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Results 251 - 300 of 1771
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Tezel Tongalp H - - 2006
PURPOSE: To determine whether retinoids are capable of inducing vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and whether the presence of an intact RPE monolayer can block retinoid-induced vascular endothelial cell death. METHODS: Confluent fetal bovine aortic endothelial (FBAE) cells were incubated with various concentrations of all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid (an analogue ...
Klotz J L - - 2006
Vasoconstriction has been associated with several symptoms of fescue toxicosis thought to be alkaloid induced. Lysergic acid, an ergot alkaloid, has been proposed as a toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue. The objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potential of D-lysergic acid using a bovine lateral (cranial ...
Schaub Beat E - - 2006
The Golgi apparatus (GA) is the organelle where complex glycan formation takes place. In addition, it is a major sorting site for proteins destined for various subcellular compartments or for secretion. Here we investigate beta1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (galT) and alpha2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (siaT), two trans-Golgi glycosyltransferases, with respect to their different pathways ...
Zhang Zhaofeng - - 2006
Prevention of retinoic acid-induced craniofacial abnormalities by folinic acid, and endothelin-1 (ET-1)/dHAND protein and mRNA expression were investigated in mouse embryos using the whole embryo culture, streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex method, and whole-mount in situ hybridization. In the whole embryo culture, 1.0 and 0.1 mm-folinic acid dose dependently prevented branchial region ...
Sorg Olivier - - 2006
Retinoids are natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives. They are lipophilic molecules and easily penetrate the epidermis. Their biologically active forms can modulate the expression of genes involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Retinoic acid (tretinoin), its 13-cis isomer isotretinoin, as well as various synthetic retinoids are used for therapeutic ...
Zhang Chunlei - - 2006
Retinoids are biologic regulators of differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and immune response. Retinoids (all-trans retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and the synthetic analogs isotretinoin, etretinate, and acitretin) have been used for years as monotherapy and/or in combination for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Orally administered bexarotene, the first synthetic highly selective ...
Ortonne Jean-Paul - - 2006
Topical retinoids such as all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin), retinol, retinaldehyde, tazarotene, and adapalene have been shown to improve dyspigmentation of photodamaged skin including mottling and actinic lentigines. RA monotherapy has also been demonstrated to improve melasma and postinflammatory hypermelanosis. Furthermore, RA in combination with hydroquinone or 4-hydroxyanisole, or ...
Gridley Thomas - - 2006
A fundamental characteristic of the vertebrate body plan is its segmentation along the anterior-posterior axis. This segmental pattern is established during embryogenesis by the formation of somites, the transient epithelial blocks of cells that derive from the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm. Somite formation involves a molecular oscillator, termed the segmentation clock, ...
Albazerchi Amanda A Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2007
The mouse anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) has been implicated in embryonic polarity: it helps to position the primitive streak and some have suggested that it might act as a "head organizer", inducing forebrain directly. Here we explore the role of the hypoblast (the chick equivalent of the AVE) in the ...
Zhao Minghong - - 2006
Uncarinic acid E, an active component isolated from Gelsemium elegans BENTH, has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects, but little is known about its molecular mechanisms of action. In this study, the growth-inhibitory activity of uncarinic acid E for HepG2 cells is in time- and dose-dependent manner. HepG2 cells treated ...
Lipscomb Kristen - - 2006
The looping events that establish left-right asymmetries in the vertebrate gut tube are poorly understood. Retinoic acid signaling is known to impact left-right development in multiple embryonic contexts, although its role in asymmetric digestive organ morphogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that the genes for retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH2) and a ...
Chute John P - - 2006
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an enzyme that is expressed in the liver and is required for the conversion of retinol (vitamin A) to retinoic acids. ALDH is also highly enriched in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and is considered a selectable marker of human HSCs, although its contribution to stem cell ...
Yoo Stephen - - 2006
Erythrokeratoderma variabilis, also known as Mendes da Costa syndrome, is a genodermatosis belonging to the group of diseases known as the erythrokeratodermias. Erythrokeratoderma variabilis is characterized by two distinctive manifestations: well-demarcated, variable, transient, figurate patches of erythema, and localized or generalized hyperkeratotic plaques. Treatments include topical retinoic acid, salicylic acid, ...
Shimada Atsumi - - 2006
Glyphosate showed a remarkable effect inducing the change of flower symmetry from the actinomorphic to the zygomorphic type in Petunia hybrida. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] reduced the anthocyanin content and showed a weak inhibitory effect against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. L-2-Aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (APA), an inhibitor of PAL activity, reduced the anthocyanin content ...
Hwang Peter H - - 2006
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Retinoids have been shown to be important cofactors in regulating the differentiation and proliferation of ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. In particular, retinoic acid has been shown to enhance the regeneration of paranasal sinus mucosa. The objective of this study is to use scanning electron microscopy techniques ...
Passeri Daniela - - 2006
Retinoic acid controls hematopoietic differentiation through the transcription factor activity of its receptors. They act on specific target genes by recruiting protein complexes that deacetylate or acetylate histones and modify chromatin status. The regulation of this process is affected by histone methyltransferases, which can inhibit or activate transcription depending on ...
Ferguson Sherry A - - 2006
Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally gavaged with 13-cis-retinoic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) or all-trans-retinoic acid (10 or 15 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. Blood was collected out to 8 hr after the last gavage on day 7. HPLC serum concentrations of 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinoic acid, and 13-cis-4-oxo-retinoic ...
Castillo Victor - - 2006
Cushing's disease is almost always caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor, but effective medical therapy is currently limited. Because retinoic acid has been shown to be potentially useful in decreasing corticotroph secretion and proliferation in rodent models, we have studied its action in dogs with Cushing's disease. A randomized treatment ...
Thibonnet J - - 2006
A new class of retinoic acids was synthesized containing a 9,10-rigid bond. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were assigned for eight new compounds (all-E, 13Z) containing a carboxylic acid or tertiobutylester polar end group. Assignments were based on the combination of one- and two-dimensional experiments (APT, COSY, HMBC).
Gao Jay G - - 2006
Retinoic acid at nanomolar concentrations modulates epidermal functions by serving as a transcription factor ligand. Under conditions of retinol sufficiency, it is imperative to limit retinoic acid biosynthesis from serum-derived retinol. In the epidermis, this is accomplished by esterifying retinol with long-chain fatty acids. Retinylester (RE) pools serve as a ...
Bryan Brad A - - 2006
The Rho GTPases are important regulators of neurite outgrowth and pathfinding. We have recently reported that a Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEFT, modulates dendrite spine morphology and basal neurite outgrowth in primary hippocampal neurons and Neuro2A cells, respectively. Here we demonstrate that GEFT protein is highly expressed in all ...
Antoun Joseph - - 2006
CYP4A11, the major fatty acid omega-hydroxylase in human liver is involved in the balance of lipids, but its role and regulation are both poorly understood. We studied the effects of retinoids on the regulation of CYP4A11 in the human hepatoma cell line HepaRG. Treatment of HepaRG cells with all-trans-retinoic acid ...
Rémus-Borel Wilfried - - 2006
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) methods were developed for the study of induced defense metabolites in wheat (Triticum aestivum) against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici). A single HSCCC purification step afforded extraction of mg-quantities of an induced compound with antifungal activity. Subsequent LC-MS and NMR analyses have led to ...
Dao Chinh T - - 2006
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like modifier that forms conjugates with target protein substrates. As its name suggests, its expression and conjugation to other proteins are highly regulated by interferon (IFN). It was recently demonstrated that ISG15 expression, ISG15 conjugation, and several enzymes involved in ISG15 modification are upregulated ...
Styczynski Jan - - 2006
We hypothesised that the intensity of mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia might be decreased by concurrent ex vivo use of compounds with specific blocking or activating properties at different steps of the glucocorticoid intracellular pathway. The following modifiers were used: ciclosporin A, rifampicin, doxycycline, meta-iodobenzylguanidine, buthionine ...
Balcerzak Marcin - - 2006
Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) and all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) interacted with human annexin A6 (AnxA6) as evidenced by AnxA6-induced blue shift of retinoid absorption maxima, by AnxA6-Trp fluorescence quenching and by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer from a Trp residue of AnxA6 to retinol. In addition, both retinoids stimulated the ...
Auldridge Michele E - - 2006
The oxidative cleavage of carotenoids leads to the production of apocarotenoids and is catalyzed by a family of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). CCDs often exhibit substrate promiscuity, which probably contributes to the diversity of apocarotenoids found in nature. Biologically and commercially important apocarotenoids include the phytohormone abscisic acid, the visual ...
Raufast V - - 2006
There are a large number of studies on the pharmacological activity of lineolic acid (LA) on the skin; however, very little work has been carried out to determine how LA targets the follicular structure. The aim of this study was to identify the preferred route of penetration of LA and ...
Berner Martin - - 2006
The saccharomicins A and B, produced by the actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis, are oligosaccharide antibiotics. They consist of 17 monosaccharide units and the unique aglycon N-(m,p-dihydroxycinnamoyl)taurine. To investigate candidate genes responsible for the formation of trans-m,p-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid) as part of the saccharomicin aglycon, gene expression experiments were carried out ...
Wright Marcienne M - - 2006
Nitroalkenes are a class of cell signaling mediators generated by NO and fatty acid-dependent redox reactions. Nitrated fatty acids such as 10- and 12-nitro-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (nitrolinoleic acid, LNO(2)) exhibit pluripotent antiinflammatory cell signaling properties. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is up-regulated as an adaptive response to inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. ...
Verwei Miriam - - 2006
The new EU legislations for chemicals (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals, REACH) and cosmetics (Seventh Amendment) stimulate the acceptance of in vitro and in silico approaches to test chemicals for their potential to cause reproductive effects. In the current study seven compounds with known in vivo developmental effects were ...
Rieber Manuel - - 2006
MEK1/2 inhibitors like U0126 can potentiate or antagonize the antitumor activity of cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin, paclitaxel or vinblastine, depending on the drug or the target cells. We now investigated whether U0126, differentially regulates melanoma signaling in response to UV radiation or betulinic acid, a drug lethal against melanoma. ...
Biagini Christine P - - 2006
The cytotoxicity profile of various chemical entities was evaluated using two in vitro hepatocyte models. Liverbeads is a cryopreserved model consisting of primary hepatocytes entrapped in alginate beads. WIF-B9 is a hybrid cell line obtained by fusion of rat hepatoma (Fao) and human fibroblasts (WI38). Various reference hepatotoxicants were tested ...
Sirbu Ioan Ovidiu IO OncoDevelopmental Biology Program, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2006
Somitogenesis requires bilateral rhythmic segmentation of paraxial mesoderm along the antero-posterior axis. The location of somite segmentation depends on opposing signalling gradients of retinoic acid (generated by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2; Raldh2) anteriorly and fibroblast growth factor (FGF; generated by Fgf8) posteriorly. Retinoic-acid-deficient embryos exhibit somite left-right asymmetry, but it remains unclear ...
Kitagawa Shuji - - 2006
We studied the delivery of retinoic acid to skin by using cationic liposomes consisting of double-chained cationic surfactant, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and retinoic acid in excised guinea pig dorsal skin. Egg yolk PC liposomes contaning retinoic acid at a molar ratio of 4 : 1 increased the delivery of retinoic acid ...
Collop Andrew H AH Childrens Health Research Institute, 800 Commissioners Rd. E. London, Ontario, Canada N6C - - 2006
Retinoic acid is clearly important for the development of the heart. In this paper, we provide evidence that retinoic acid is essential for multiple aspects of cardiogenesis in Xenopus by examining embryos that have been exposed to retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Early in cardiogenesis, retinoic acid alters the expression of ...
Capote R - - 2006
In this report, we demonstrate a possible molecular mechanism by which a hydrophilic extract of the leaves of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock, PL) blocks ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin photodamage. The extract inhibits UVA and UVB light induced photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (t-UCA), a common photoreceptor located in the stratum corneum, ...
Williams Frederick E - - 2006
The ability of ellagic acid (EA) to modulate dichloroacetic acid (DCA)-induced developmental toxicity and oxidative damage was examined in zebrafish embryos. Embryos were exposed to 20 mM EA administered concomitantly with 32 mM DCA at 4 hours postfertilization (hpf) and 20 h later. Embryos were observed through 144 hpf for ...
Shiraishi-Yokoyama Haruko - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: It has already been demonstrated that the rat esophagus produces retinoic acid from retinol. In this study, this process is further characterized and the effect of acetaldehyde examined to elucidate the possible mechanisms behind the epidemiological evidence that the incidence of esophageal cancer is higher in alcoholics. MATERIAL AND ...
Balkan M - - 2006
AIM: This study was undertaken to assess the effect of intra-operative radiotherapy on intestinal wound healing and prevention of its side effects by retinoic acid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups of (n = 10). All the groups had laparatomies and terminal ileum exteriorization. Group ...
Nguyen J - - 2006
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is involved in inflammation and tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that interferon type I (alpha/beta) and II (gamma) inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-9 (92kDa) gene expression on lymphocytes from patients with B chronic lymphocytic leukemia and human monocytes. Since all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can regulate some interferon -responsive genes, we ...
Montedonico Sandra - - 2006
There is increasing evidence to suggest that the retinoid pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We hypothesised that retinoids are involved in the pathogenesis of associated pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH and therefore designed this study to investigate the effects of retinoid acid on nitrofen-induced hypoplastic ...
Rühl Ralph - - 2006
Retinoic acid isomers, 4-oxo-retinoic acid isomers and retinol are present in the serum of mammals. In this study a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, sample preparation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was established for quick and easy sample preparation and sensitive determination of retinoids such as all-trans-4-oxo-retinoic acid, 13-cis-4-oxo-retinoic ...
Waller J M - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Retinoic acid (RA) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) were studied, comparing their keratolytic efficacy and water barrier disruption to that of salicylic acid (SA), a well-established keratolytic, under similar conditions. PATIENTS/METHODS: Six volunteers were included in this blinded study. Eleven randomized test sites were marked on the volar forearms, containing ...
Kakubari Ikuhiro - - 2006
Effects of various chemicals applied as penetration enhancers on the permeation of formoterol fumarate (FF) across excised rat skin were investigated. Remarkable enhancement was noted with terpenes, fatty acid esters, and higher alcohols, whereas no significant influence was observed in the case of lower alcohols, pyrrolidones, and amines. At high ...
Zapolska-Downar D - - 2005
The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that trans fatty acids can induce apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To test this hypothesis apoptosis was measured in HUVEC treated with 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 mM trans elaidic acid (t-18:1) or linoelaidic acid (t,t-18:2) for 24 hours. ...
Kawakami Shigeru - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution characteristics of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) incorporated in liposomes and polymeric micelles following intravenous administration. [3H] ATRA were incorporated in distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC)/cholesterol (6:4) liposomes. Two types of block copolymers, poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly-(aspartic acid) derivatives with benzyl (Bz-75) groups, were synthesized ...
Chatzimeletiou Katerina - - 2005
Use of a non-contact infrared laser (IRL) or acid Tyrode's for zona drilling before embryo biopsy was compared by assessing blastomere viability using various fluorescent markers or culture of the single biopsied blastomere, and, by cytoskeletal and molecular cytogenetic analysis of the biopsied embryos following culture to the blastocyst stage. ...
Wang Y Alan - - 2005
Retinoic acid (RA), a bioactive chemical compound synthesized from dietary derived vitamin A, has been successfully used as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent through the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis acting via the retinoic acid receptors. Despite two decades of research on the function of retinoic acid, the ...
Kambayashi H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight induces wrinkle formation. Retinoic acid (RA) can markedly improve wrinkles, although RA does have some side-effects, such as skin irritation. As the efficacy and cytotoxicity of RA has been traced to its free carboxylic acid, we synthesized a new molecule, N-retinoyl-D-glucosamine (GRA), in ...
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