than its s-trans counterpart, in agreement with experimental data. Difference in stability is the highest in the gas phase, but it falls considerably on going from the gas phase to moderately polar solvent. In ...
Sakuta Tomohiro - - 2005
In addition to natural retinoids, new synthetic retinoids, such as adapalene and tazarotene, are currently available for the treatment of acne. In this study, we evaluated the comedolytic effect of a novel retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-gamma specific retinoid, ER36009, in the rhino mouse. The animals were treated for five days ...
Balaban F - - 2005
Retinoids consist of a family of naturally occuring compounds including all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), retinal, retinol (vitamin A), 9-cis retinoic acid, 13-cis retinoic acid as well as a large number of synthetic derivatives. Retinoids are known to elicit diverse pharmacological profiles such as controlling cell differentiation/proliferation and modulating specific premalignant ...
Moon Hyung In - - 2005
Ethanol and aqueous extracts of Machilus thunbergii used traditionally for the treatments a wide variety of diseases were screened in vitro for the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 inhibitor actions. Meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid from the stems bark of Machilus thunbergii showed significant MMP-9 inhibition in human keratinocyte cells cause by ultraviolet irradiation. Here ...
Mishima Satoshi - - 2005
We have previously reported that Brazilian propolis extracts inhibited growth of HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cells, which is partly attributed to the induction of apoptosis associated with granulocytic differentiation. In this study, we isolated three compounds which induce granulocytic differentiation evaluated by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-reducing assays from the water extract ...
Rogge Barbara - - 2005
Insect cells convert vitamin A into a number of retinoids that are evolutionarily conserved with those of mammalian cells. However, insect cells also produce additional natural retinoids. Namely, two retinoic acid peptides, N-trans-retinoylserine (1) and N-trans-retinoylalanine (2), have been isolated from a cell line of the common cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ...
Giacomini Damiana - - 2006
The molecular mechanisms governing the pathogenesis of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas are still obscure. Furthermore, the pharmacological treatment of these tumors is limited. In this study, we report that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) is expressed in the corticotrophs of human normal adenohypophysis and its expression is reduced in corticotrophinomas obtained from ...
van Beek Ermond - - 2006
Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and geranylgeraniol (GGOH) are used for the prenylation of GTP binding proteins and can reverse the antiresorptive action of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates which inhibit farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, an enzyme of the mevalonate pathway involved in the formation of GGPP. Previously, in cultures of fetal mouse long bones, we ...
Colakoglu Neriman - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of excess all-trans retinoic acid, a vitamin A metabolite, on pancreatic organogenesis and TGF-beta2 expression during prenatal development in rats. First group of animals used as control while a single dose of 60 mg/kg all-trans retinoic acid was ingested by ...
Everts Helen B - - 2005
Vitamin A deficiency leads to focal metaplasia of numerous epithelial tissues with altered differentiation from columnar (in general) to stratified squamous cells. This process can be reversed with vitamin A repletion. Previously, we described a system of retinoic acid (RA) synthesis in the cycling rat uterus consisting of cellular retinol ...
Jeong Jin K - - 2005
The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid is produced postembryonically in discrete portions of the songbird brain, including some of the nuclei involved in song production and song learning, and its synthesis is required for the normal maturation of song behavior. To identify the brain targets for retinoic acid action, we ...
Cione Erika - - 2005
The covalent incorporation of [(3)H]all-trans-retinoic acid into proteins has been studied in tumoural Leydig (MLTC-1) cells. The maximum retinoylation activity of MLTC-1 cell proteins was 710+/-29 mean+/-SD) fmoles/8 x 10(4) cells at 37 degrees C. About 90% of [(3)H]retinoic acid was trichloroacetic acid-soluble after proteinase-K digestion and about 65--75% after ...
Redoulés Daniel - - 2005
A new strategy for the skin delivery of bioactive compounds has been developed, using enzymes involved in the maintenance of the epidermal barrier function and the enzymatic transformation of corresponding precursors. This new strategy has been tested with regard to two enzymatic activities of the skin barrier: extracellular glucosidase and ...
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