Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1760
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Ulven S M - - 2001
Studies using bioassays in normal mice and gene activation in transgenic reporter mice have demonstrated peaks of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling in the brachial and lumbar regions of the spinal cord. Recently, Solomin et al. (Solomin et al. [1998] Nature 395:398-402) detected a retinoid X receptor (RXR) signal in ...
Zhao W L - - 2001
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has recently been identified as an effective drug in the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) without cross-resistance to all-trans retinoic acid and achieved complete remission rates of 80-90% according to most reports. With intravenous infusion at a dose of 0.08-0.16 mg/kg daily, ...
Zhu Y K - - 2001
Proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix is thought to play an important role both in emphysema and in tissue development and repair. Retinoic acid has been suggested to modify tissue injury, and in an animal model of emphysema may induce alveolar repair. Since cytokines can induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production in ...
Kang S - - 2001
Premature skin aging, or photoaging, results largely from repeated exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Photoaging is characterized clinically by wrinkles, mottled pigmentation, rough skin, and loss of skin tone; the major histologic alterations lie in dermal connective tissue. In recent years, a great deal of research has ...
Nau H - - 2001
This paper reviews the teratogenicity of isotretinoin in regard to aspects of species variation, toxicokinetics, and metabolism. Particular emphasis is given to the hypothesis that most effects of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) are mediated by isomerization to the all-trans-retinoic acid. This mechanism of action would provide a basis for the understanding ...
Kim S Y - - 2001
All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a promising anticancer and antiwrinkle drug. However, its clinical application is limited because it is rapidly metabolized by the induced cytochrome P450 (P450). In this study, farnesol derivatives are proposed as new inhibitors to prevent P450-mediated metabolism. The farnesol derivatives were suc-farnesol and mal-farnesol, which were ...
Lampen A - - 2001
Retinoids are essential for growth and cell differentiation of epithelial tissues. The effects of the food compounds phytol, the phytol metabolite phytanic acid, and the fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the retinoid signaling pathway in intestinal cells were studied. Phytol inhibited the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) from dietary ...
Toma E - - 2001
BACKGROUND: An increasing rate of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated metabolic and morphological abnormalities has been reported in HIV-infected persons. Some of them resemble retinoid-related adverse events, indicating alteration(s) of retinol metabolism or of retinoic acid-mediated signalling. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retinol levels in patients with or without HAART and to assess ...
Ogata S - - 2001
We have found that niacin-related compounds, particularly picolinic acid, induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells. In this paper, we investigated whether various picolinic acid-related compounds had apoptosis-inducing activities or not. Particularly, fusaric acid, picolinaldehyde, nicotinaldehyde, 2-aminopyridine, and 3-aminopyridine also induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that pyridine substituted ...
Khalil Z - - 2001
Previous studies using an antibody to cis-urocanic acid and mast-cell-depleted mice implicated both cis-urocanic acid and mast cells in the mechanisms by which ultraviolet B light suppresses systemic contact hypersensitivity responses in mice. In the absence of a direct stimulatory effect of cis-urocanic acid on connective tissue mast cells, an ...
Smith D - - 2001
The small lipid retinoic acid is known to promote neuronal differentiation in vitro and to act as a teratogen in the embryonic brain, but very little is known about the natural role of endogenously synthesized retinoic acid in forebrain development. Retinoic acid is synthesized mainly by three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases. We ...
Levine L - - 2001
Release of arachidonic acid from rat liver cells is stimulated after a 6-hour incubation with 9-cis retinoic acid, all trans retinoic acid, the selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma synthetic thiazolidinedione, ciglitazone, the cyclopentenones, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14) PGJ2 and PGA1 and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, celecoxib and indomethacin. The rates of the release stimulated ...
Sato T - - 2001
We have previously reported the establishment of a culture system of hamster auricular sebocytes. Although their morphologic and biochemical properties are very similar to those of human sebocytes, the regulation of lipogenesis is not clear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of epidermal growth factor, all-trans retinoic acid, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and ...
Rice A M - - 2001
Lithium affects several enzymatic activities, however, the molecular mechanisms of lithium actions are not fully understood. We previously showed that LiCl interacts synergistically with all-trans-retinoic acid to promote terminal differentiation of WEHI-3B D(+) cells, a phenomenon accompanied by the recovery of the retinoid-induced loss of retinoic acid receptor alpha protein ...
Cho Y - - 2001
Retinoic acid activation of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) induces protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) expression and inhibits proliferation of the hormone-dependent T-47D breast cancer cell line. Retinoic acid has no effect on proliferation or PKCalpha expression in a hormone-independent, breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). To test the role of PKCalpha ...
Turcotte S - - 2001
The ability of physical and pharmacological modulators to increase the cytotoxicity of melphalan was investigated in Chinese hamster ovary cells using a clonogenic cell survival assay. Hyperthermia has potential for use in cancer treatment, particularly as an adjuvant to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Ethacrynic acid is a glutathione S-transferase inhibitor and ...
Rühl R - - 2001
Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid [13CRA], Accutane) is used for the treatment of dermatological diseases. Isotretinoin is, however, teratogenic in animals and humans. The mechanism of action of its teratogenicity is still not clearly identified. It has little or no binding properties to cytosolic retinoid-binding proteins or nuclear retinoid receptors (RAR, RXR). ...
Bilde M - - 2001
The semivolatile oxidation products (trans-norpinic acid, pinic acid, cis-pinonic acid, etc.) of the biogenic monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, etc.) contribute to the atmospheric burden of particulate matter. Using the tandem differential mobility analysis (TDMA) technique evaporation rates of glutaric acid, trans-norpinic acid, and pinic acid particles were measured in a laminar ...
Begemann G - - 2001
We describe a new zebrafish mutation, neckless, and present evidence that it inactivates retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2, an enzyme involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis. neckless embryos are characterised by a truncation of the anteroposterior axis anterior to the somites, defects in midline mesendodermal tissues and absence of pectoral fins. At ...
Hakimelahi G H - - 2001
Two novel series of all-trans-beta-retinoic acid derivatives were synthesized and found to possess anticancer activity. The first series, cephalosporin 3'-retinoic esters 6 and 7 were, respectively, obtained by the condensation of all-trans-beta-retinoic acid (2) with cephalosporins 4 and 5. The second series, 7-(retinamido)cephalosporins 11 and 12, were synthesized, respectively, by ...
Ben-Dor A - - 2001
The biochemical mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of lycopene, the main tomato carotenoid, on the growth of cancer cells are largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that lycopene derivatives may act as ligands for a nuclear receptor in analogy to retinoic acid, the hormone derived from beta-carotene. The inhibition of ...
Hong J T - - 2001
Glycolic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from fruit and milk sugars, has been used commonly as a cosmetic ingredient since it was discovered to have photoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant effects on ultraviolet (UV)B-irradiated skin. Little is known, however, about the functional role of glycolic acid on UV-induced skin ...
Schneider R A - - 2001
Correlations between facial anomalies and brain defects are well characterized throughout the clinical literature, yet a developmental basis for this association has not been identified. We demonstrate that the frontonasal process, which gives rise to the mid- and upper face, and the forebrain are linked early in their morphogenesis by ...
George F - - 2001
The recently isolated pigments from Petunia integrifolia and Triteleia bridgesii present a distinct feature that sheds new light on the understanding of intramolecular copigmentation of anthocyanins. These are among the infrequent anthocyanins that naturally present a coumaric acid substituent in both cis and trans forms. As a consequence, the two ...
Pettigrew N E - - 2001
The compound 3-methyleneoxindole (MOI), a photooxidation product of the plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid, functions as an affinity label of the dimeric pi class glutathione S-transferase (GST) isolated from pig lung. MOI inactivates the enzyme to a limit of 14% activity. The k for inactivation by MOI is decreased 20-fold by ...
Weiss K L - - 2001
The synthesis of a nonhydrolyzable, carbon-linked analogue (4-HBR) of the retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) using Umpolung methods is described. Preliminary studies of biological activity show 4-HBR is similar to 4-HPR in its actions although a potentially relevant and desirable difference is its reduced suppression of plasma vitamin A levels. These results ...
Lallemand-Breitenbach V - - 2001
Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is the organizer of nuclear matrix domains, PML nuclear bodies (NBs), with a proposed role in apoptosis control. In acute promyelocytic leukemia, PML/retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha expression disrupts NBs, but therapies such as retinoic acid or arsenic trioxide (As2O3) restore them. PML is conjugated by the ...
Miyagi M - - 2001
A new method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to quantify isomers of retinol, retinal and retinoic acid simultaneously was established. The HPLC system consisted of a silica gel absorption column and a linear gradient with two kinds of solvents containing n-Hexane, 2-propanol, and glacial acetic acid in different ratios. ...
Samuel W - - 2001
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a regulatory enzyme involved in the synthesis of the monounsaturated fatty acids palmitoleate and oleate. The regulation of SCD is of physiological importance because the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids is thought to modulate membrane fluidity. Differential display analysis of retinal pigment ...
Rühl R - - 2001
Retinoic acid-glucuronides are known as retinoids with activity in acne therapy, limited placental transfer and reduced retinoid adverse effects. We synthesized the glucuronide of a novel retinoid, CD271 (adapalene), used for the treatment of moderate acne. The synthesis product ("CD271 glucuronide", CD271G) was purified by preparative HPLC. It undergoes in ...
Takahashi K - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of transdermal drug delivery of ondansetron, an antagonist of the 5-HT3 receptor, used for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis. The permeability of ondansetron from an aqueous suspension through shed snake skin as a model membrane was very low and in ...
Dupé V - - 2001
Several recent studies have shown that retinoic acid signalling is required for correct patterning of the hindbrain. However, the data from these studies are disparate and the precise role of retinoic acid signalling in patterning the anteroposterior axis of the neural tube remains uncertain. To help clarify this issue, we ...
Yokoyama H - - 2001
All-trans retinoic acid formation from all-trans retinol (vitamin A) in the human gastric mucosa was studied. When all-trans retinol and the human gastric mucosa were incubated together, all-trans retinoic acid was formed in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). When the NAD was not added, hardly any formation was ...
Stio M - - 2001
This study examines the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [24,25(OH)(2)D(3)], two vitamin D analogues (KH 1060 and EB 1089, which are 20-epi-22-oxa and 22,24-diene-analogues, respectively), 9-cis retinoic acid and all-trans retinoic acid on proliferation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, after treatment for 7 days. Cell number did not ...
Cabrera-Valladares G - - 2001
It has been shown that all-trans retinoic acid induces prematurely hepatic glucokinase mRNA in ten days-old neonatal rat hepatocytes, however, this effect could be related to the capacity of the retinoid to promote a more differentiated state of the hepatocyte. In this report we demonstrate that physiological concentrations of all-trans ...
Crabb D W - - 2001
This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were Hirokazu Yokoyama and David Crabb. The presentations were (1) Roles of vitamin A, retinoic acid, and retinoid receptors in the expression of liver ALDH2, by J. Pinaire, R. Hasanadka, M. Fang, ...
Watson R E - - 2001
Photoaged skin is characterized by coarse and fine wrinkles. The mechanisms of wrinkle formation are undetermined, but appear to be due to changes within the matrix of the dermis and at the dermal-epidermal junction. Previous studies have identified marked reductions in procollagens I and III, collagen VII, and the fibrillin-rich ...
Yan M - - 2001
Retinoic acid has been associated with a number of cardiac defects, some of which seem to be related to changes in the endocardial cushions. Studies in mice and older chick embryos have suggested that these defects may be associated with a decrease in mesenchymal cell formation within the cushion. In ...
Baldwin J E - - 2001
The kainoid amino acids exhibit potent neuroexcitatory activity in the mammalian central nervous system. Around their pyrrolidine ring, a trans disposition between the C-2 and C-3 substituents and a cis relationship between the C-3 and C-4 substituents are crucial for their potent biological activity. During synthetic studies into the kainoids, ...
Ebisawa M - - 2001
Several tropolone derivatives (4-7) were designed as novel retinoids on the assumption that the tropolone ring may mimic the benzoic acid moiety in retinoid structures, such as Am80 (2). Among the synthesized compounds, 5-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]tropolone (7a) showed moderate potency as a differentiation-inducer of HL-60 cells. The activities of the tropolones were ...
Beard R L - - 2001
Retinoids are natural and synthetic analogues of the hormone retinoic acid. Systemic retinoid agonist therapy is usually associated with toxic side effects, such as mucocutaneous toxicity, which may be alleviated by the use of topical retinoid antagonists. We report the synthesis and biological activity of a new series of potent, ...
Wang P L - - 2001
Herein, we suggest that Streptococcus mutans lipoteichoic acid-induced death of dental pulp cells on human deciduous teeth is caused by apoptosis. We provide evidence for the causal role of apoptosis in this process by demonstrating an increase in the proportion of fragmented DNA in such dental pulp cells, which results ...
Denisenko-Nehrbass N I - - 2001
Disulfiram, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, interferes with normal song maturation when applied to brain nucleus HVC of male zebra finches. We present here evidence from Western blots and enzymatic assays showing that known disulfiram targets other than retinaldehyde-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase (zRalDH) are absent in HVC. These findings are consistent with ...
Yoshimura K - - 2001
As a depigmenting treatment, combined topical applications of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) aqueous gel and 5% hydroquinone, 7% lactic acid ointment were used for Oriental patients with hyperpigmented skin lesions such as senile lentigines and nevus spilus. A narrow-band reflectance spectrophotometer and a tristimulus colorimeter were used to evaluate objectively ...
Hug D H - - 2001
Irradiation of skin by ultraviolet radiation in mice and humans leads to a suppression of cell-mediated immunity. This process is initiated when one of the photoreceptors in skin, trans-urocanic acid, is photoisomerized to cis-urocanic acid, an immunomodulator. High levels of L-histidine, histamine, and trans-urocanic acid are found in humans and ...
Ikemi N - - 2001
We have reported that the critical period for cleft palate formation by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is on gestation day 14 in rats, and classified abnormal patterns of palatal rugae into minor variations and anomalous patterns. In this study, we examined the dose-response relationship for cleft palate and an anomalous pattern ...
Zouboulis C C - - 2001
The review summarizes new results concerned with several important issues in the treatment of patients with acne. The first section reviews studies which show that 13-cis retinoic acid, a molecule with strong biological activity but low binding affinity for retinoid receptors and cellular-binding proteins in sebocytes, undergoes rapid intracellular conversion ...
Lin M - - 2000
This report describes the isolation of a heretofore uncharacterized aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with retinal dehydrogenase activity from rat kidney and the cloning and expression of a cDNA that encodes its human ortholog, the previously unknown ALDH12. The human ALDH12 cDNA predicts a 487-residue protein with the 23 invariant amino acids, ...
Lovat P E - - 2000
Retinoic acid therapy improves the survival of children with neuroblastoma and 13-cis retinoic acid now forms an important component of treatment for residual disease of stage IV neuroblastoma after chemotherapy. However, although 13-cis retinoic acid induces differentiation, other retinoids are effective at inducing apoptosis of neuroblastoma in vitro, including the ...
Marill J - - 2000
Cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent metabolism of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is important for the expression of its biological activity. Because the human P450s involved in the formation of the principal atRA metabolites have been only partially identified, the purpose of this study was to identify the human P450s involved in atRA metabolism. ...
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