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Kelishadi Roya - - 2012
The aim of our study was to determine the content of fat and fatty acid composition of breast milk, and its association with the mother's diet. This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers who came to health care centers for last prenatal care in Isfahan, Iran. Eight to 72 ...
Millward D Joe - - 2012
The 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU protein report defined reference amino acid patterns for infants based on breast milk and for preschool children, schoolchildren and adults from age specific estimates of dietary indispensible amino acid requirements divided by the safe protein requirement for each age group. This report argued that the protein quality ...
Moset V - - 2012
The effect of incorporating different ratios of acidified pig slurry on methane yield was evaluated in two scales of anaerobic digesters: Thermophilic (50 °C) pilot scale digester (120 l), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 20 days and thermophilic (52 °C) full-scale digesters (10 and 30 m(3)), operating with an average hydraulic ...
Santas Jonathan - - 2012
This study investigated the effect of two partially hydrolyzed guar gums (PHGG) on fatty acid and sterol excretion. PHGG were obtained by chemical hydrolysis of guar gum (GG) with H(2)O:EtOH (1:1) at 100 °C for 1 h (PHGG1) or 2 h (PHGG2). The viscosity of the PHGG in a 1 % (w/v) aqueous solution ...
Chilomer K - - 2012
The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the ...
Riovanto R - - 2012
In the present study, near infrared transmittance (NIT) spectroscopy was tested as a potential analytical technique to predict the FA profile of ground chicken breast (Pectoralis superficialis) considering the wavelengths between 850 and 1050nm. Calibration equations were built using reference data expressed as (i) percentage of total FA and (ii) ...
Ross Gloria Romina - - 2012
The aim of this work was to study fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration. Thirty post-weaning pigs (25th day of age) were distributed into 2 groups: Control (n= 15) and Probiotic (n= 15). Each experimental group was fed ad libitum on a commercial diet during 35 days. ...
Frisch Kim - - 2012
Excretion of conjugated bile acids into bile is an essential function of the liver, and impairment of canalicular bile acid secretion leads to cholestatic liver injury. However, hepatic excretory function cannot be quantified in vivo because of the lack of suitable methods. Cholylsarcosine is an analog of the endogenous bile ...
Nuchdang Sasikarn - - 2012
The potential of glycerol obtained from transesterification of waste cooking oil as a main carbon source for biogas production was investigated. The glycerol was highly contaminated with oils and fats and was pretreated with sulfuric acid. Using a carbon source of glucose as a control, we compared biogas production from ...
Demizu Yosuke - - 2012
Chiral cyclic α,α-disubstituted amino acids, (3S,4S)- and (3R,4R)-1-amino-3,4-(dialkoxy)cyclopentanecarboxylic acids ((S,S)- and (R,R)-Ac(5) c(dOR) ; R: methyl, methoxymethyl), were synthesized from dimethyl L-(+)- or D-(-)-tartrate, and their homochiral homoligomers were prepared by solution-phase methods. The preferred secondary structure of the (S,S)-Ac(5) c(dOMe) hexapeptide was a left-handed (M) 3(10) helix, whereas those ...
Chao Lily C - - 2012
SIRT1 is a phylogenetically conserved energy sensor. The molecular mechanisms that regulate its catalytic activity, however, are incompletely understood. Gerhart-Hines et al. (2011) have identified β-adrenergic/cAMP signaling as a regulatory input that rapidly controls SIRT1 activity and fatty acid oxidation.
Yuan Jianmin - - 2012
A study was undertaken to examine the effects of poultry fat (PF) compared with those of soybean oil (SBO) on intestinal development, fatty acid transporter protein (FATP) mRNA expression, and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. A total of 144 day-old male commercial broilers were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups ...
Gerhart-Hines Zachary - - 2011
The NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is an evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensor of the Sirtuin family that mediates homeostatic responses to certain physiological stresses such as nutrient restriction. Previous reports have implicated fluctuations in intracellular NAD(+) concentrations as the principal regulator of SIRT1 activity. However, here we have identified a cAMP-induced phosphorylation ...
Gigant Nicolas - - 2011
Yes, nitrenes did "N,O"! Intermolecular addition of nitrene to enecarbamates and enesulfonamides gives oxyamidated products in excellent yields of up to 98 % and with good levels of stereoselectivity. Complete regioselectivity is also observed, leading to the formation of N,O-acetals which can further react with various nucleophiles under acidic conditions (see ...
Huang Guan-Jhong - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Mesona procumbens is consumed as a herbal drink and jelly-type dessert in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of M. procumbens (AMP) using the λ-carrageenin (Carr)-induced mouse paw oedema model. The fingerprint chromatogram of AMP was obtained ...
Chen Jie - - 2011
A one-pot electrophilic alkoxyetherification using an olefin, a cyclic ether, a carboxylic acid, and N-bromosuccinimide has been developed. The oxygen nucleophiles, the olefinic substrates, and the cyclic ether partners can be varied to produce a wide range of alkoxyether derivatives.
Nomura Masahiro - - 2011
A series of novel cyclic amine-substituted benzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their PPARα agonist activity. Strucure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of (S)-3-[3-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-methylthyazole-5-carboxamido]piperidin-1-yl]benzoic acid (S)-4f (KRP-105) as a potent and high subtype-selective human PPARα agonist. (S)-4f showed excellent PK profile and oral administration of (S)-4f to ...
Wang Qin - - 2011
An ethylene glycol solution was used as the electrophoretic running buffer in unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microchips to minimize the interactions between the analytes and the hydrophobic walls of the plastic microchannels, enhance the resolution of the analytes and eliminate the uncontrollable dispersion caused by uneven liquid levels and ...
Ivanova Olga A - - 2011
An ability of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes to (3+3)-cyclodimerization was disclosed. It was found that Lewis acid-induced transformations of 2-(hetero)arylcyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxylates containing electron-abundant aromatic substituents led to the construction of six-membered cyclic systems. Depending on the substrate properties and the Lewis acid applied three types of products can be obtained: 1) 1,4-diarylcyclohexanes, 2) ...
Chai Guobi - - 2011
Chromone derivatives were synthesized from 2,3-allenoic acids and benzynes in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions. Instead of the cyclic conjugate addition of the intermediate A formed by the nucleophilic addition of allenoic acid with benzyne, this intermediate undergoes 1,2-addition with the carbonyl group, which was followed by the ...
Zhang Shaodong - - 2011
The polyetherification of diols with 4-12 methylene units was studied in Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquids (BAILs). High molar mass poly(oxyalkylene)s were obtained at relatively low temperatures (130 °C), except in the cases of 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol where cyclic ether formation was observed.
Gjerlaug-Enger E - - 2011
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (NIRS) technology for prediction of the chemical composition (moisture content and fatty acid composition) of fat from fast-growing, lean slaughter pig samples coming from breeding programmes. NIRS method I: a total of 77 samples of intact subcutaneous fat ...
Ohlendorf Birgit - - 2011
Szentiamide (1) a new cyclic hexadepsipeptide was isolated from the culture broth of the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus szentirmaii DSM 16338T. The structure was elucidated by analysis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra and high resolution mass spectrometry. The amino acids were determined to be D-leucine, L-threonine, D-phenylalanine, D-valine, L-tyrosine and ...
Roberts Lee R - - 2011
A series of acidic triazoles with activity as soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators is described. Incorporation of the CF(3) triazole improved the overall physicochemical and drug-like properties of the molecule and is exemplified by compound 25.
Truscott Byron J - - 2011
The synthesis and catalytic activity of three well-defined monomeric rhodium(i) hydroxide complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are reported. [Rh(cod)(ICy)(OH)] promoted the 1,4-addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic enones, with TONs and TOFs of 100,000 and 6,600 h(-1), respectively, at 0.001 mol% catalyst loadings. Mechanistic studies permitted the isolation of ...
Smith Graham - - 2011
In the crystal structure of the title mol-ecular adduct, C(9)H(7)N·C(8)H(12)O(4), the two species are -linked through a carb-oxy-lic acid-isoquinoline O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. These mol-ecular pairs then inter-associate through the second acid group of the cis-cyclo-hexane-1,2-dicarb-oxy-lic acid molecules, forming a classic centrosymmetric cyclic head-to-head carb-oxy-lic acid-carboxyl O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding association [graph-set R(2) ...
Cheon Cheol Hong - - 2011
A chiral Brønsted acid has been developed from a cationic gold(I) disphosphine complex in the presence of alcoholic solvent and applied to the enantioselective protonation reaction of silyl enol ethers of ketones. Various optically active cyclic ketones were obtained in excellent yields and high enantioselectivities, including cyclic ketones bearing aliphatic ...
Uemoto Y - - 2012
The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase; SCD) gene is a candidate gene for fatty acid composition. It is located on pig SSC14 in a region where quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fatty acid composition were previously detected in a Duroc purebred population. The objective of the present study was to fine map ...
Jiang Y Z - - 2011
The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate growth and carcass characteristics, organ weight, meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid (FA) and amino acid composition between the Chinese indigenous pig breed Dahe and the crossbred Dawu. The Dahe pigs had lower average daily gain (P < 0.001) and a higher ...
Popplewell Wendy L - - 2011
Grassypeptolides F (1) and G (2), bis-thiazoline-containing cyclic depsipeptides with a rare β-amino acid, extensive N-methylation, and a large number of d-amino acids, are reported from an extract of the Palauan cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Both 1 and 2 were found to have moderate inhibitory activity against the transcription factor AP-1 ...
Jiang Daixun - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Paeonia lactiflora root (baishao in Chinese) is a commonly used herb in TCM. Research has shown baishao to have positive pharmacological actions, including, particularly, anti-inflammatory properties. In this paper we studied the influence of baishao extract on cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and related anti-inflammatory action to identify new pharmacologic action ...
Le Boucher d'Herouville Florent - - 2011
A Rh-based catalytic system implying electron-poor MeOBIPHEP analogues has been developed for the 1,4-addition of boronic acids to maleimides and enones under mild conditions at room temperature and led to succinimide derivatives and arylated cyclic ketones in good to excellent yields and ee. We uncovered the crucial role of the ...
Kang Hahk-Soo - - 2011
Four cyclic decapeptides, minutissamides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the cultured cyanobacterium Anabaena minutissima (UTEX 1613). The planar structures were determined using various spectroscopic techniques including HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of the α-amino acid residues were assigned using Marfey's method after acid hydrolysis. The ...
Meickle Theresa - - 2011
NMR-guided fractionation of a non-polar extract of a Florida Keys collection of Lyngbya sp. resulted in the isolation of two novel epimeric cyclic depsipeptides, porpoisamides A (1) and B (2). The planar structures of these compounds were determined using NMR spectroscopic techniques. The absolute configurations of amino and hydroxy acid ...
Islam Md Shahidul - - 2011
The naturally occurring cyclic tetrapeptide, chlamydocin, originally isolated from fungus Diheterospora chlamydosphoria, consists of α-aminoisobutyric acid, L: -phenylalanine, D: -proline and an unusual amino acid (S)-2-amino-8-((S)-oxiran-2-yl)-8-oxooctanoic acid (Aoe) and inhibits the histone deacetylases (HDACs), a class of regulatory enzymes. The epoxyketone moiety of Aoe is the key functional group for ...
Dhaka Vandana - - 2011
Trans fatty acids have the presence of one or more double bonds in the trans configuration instead of the usual cis configuration. They are desired by Vanaspati industry as they impart firmness to margarines and plasticity as well as emulsion stability to shortenings. Research has proved the direct connection of ...
Dhankhar Rakesh - - 2011
Carcinomas are considered to be associated with increased cellular proliferation under antigenic stimulation and inflammation. Therefore, the markers of increased cellular turnover such as adenosine deaminase and uric acid were estimated quantitatively along with markers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck region. ...
Fletcher Stephen P - - 2011
The method of Kouklovsky and coworkers for the enantioselective alkylation of cyclic N-naphthoyl derivatives of amino acids was used to introduce a (13)C label into one of the two enantiotopic methyl groups of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) by retentive alkylation of L-alanine with (13)CH(3)I. Conditions were identified for optimization of yield ...
Mexis Stamatios F - - 2011
The present study investigated the effect of irradiation, active and modified atmosphere packaging, and storage conditions on quality retention of raw, whole, unpeeled almonds. Almond kernels were packaged in barrier and high-barrier pouches, under N(2) or with an O(2) absorber and stored either under fluorescent lighting or in the dark ...
Mexis Stamatios F - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the effect of irradiation, active and modified atmosphere packaging, and storage conditions on quality retention of raw, whole, unpeeled almonds. Almond kernels were packaged in barrier and high-barrier pouches, under N(2) or with an O(2) absorber and stored either under fluorescent lighting or in the ...
Rajawat Yogendra - - 2010
Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that responds with great sensitivity to nutrient availability, implying that certain macro- or micro-nutrients are involved. We found that retinoic acid promotes autophagosome maturation through a pathway independent from the classic nuclear retinoid receptors. Retinoic acid redistributes the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor from the trans-Golgi ...
de Thé Hugues - - 2010
The fusion oncogene, promyelocytic leukaemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor-α (RARA), initiates acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) through both a block to differentiation and increased self-renewal of leukaemic progenitor cells. The current standard of care is retinoic acid (RA) and chemotherapy, but arsenic trioxide also cures many patients with APL, and an RA ...
Herrera Federico - - 2010
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main astroglial marker during astrogliogenesis, but it is also expressed in other cell types, including neural stem cells and old neurons. Activation of the JAK/STAT pathway by the IL-6 family of cytokines is the canonical pathway regulating GFAP expression, whereas retinoic acid is ...
Lee Young Jae - - 2010
Mice deficient in growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) signaling display anterior transformation of axial vertebrae and truncation of caudal vertebrae. However, the in vivo molecular mechanisms by which GDF11 signaling regulates the development of the vertebral column have yet to be determined. We found that Gdf11 and Acvr2b mutants are ...
Amory John K JK Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine and School of Pharmaceutics, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. - - 2011
The bisdichloroacetyldiamine WIN 18,446 reversibly inhibits spermatogenesis in many species, including humans; however, the mechanism by which WIN 18,446 functions is unknown. As retinoic acid is essential for spermatogenesis, we hypothesized that WIN 18,446 might inhibit retinoic acid biosynthesis from retinol (vitamin A) within the testes by inhibiting the enzyme ...
Conde-Aguilera J A - - 2010
Experiments carried out to determine the amino acid requirement in growing animals are often based on the premise that the amino acid composition of body protein is constant. However, there are indications that this assumption may not be correct. The objective of this study was to test the effect of ...
Carlin Neal - - 2010
A 15-year-old Caucasian boy with a diagnosis of confluent and reticulated papillomatosis who had received numerous treatments with minimal responses cleared with a 20-week course of 13-cis-retinoic acid and has remained in remission. It is important to consider the use of oral retinoids in the treatment of this stubborn, unsightly, ...
Park Il-Kyu - - 2010
To develop a targeted drug delivery system for cancer therapy and anti-angiogenesis, amphiphilic heparin bioconjugates were synthesized by chemical conjugation of hydrophobic retinoic acid and a targeting ligand, folic acid, to the heparin backbone (HFR). The chemical structure of the HFR conjugates was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H ...
Bai Aiping - - 2010
Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized with uncontrolled immune response in inflamed mucosa, with dominance of Th1 cells. Recently, all-trans retinoic acid has been shown that can lead T-cell response by suppressing Th17 development via retinoic acid receptor (RAR), but it is still unknown whether all-trans retinoic acid can modulate Th1 ...
Schinke Carolina C Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, - - 2010
The binding of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to retinoid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha) relieves transcriptional repression induced by the promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor (PML-RAR) oncoprotein. The ATRA molecule contains a cyclohexenyl ring, a polyene chain containing conjugated double alkene bonds, and a terminal carboxyl group. To determine the contributions of these structural ...
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