Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1750
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Lee Jongsung - - 2007
Melanogenesis is a physiological process that results in the synthesis of melanin pigments, which play a crucial protective role against skin photocarcinogenesis. In order to determine the effects of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis and elucidate the molecular events of melanogenesis induced by rosmarinic acid, several experiments were performed in B16 ...
Heliövaara Maikki K - - 2007
13-cis-Retinoic acid treatment causes insulin resistance and disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. We studied how 13-cis-retinoic acid affects inflammatory factors and adiponectin. A total of 23 healthy patients (age, 24.9 +/- 0.9 years; body mass index, 22.6 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)) who received 13-cis-retinoic acid treatment of acne participated in ...
van den Borne J J G C - - 2007
Effects of synchronising the availability of amino acids and glucose within a day on protein and energy metabolism were studied in growing pigs. Ten pigs of on average 54 (s.e. 1.0) kg live weight were assigned to each of two dietary treatments (synchronous v. asynchronous nutrient supply) in a change-over ...
Michalik Liliane - - 2007
Retinoic acid-the active metabolite of vitamin A-influences biological processes by activating the retinoic acid receptor (RAR). In this issue, Schug et al. (2007) demonstrate that retinoic acid also activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta). Remarkably, retinoic acid signaling through RAR or PPARbeta/delta-which depends on cytoplasmic retinoic acid transporters-commits the ...
Clarke Simon R SR Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, - - 2007
Resistance to human skin innate defenses is crucial for survival and carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, a common cutaneous pathogen and nasal colonizer. Free fatty acids extracted from human skin sebum possess potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The mechanisms by which S. aureus overcomes this host defense during colonization remain ...
Környei Z - - 2007
Astroglial cells are essential components of the neurogenic niches within the central nervous system. Emerging evidence suggests that they are among the key regulators of postnatal neurogenesis. Although astrocytes have been demonstrated to possess the potential to instruct stem cells to adopt a neuronal fate, little is known about the ...
Helwig U - - 2007
The fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) mediates the intestinal uptake of fatty acids. We and others have identified six FABP2 promoter polymorphisms which result in two haplotypes, A and B. Reporter-gene assays indicated different activity in FABP2 promoter alleles A and B and different responsiveness to PPAR ligands. IN ...
Liu Xuebo - - 2007
In recent years, a number of studies have implicated the potent antioxidant property of astaxanthin in various experimental systems; however, these studies employed only the all-trans isomer. On the other hand, it has been reported that all-trans natural astaxanthin is readily isomerized to cis-trans, especially 9-cis and 13-cis isomers, under ...
Gottschling Sven - - 2008
A boy showing symptoms of a Turcot-like childhood cancer syndrome together with stigmata of neurofibromatosis type I is reported. His brother suffers from an infantile myofibromatosis, and a sister died of glioblastoma at age 7. Another 7-year-old brother is so far clinically unaffected. The parents are consanguineous. Molecular diagnosis in ...
Vanzo Andreja - - 2007
trans-Caftaric acid is the most abundant nonflavonoid phenolic compound in grapes and wines. It occurs in chicory and is one of the bioactive components of Echinacea purpurea. In order to fill the gap of knowledge about its bioavailability in mammals, we investigated its absorption, tissue distribution, and metabolism in rats. ...
Wang Lihua - - 2007
Following the loss of functional small bowel surface area, the intestine undergoes a compensatory adaptive response. The observation that adaptation is inhibited in vitamin A-deficient rats following submassive intestinal resection suggested that vitamin A is required for this response and raised the possibility that exogenous vitamin A could augment adaptation. ...
Baker R E - - 2007
Morphogen gradients are well known to play several important roles in development; however the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of these gradients are often not well understood. In this work, we investigate whether the presence of a secondary morphogen can increase the robustness of the primary morphogen gradient to ...
Catherino William H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To analyze expression of the retinoic acid signaling pathway genes that are involved in retinol metabolism, transport, transcriptional activation, and transcriptional products in spontaneous human leiomyomas. DESIGN: Laboratory study of human leiomyoma and patient-matched myometrial tissue. PATIENT(S): Eight women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. INTERVENTION(S): Confirmation of an altered ...
Casarini Livio - - 2007
The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX), is a screening assay using embryos at gastrula stage of the anuran Xenopus laevis to identify substances that may pose a developmental hazard in humans. The FETAX assay evaluates three parameters, i.e. mortality, delayed growth and embryo malformation. In the present investigation, the ...
Simon Dawn M - - 2007
Understanding lung development has significant importance to public health because of the fact that interruptions in the normal developmental processes can have prominent effects on childhood and adult lung health. It is widely appreciated that the retinoic acid (RA) pathway plays an important role in lung development. Additionally, PPARs are ...
Wei Dong - - 2007
To elucidate the mechanism of vitamin A enhancing the production of antibody, we examined the expression and distribution of retinoic acid receptors mRNA in lymph nodes of young children ( < or = 5 years of age), and investigated the affection of all-trans-retinoic acid on the maturation and activation of ...
Tiwari Manisha - - 2007
Retinol (Vitamin A) is known to destabilize membranes. The effect of one of its natural derivatives, Retinoic Acid, was therefore studied on membrane stability, by inversely correlating this stability with Phospholipase A(2) activity. Lipid metalloporphyrin interactions have been the object of intense research in recent times. Our results revealed that ...
Park Cheol - - 2007
BACKGROUND: (Z)-stellettic acid C, an acetylenic acid from the marine sponge Stelletta sp., has been shown to have cytotoxic activity in some cancer cells; however, its mechanisms on malignant cell growth are not known. In this study, the potential of (Z)-stellettic acid C to induce apoptosis in human leukemic U937 ...
Bininda-Emonds Olaf R P - - 2007
Tetrapods exhibit great diversity in limb structures among species and also between forelimbs and hindlimbs within species, diversity which frequently correlates with locomotor modes and life history. We aim to examine the potential relation of changes in developmental timing (heterochrony) to the origin of limb morphological diversity in an explicit ...
Zhang Yan - - 2007
Oleic acid (OA) stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. The precise mechanism is still unclear. We sought to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1alpha) on OA-induced VSMC proliferation and migration. Oleate and palmitate, the most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated ...
Wilson Leigh J LJ MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, 4th floor New Hunt's House, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK. - - 2007
Human retinoic acid teratogenesis results in malformations of dorsally derived hindbrain structures such as the cerebellum, noradrenergic hindbrain neurons and the precerebellar system. These structures originate from the rhombic lip and adjacent dorsal precursor pools that border the fourth ventricle roofplate. While retinoic acid synthesis is known to occur in ...
Reijntjes Susan S Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, - - 2007
We have investigated the function of the retinoic acid metabolising enzyme, CYP26B1, by administering an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to zebrafish embryos. The result was an alteration in the morphology of the embryo in those regions which express the gene, namely an embryo with a smaller head, correspondingly smaller hindbrain rhombomeres ...
Stafslien Deborah K - - 2007
Because RXR plays a significant role in nuclear receptor signaling as a common heterodimeric partner for TR, PPAR, RAR, VDR, LXR and others, the ability of RXRbeta ligand binding domain (LBD) to interact with coregulator peptides bearing LXXLL or other interaction motifs was investigated using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer ...
Badawi H M - - 2007
The internal rotations in acrylic and methacrylic acids CH2=CX-COOH and their amides CH2=CX-CONH2 (X is H or CH3) were investigated by DFT-B3LYP calculations with 6-311+G** basis set. The potential energy curves were consistent with two minima that correspond to planar cis and trans conformation in the case of the acids ...
Wolf George - - 2006
Specific proteins in the nucleus act as transcription factors upon activation through binding of small molecules (all-trans-retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, and others). The activated (liganded) receptors bind to specific DNA elements as heterodimers, each in combination with the retinoic acid-X receptor (RXR). 9-Cis-retinoic acid binds to RXR with ...
Kithsiri Wijeratne E M - - 2006
Synthesis of the beta-carotene oxidation product, 2,3-dihydro-5,8-endoperoxy-beta-apo-carotene-13-one (1) was achieved in six steps starting from beta-ionone. Photo-oxygenation of all trans-retinoic acid (8) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (9) produced a mixture of 5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (10) and 13-cis-5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (11). Methylation of the crude photo-oxygenation mixture afforded the corresponding methyl esters 12 and ...
Isken Andrea - - 2007
For vertebrate development, vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is required in quantitative different amounts and spatiotemporal distribution for the production of retinoic acid, a nuclear hormone receptor ligand, and 11-cis retinal, the chromophore of visual pigments. We show here for zebrafish that embryonic retinoid homeostasis essentially depends on the activity of ...
Ohtake Yosuke - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The authors have recently demonstrated that there is inverse correlation between transglutaminase (TGase) activity and DNA synthesis in periportal hepatocytes (PPH) and perivenous hepatocytes (PVH) at 1 day after partial hepatectomy in rats. In order to ensure the involvement of TGase in the differential growth capacities between periportal and ...
Yim E-K - - 2006
The chemical structure of ursolic acid is very similar to that of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid. Herein, we investigated the antiproliferative and antiviral effects of ursolic acid and dexamethasone in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer cells. We performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazonium bromide assay to measure antiproliferative activity, and also characterized apoptosis by ...
Tezel Tongalp H - - 2006
PURPOSE: To determine whether retinoids are capable of inducing vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and whether the presence of an intact RPE monolayer can block retinoid-induced vascular endothelial cell death. METHODS: Confluent fetal bovine aortic endothelial (FBAE) cells were incubated with various concentrations of all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid (an analogue ...
Klotz J L - - 2006
Vasoconstriction has been associated with several symptoms of fescue toxicosis thought to be alkaloid induced. Lysergic acid, an ergot alkaloid, has been proposed as a toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue. The objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potential of D-lysergic acid using a bovine lateral (cranial ...
Schaub Beat E - - 2006
The Golgi apparatus (GA) is the organelle where complex glycan formation takes place. In addition, it is a major sorting site for proteins destined for various subcellular compartments or for secretion. Here we investigate beta1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (galT) and alpha2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (siaT), two trans-Golgi glycosyltransferases, with respect to their different pathways ...
Zhang Zhaofeng - - 2006
Prevention of retinoic acid-induced craniofacial abnormalities by folinic acid, and endothelin-1 (ET-1)/dHAND protein and mRNA expression were investigated in mouse embryos using the whole embryo culture, streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex method, and whole-mount in situ hybridization. In the whole embryo culture, 1.0 and 0.1 mm-folinic acid dose dependently prevented branchial region ...
Sorg Olivier - - 2006
Retinoids are natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives. They are lipophilic molecules and easily penetrate the epidermis. Their biologically active forms can modulate the expression of genes involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Retinoic acid (tretinoin), its 13-cis isomer isotretinoin, as well as various synthetic retinoids are used for therapeutic ...
Zhang Chunlei - - 2006
Retinoids are biologic regulators of differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and immune response. Retinoids (all-trans retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and the synthetic analogs isotretinoin, etretinate, and acitretin) have been used for years as monotherapy and/or in combination for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Orally administered bexarotene, the first synthetic highly selective ...
Ortonne Jean-Paul - - 2006
Topical retinoids such as all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin), retinol, retinaldehyde, tazarotene, and adapalene have been shown to improve dyspigmentation of photodamaged skin including mottling and actinic lentigines. RA monotherapy has also been demonstrated to improve melasma and postinflammatory hypermelanosis. Furthermore, RA in combination with hydroquinone or 4-hydroxyanisole, or ...
Gridley Thomas - - 2006
A fundamental characteristic of the vertebrate body plan is its segmentation along the anterior-posterior axis. This segmental pattern is established during embryogenesis by the formation of somites, the transient epithelial blocks of cells that derive from the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm. Somite formation involves a molecular oscillator, termed the segmentation clock, ...
Albazerchi Amanda A Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2007
The mouse anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) has been implicated in embryonic polarity: it helps to position the primitive streak and some have suggested that it might act as a "head organizer", inducing forebrain directly. Here we explore the role of the hypoblast (the chick equivalent of the AVE) in the ...
Zhao Minghong - - 2006
Uncarinic acid E, an active component isolated from Gelsemium elegans BENTH, has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects, but little is known about its molecular mechanisms of action. In this study, the growth-inhibitory activity of uncarinic acid E for HepG2 cells is in time- and dose-dependent manner. HepG2 cells treated ...
Lipscomb Kristen - - 2006
The looping events that establish left-right asymmetries in the vertebrate gut tube are poorly understood. Retinoic acid signaling is known to impact left-right development in multiple embryonic contexts, although its role in asymmetric digestive organ morphogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that the genes for retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH2) and a ...
Chute John P - - 2006
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an enzyme that is expressed in the liver and is required for the conversion of retinol (vitamin A) to retinoic acids. ALDH is also highly enriched in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and is considered a selectable marker of human HSCs, although its contribution to stem cell ...
Yoo Stephen - - 2006
Erythrokeratoderma variabilis, also known as Mendes da Costa syndrome, is a genodermatosis belonging to the group of diseases known as the erythrokeratodermias. Erythrokeratoderma variabilis is characterized by two distinctive manifestations: well-demarcated, variable, transient, figurate patches of erythema, and localized or generalized hyperkeratotic plaques. Treatments include topical retinoic acid, salicylic acid, ...
Shimada Atsumi - - 2006
Glyphosate showed a remarkable effect inducing the change of flower symmetry from the actinomorphic to the zygomorphic type in Petunia hybrida. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] reduced the anthocyanin content and showed a weak inhibitory effect against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. L-2-Aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (APA), an inhibitor of PAL activity, reduced the anthocyanin content ...
Hwang Peter H - - 2006
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Retinoids have been shown to be important cofactors in regulating the differentiation and proliferation of ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. In particular, retinoic acid has been shown to enhance the regeneration of paranasal sinus mucosa. The objective of this study is to use scanning electron microscopy techniques ...
Passeri Daniela - - 2006
Retinoic acid controls hematopoietic differentiation through the transcription factor activity of its receptors. They act on specific target genes by recruiting protein complexes that deacetylate or acetylate histones and modify chromatin status. The regulation of this process is affected by histone methyltransferases, which can inhibit or activate transcription depending on ...
Ferguson Sherry A - - 2006
Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally gavaged with 13-cis-retinoic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) or all-trans-retinoic acid (10 or 15 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. Blood was collected out to 8 hr after the last gavage on day 7. HPLC serum concentrations of 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinoic acid, and 13-cis-4-oxo-retinoic ...
Castillo Victor - - 2006
Cushing's disease is almost always caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor, but effective medical therapy is currently limited. Because retinoic acid has been shown to be potentially useful in decreasing corticotroph secretion and proliferation in rodent models, we have studied its action in dogs with Cushing's disease. A randomized treatment ...
Thibonnet J - - 2006
A new class of retinoic acids was synthesized containing a 9,10-rigid bond. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were assigned for eight new compounds (all-E, 13Z) containing a carboxylic acid or tertiobutylester polar end group. Assignments were based on the combination of one- and two-dimensional experiments (APT, COSY, HMBC).
Gao Jay G - - 2006
Retinoic acid at nanomolar concentrations modulates epidermal functions by serving as a transcription factor ligand. Under conditions of retinol sufficiency, it is imperative to limit retinoic acid biosynthesis from serum-derived retinol. In the epidermis, this is accomplished by esterifying retinol with long-chain fatty acids. Retinylester (RE) pools serve as a ...
Bryan Brad A - - 2006
The Rho GTPases are important regulators of neurite outgrowth and pathfinding. We have recently reported that a Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEFT, modulates dendrite spine morphology and basal neurite outgrowth in primary hippocampal neurons and Neuro2A cells, respectively. Here we demonstrate that GEFT protein is highly expressed in all ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >