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Results 601 - 650 of 1771
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Janssen J J - - 2000
The effect of retinoic acid on the differentiation of a human retinal pigment epithelium-derived cell line ARPE-19 was studied. Differentiation of ARPE-19 cells is delayed by retinoic acid. The minimum all-trans-retinoic acid concentration needed for delay of ARPE-19 differentiation is 1 microM. A delay of differentiation was also observed using ...
Handler A - - 2000
Some neuroblastoma cell lines change their neurotransmitter phenotype from noradrenergic to cholinergic under retinoic acid treatment. Such "neurotransmitter switch" seems to be a consequence of changes in the expression and activity of the biosynthetic machinery for both neurotransmitters. In this study, we have characterized this "neurotransmitter switch" induced by retinoic ...
Halliday G M - - 2000
Studies into the effects of topical retinoic acid on photocarcinogenesis have yielded ambiguous findings. This may be due to different Experimental protocols and ultraviolet spectra. Retinoic acid is commonly used for a range of dermatologic conditions, and therefore it is important to resolve whether it affects skin tumor formation. To ...
Ahmad M - - 2000
Significant differences between the metabolism of retinoic acid by different tissues might be an important determinant of the effectiveness of a systemically administered inhibitor at a particular tissue site. Here the metabolism of retinoic acid has been studied in microsomal fractions from different tissues (liver, kidney, intestinal mucosa, lung, skin, ...
Krätke R - - 2000
Retinoids are involved in several physiological processes and are used in the treatment of various skin disorders. Therapy with retinoids during pregnancy may induce severe embryotoxic effects like craniofacial and cardiovascular malformations in the developing embryo. We investigated the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and all-trans-retinoyl-beta-D-glucuronide (ATRAG) in an amphibian ...
Simon J D - - 2000
Photoaging and skin cancer can result from the exposure of skin to ultraviolet A (UV-A, 320-400 nm) radiation. The detailed chemical mechanisms by which these processes occur are not known, but they must begin with the absorption of a UV-A photon by one or more photoreceptor(s) within the skin. The ...
Lenhard J M - - 2000
HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are effective drugs for the treatment of AIDS. However, PI therapy is sometimes associated with side-effects including increased plasma lipids and altered body fat distribution, although fat redistribution may occur in some patients not treated with PIs. Overdosage with vitamin A(1) acid (all-trans-retinoic acid, ATRA) or ...
Martin G - - 2000
The intracellular fatty acid content of insulin-sensitive target tissues determines in part their insulin sensitivity. Uptake of fatty acids into cells is a controlled process determined in part by a regulated import/export system that is controlled at least by two key groups of proteins, i.e. the fatty acid transport protein ...
Ulven S M - - 2000
Specific combinations of nuclear retinoid receptors acting as ligand-inducible transcription factors mediate the essential role of retinoids in embryonic development. Whereas some data exist on the expression of these receptors during early postimplantation development in mouse, little is known about the enzymes controlling the production of active ligands for the ...
Cupitt J M - - 2000
A 62-year-old woman with acute promyelocytic leukaemia was treated with all-trans retinoic acid. On day 2 she suffered with dyspnoea and general fatigue. Marked hypoxia suggested the occurrence of retinoic acid syndrome. She underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation with the administration of dexamethasone. Her symptoms promptly abated. She was ...
Selek H - - 2000
PURPOSE: An oil in water emulsion of 0.01% all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) was prepared and clinically evaluated in dry eye patients. METHODS: The ophthalmic emulsion consisted of 10% of arachis oil and 90% of the hydrogel of Carbopol 940. To evaluate retinoic acid emulsion clinically, a placebo-controlled, open-labeled, randomized study was ...
Kunchala S R - - 2000
Retinoic acid constantly undergoes structural inter-conversions among the geometrical isomers (all-trans-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinoic acid, 11-cis-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid and 9-13-di-cis-retinoic acid) by photoisomerization under natural light. Geometric isomers of retinoic acid thus formed showed different effects on human epidermal keratinocyte growth and differentiation. The ability of the isomers to inhibit ...
Mertz J R - - 2000
Research over the past two decades has shown that the growth of young eyes is guided by vision. If near- or far-sightedness is artificially imposed by spectacle lenses, eyes of primates and chicks compensate by changing their rate of elongation, thereby growing back to the pre-lens optical condition. Little is ...
Wang L - - 2000
Acetaldehyde alone and retinoic acid alone have been shown to increase and decrease, respectively, collagen production by stellate cells in culture. In this study the effects of retinoic acid on alpha(1)(I) and alpha(2)(I) collagen expression and its influence on the enhancing effects of acetaldehyde were determined. Retinoic acid decreased the ...
Moriya N - - 2000
Dorsal lips of Xenopus laevis may differentiate into pancreas after treatment with retinoic acid in vitro. The dorsal lip region is fated to be dorsal mesoderm and anterior endoderm. Dorsal lip cells isolated from stage 10 early gastrula differentiate into tissues such as notochord, muscle and pharynx. However, in the ...
Yokoyama H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: We established a high performance liquid chromatography system that allowed simultaneous quantification of various retinoids. METHODS: We applied the retinoids to a high performance liquid chromatography system with a silica gel absorption column. Samples were separated by the system with a binary multistep gradient with two kinds of solvent ...
Emmanouil-Nikoloussi E N - - 2000
Diverse studies on retinoic acid teratogenesis, during the recent years, indicate that the drug's analogues target on diverse cell population during differentiation in mammals. During an extended teratological protocol concerning retinoic acid influence in diverse embryonic tissue differentiation in experimental animals we studied all-trans-retinoic acid's influence on palatal development in ...
Ahmad M - - 2000
Cytochrome P450-mediated 4-hydroxylation of retinoic acid is an important pathway in the termination of its biological action and the activity of certain P450 isozymes has been studied in non-induced male rat hepatic microsomes using isozyme-selective inhibitors. The importance of the activity of the isozyme to retinoic acid metabolism was, 2A6 ...
Zhang Q Y - - 2000
Retinoic acids have important pleiotropic biological effects and thus the potential for human cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) to mediate retinoic acid synthesis was investigated. We examined the retinoic acid synthetic activity of human cDNA-expressed CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4, 3A4+ cytochrome b(5) (b(5)), 3A5, and ...
Mao G E - - 2000
The retro-retinoids 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol (14-HRR) and anhydroretinol (AR) are endogenous metabolites of retinol (Vitamin A). 14-HRR and retinol, but not retinoic acid, promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and fibroblasts when cultured in serum-free medium, whereas AR competitively inhibits these growth-supportive effects. Retinol and all-trans-retinoic acid are potent teratogens. This study shows ...
Mackenzie P I - - 2000
Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of the immunosuppressant and antiproliferative agent, mycophenolate mofetil, is primarily metabolized by glucuronidation to the inactive 7-O-glucuronide. Although the uridine diphosphate (UDP) 7-O-glucuronide is the principal excretion product of this drug, carboxyl-linked glucuronides have also been detected in vitro and in vivo. To identify human ...
Yan M - - 2000
Retinoic acid has been associated with a variety of cardiac defects. A percentage of these defects are related to changes in the endocardial cushions. Studies in mice and older chick embryos have shown a decrease in mesenchymal cell formation attributable to retinoic acid and have suggested that retinoic acid was ...
Lin H S - - 2000
all-trans-Retinoic acid (ATRA, vitamin A acid, or tretinoin) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Its poor aqueous solubility not only affects its oral absorption but also prevents it from forming an aqueous parenteral formulation. Recently, we developed a water-soluble formulation of ATRA with ...
Hermanns J F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: During photoaging, the density of melanin chromatophores is heterogeneous in the epidermis. AIMS: To define the patterns of pheomelanin-enriched melanotic hypermelanosis of the face in phototype II subjects and to assess the effect of depigmenting agents. Azelaic acid and glycolic acid were tested as well as a soy extract, ...
Disdier B - - 2000
The biotransformation and tissue distribution of 9-cis-retinoic acid was investigated in hairless rats. Indeed, only limited information is available about the pharmacokinetics of 9-cis-retinoic acid. Assuming that the target site for retinoids is the skin, tissue distribution study is therefore particularly justified. Following single oral administration of 30 mg/kg of ...
Mühling J - - 2000
Previous studies have shown the inhibitory effects of thiopentone on polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PML) function. However, major biochemical mechanisms which have been involved are still unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate thiopentone's effects on intracellular amino acid metabolism in PML using both advanced PML separation- and HPLC ...
Stahl W - - 2000
Carotenoids and retinoids stimulate gap junctional communication (GJC), thought to be related to cancer-preventive properties. Lycopene, a nonprovitamin A carotenoid and its possible oxidation product, acyclo-retinoic acid, were tested for their effect on GJC, on stabilization of connexin43 mRNA, and on the transactivation of the RAR-beta2-promoter in vitro. In human ...
Dufner, Jodi Lynn.
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Despite increases in the intensity of treatment of this tumor over the past several decades, the long-term survival of patients with advanced neuroblastoma remains dismal. This lack of progress has sparked interest in the use of alternative forms of therapy. ...
Bernardini S - - 1999
The ability of retinoic acid to modulate glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) activity has important implications both for cancer prevention and for anticancer therapy. We investigated GSTP1-1 expression and activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2) (genotype A*/B*) under basal conditions and during 48-h incubation with 0.1 microM all-trans-retinoic acid. ...
Yamada E - - 1999
Retinoids are strong tissue modifiers and have been used to treat severe acne, keloids and photo-aged skin. Tocoretinate (TR), ester bound retinoic acid and tocopherol, has been topically applied for skin ulcers and, more recently, for sclerotic skin diseases. To clarify the mechanism of tissue softening by retinoids and TR, ...
McDonald W S WS University of Miami School of Medicine, Fla., USA. - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of retinoic acid on wound healing and depth of injury in an animal skin model resurfaced with a CO2 laser. The dorsal skin of 21 Hartley guinea pigs was divided into halves. One-half received a daily application of 0.05% retinoic ...
Tsibris J C - - 1999
Uterine leiomyomata are the main indication for a hysterectomy in the United States and occur in 25% of women >35 years. Because uterine leiomyomata can form when ovariectomized guinea pigs are exposed to estradiol and retinoic acids, we tested whether human leiomyomata had high levels of retinoic acids and related ...
Rial E - - 1999
In mammalian brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis is explained by uncoupling mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) is responsible for this uncoupled state, because it allows proton re-entry into the matrix and thus dissipates the proton gradient generated by the respiratory chain. Proton transport by UCP1 is regulated negatively ...
Su J - - 1999
17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17betaHSDs) convert androgens and estrogens between their active and inactive forms, whereas retinol dehydrogenases catalyze the conversion between retinol and retinal. Retinol dehydrogenases function in the visual cycle, in the generation of the hormone retinoic acid, and some also act on androgens. Here we report cloning and expression ...
DeRose J J JJ - - 1999
Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids) are capable of inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro. The present study examines the effect of two retinoids, all-trans retinoic acid and 13-cis retinoic acid, on intimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. After receiving varying doses of all-trans retinoic acid or 13-cis retinoic ...
Franco P G - - 1999
Previous work has shown that the posteriorising agent retinoic acid can accelerate anterior neuronal differentiation in Xenopus laevis embryos (Papalopulu, N. and Kintner, C. (1996) Development 122, 3409-3418). To elucidate the role of retinoic acid in the primary neurogenesis cascade, we investigated whether retinoic acid treatment of whole embryos could ...
Ohishi M - - 1999
We studied the effect of retinoic acid on osteopontin synthesis and the mRNA expression in rat clonal dental pulp cells, RPC-C2A. An immunoprecipitation assay clarified that retinoic acid caused an increase in phosphorylated osteopontin synthesis that was dose-dependent, and marked increases were observed at retinoic acid concentrations of 10(-6) to ...
Pattanayek R - - 1999
A retinoic acid binding protein isolated from the lumen of the rat epididymis (ERABP) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily. ERABP binds both the all-trans and 9-cis isomers of retinoic acid, as well as the synthetic retinoid (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8)-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2 napthalenyl-1 propenyl]-benzoic acid (TTNPB), a structural analog of all-trans retinoic acid. ...
Oho E - - 1999
We measured N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils from three patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia during treatment with all-trans retinoic acid using a luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay. The maximum level of reactive oxygen species production during all-trans retinoic acid treatment was 58.8 +/- 2.3 x 10(4) (mean +/- SEM) counted ...
Tang-Liu D D - - 1999
Tazarotene (AGN 190168) is a new acetylenic retinoid which is effective for the topical treatment of patients with stable plaque psoriasis and mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Topical gel application provides direct delivery of tazarotene into the skin. At 10 hours after a topical application of 0.1% tazarotene gel to ...
Csaba G - - 1999
In earlier experiments, the long-term effect of perinatal treatment (hormonal imprinting) with all-trans-retinol and all-trans-retinoic acid on the thymic glucocorticoid and uterine estrogen receptors was studied and was found effective. In the present experiments, the imprinting effect of four retinoids (13-cis-retinaldehyde, 13-cis-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinaldehyde and 9-cis-retinoic acid) was investigated, using ...
Kierdorf U - - 1999
Unilateral injection of 10 mg of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) into the lateral portion of the growing pedicle of fallow bucks (n = 20) led to a significant (P = 0.033, Wilcoxon matched-pairs test) increase in first antler volume (median, 25.5 ml) as compared to the contralateral (control) side, injected ...
Seko A - - 1999
Two different types of peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) were identified in developing embryos of medaka fish ( Oryzias latipes ). Because the optimum pH values for their activities were acidic and neutral, they were designated as acid PNGase M and neutral PNGase M, respectively. The acid PNGase M corresponded to the enzyme ...
Lawson N D - - 1999
Neutrophil maturation occurs in well defined morphological stages that correlate with the acquisition of molecular markers associated with neutrophil function. A variety of factors are known to play a role in terminal neutrophil maturation, including the vitamin A derivative, retinoic acid. Retinoic acid can directly modulate gene expression via binding ...
Visani G - - 1999
In order to investigate the direct effects of retinoids on normal adult hematopoietic progenitors, purified CD34+ cells were seeded in serum-free cultures in the presence of pharmacological (10(-6)) M or physiological (10(-12)) M concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA) plus combinations of specific cytokines. ...
Naderi S - - 1999
The mechanisms underlying the growth-inhibitory effect of retinoids on normal human B lymphocytes are not well understood. We addressed this issue by examining the effect of retinoic acid on the cell cycle machinery involved in G1/S transition. When retinoic acid was administered to B cells stimulated into mid to late ...
Rigobello M P - - 1999
Retinoic acids, structurally related to vitamin A, inhibit the in vitro proliferation of different types of normal and neoplastic cells. The effects of all-trans, 9-cis, and 13-cis retinoic acids were tested on mitochondria isolated from rat liver. All the compounds were able to induce the membrane permeability transition observed as ...
Wingerath T - - 1999
Laser desorption ionization (LDI)- and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS, MALDI-MS) at 337-nm laser wavelength were used to analyze retinol (vitamin A), retinoic acid, and retinal and their analogs 3-hydroxyretinol, 3-hydroxyretinoic acid, 3-hydroxyretinal, 4-oxoretinol, 4-oxoretinoic acid, 4-oxoretinal, 3,4-didehydroretinol (vitamin A(2)), 3,4-didehydroretinoic acid, 3,4-didehydroretinal, acycloretinol, acycloretinoic acid, and acycloretinal. ...
Ulukaya E - - 1999
Retinoids, natural or synthetic substances which have vitamin A activity, have a well-known reputation for their antitumour and differention-inducing activity in vitro and in vivo. More than 1500 retinoids have been tested so far but very few of them have been entered into clinical trials because of their side-effects. All-trans-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide ...
Andersson E - - 1999
Vitamin A is an intrinsic modulator of proliferation and differentiation in human epidermis, and may be destroyed by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) impinging on the skin. To identify the deleterious effects of a perturbed cellular vitamin A status, we investigated the endogenous retinoid concentrations and the metabolism of [3H]retinol and all-trans ...
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