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Shylesh Sankaranarayanapillai S Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 - - 2014
The catalytic activity of secondary amines supported on mesoporous silica for the self-condensation of n-butanal to 2-ethylhexenal can be altered significantly by controlling the Brønsted acidity of MOH species present on the surface of the support. In this study, MOH (M=Sn, Zr, Ti, and Al) groups were doped onto the ...
Li Tiangang T Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas (T.L.); and Department of Integrative Medical Sciences, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio - - 2014
Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol catabolism. Hepatic bile acid synthesis accounts for a major fraction of daily cholesterol turnover in humans. Biliary secretion of bile acids generates bile flow and facilitates hepatobiliary secretion of lipids, lipophilic metabolites, and xenobiotics. In the intestine, bile acids are essential for ...
Dittrich Manja M Department of Nutritional Physiology, Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Str. 24, 07743, Jena, - - 2014
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of foods enriched with vegetable oils varying in their n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids profile on cardiovascular risk factors for hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Fifty-nine hypertriglyceridemic subjects (triglycerides ≥ 1.5 mmol/L) were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. The placebo group received sunflower oil ...
Murai Toshiaki T Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan. - - 2014
Asymmetric synthesis of P-chiral phosphorothioic monofluoridic acid ammonium salts was achieved via axis-to-center chirality transfer reactions by using phosphorothioic acid O-esters with a binaphthyl group, and the absolute stereochemistry of the salts was determined by X-ray analyses and by comparison of their CD spectra.
Oba Makoto - - 2014
A chiral five-membered ring alpha,alpha-disubstituted alpha-amino acid (R,R)-Ac5cdN3 having two azido functional groups has been designed and synthesized. The cyclic amino acid (R,R)-Ac5cdN3 could be efficiently converted into several cyclic amino acids having various two 1,2,3-triazole functional groups. The (R,R)-Ac5cdN3 homo-chiral peptides (up to hexapeptide) and (R,R)-Ac5cdN3-containing L-Leu-based peptides were ...
Rodríguez-Gutiérrez Guillermo - - 2014
A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H) and lignin (L) under the optimal conditions for each fraction according earlier works. The ...
Petrović Marinko M Food Control Center, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Jagićeva 31, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address: - - 2015
Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained ...
Saito Holly E HE Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, - - 2014
Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium of the mammalian intestine that can persist in soil and aquatic systems, and can be a nosocomial pathogen to humans. It employs multiple stress adaptation strategies in order to survive such a wide range of environments. Within this study, we sought to elucidate whether ...
Mohajeri Sanaz S University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, - - 2014
In vitro (1) H MRS of human bile has shown potential in the diagnosis of various hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) diseases. Previously, in vivo (1) H MRS of human bile in gallbladder using a 1.5 T scanner demonstrated the possibility of quantification of choline-containing phospholipids (chol-PLs). However, other lipid components such as bile ...
Gotthardt Daniel Nils DN Department of Gastroenterology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, - - 2014
Background: The high incidence of cholesterol gallstones in patients after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) may be due to an increased loss of bile acids. We aimed to evaluate the kinetics of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in these patients. Methods: Pool sizes, ...
Maeda Yorio Y Department of Surgery, Brestopia Hospital, Maruyama 2-112-1, Miyazaki, 880 0052, Japan, - - 2014
The influence of human serum albumin (HSA) on the bile acid-mediated inhibition of liver microsomal type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) was studied in vitro. A rat liver microsomal fraction was prepared, and the 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity in the presence of various concentrations of bile acids and HSA was determined using ...
Cai Jian-Shan JS Department of General Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai, 200040, People's Republic of China, - - 2014
Bile acids entering into enterohepatic circulating are primary acids synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocyte. They are secreted actively across canalicular membrane and carried in bile to gallbladder, where they are concentrated during digestion. About 95 % BAs are actively taken up from the lumen of terminal ileum efficiently, leaving only approximately ...
Travaglini Leana L Department of Chemistry, "Sapienza" University of Rome, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. - - 2014
Self-assembly of peptides and bile acids has been widely investigated because of their biological role and their potential as a tool for the preparation of nanostructured biomaterials. We herein report both the synthesis and the self-association behavior of a compound that combines the aggregation properties of bile acid- and amino ...
Estiú M C MC Ramón Sardá Mother' and Children's Hospital, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by pruritus and elevated bile acid concentrations in maternal serum. This is accompanied by an enhanced risk of intrauterine and perinatal complications. High levels of sulphated progesterone metabolites (PMS) have been suggested to be involved in the multifactorial etiopathogenesis of ICP. The aim ...
Perino Alessia A Metabolic Signaling, Institute of Bioengineering, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, - - 2014
Bile acid metabolism is tightly controlled due to the toxic effects of bile acid overload. In this issue, research from the Feng lab reports Shp2 as a novel integrator of hepatic bile acid and FGF15/FGF19 signaling, adding another layer of complexity to the control of bile acid biosynthesis.
Luo Jian J NGM Biopharmaceuticals Inc., 630 Gateway Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. lling@ngmbio.com - - 2014
Hepatic accumulation of bile acids is central to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases. Endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) may reduce hepatic bile acid levels through modulation of bile acid synthesis and prevent subsequent liver damage. However, FGF19 has also been implicated in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, and consequently, the ...
Liu Jie J University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 USA Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, China - - 2014
Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate their own homeostasis, but the potency of Individual bile acids is not known. This study examined the effects of cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on expression of BA synthesis and transport genes ...
Ding Lili - - 2014
The Danning tablets (DNts) is commonly prescribed in China as a cholagogic formula. Our previous studies showed that DNts exerted the protective effect on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced liver injury with cholestasis in a dose-dependent mannar. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of DNts against ANIT-induced cholestasis are still not fully explored. Danning ...
Walker Alesia - - 2014
A metabolic disorder such as Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disease induced by genetic, environmental and nutritional factors. The db/db mouse model, bearing a non-functional leptin receptor is widely used to investigate the pathophysiology of T2DM. Fecal extracts of db/db and wild type littermates were studied to ...
Hendrick Siobhán M SM Royal College of Surgeons in - - 2014
Bile acids resulting from the aspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate are often present in the lower airways of people with cystic fibrosis and other respiratory distress diseases. Surprisingly, there is little or no information on the modulation of airway epithelial ion transport by bile acids. The secretory effect of a variety ...
Shang Quan Q Rutgers, New Jersey Medical - - 2014
Aims: It was proposed that CYP7A1 expression is suppressed through a gut-hepatic signaling pathway FGF15/19-FGFR4, which is initiated by activation of FXR in the intestine rather than in the liver. The present study tested whether portal bile acid flux alone without ileal FGF19 could down-regulate CYP7A1 expression in rabbits. Methods: ...
Gioiello Antimo A Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Via del Liceo 1, I-06122 Perugia (Italy). Electronic address: - - 2014
Deficiency of 3β-hydroxy-Δ(5)-C27-steroid oxidoreductase (HSD3B7), an enzyme catalyzing the second step in the pathway for bile acid synthesis, leads to a complete lack of the primary bile acids, cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, and the accumulation of 3β,7α-dihydroxy- and 3β,7α,12α-trihydroxy-Δ(5)-cholenoic acids. Patients affected by this autosomal recessive genetic defect develop cholestatic ...
Luciano Randy L RL Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, - - 2014
Bile acid nephropathy, also known as cholemic nephrosis or nephropathy, is an entity that can be seen in patients with severe cholestatic liver disease. It typically is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) with various forms of hepatic disease. Most often, patients with severe obstructive jaundice develop this lesion, which ...
McAdam E E Institute of Life Science, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK, SA2 - - 2014
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA) incidence is rising and prognosis is poor. Understanding the molecular basis of this malignancy is key to finding new prevention and treatment strategies. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is the primary cause of OA, usually managed with acid suppression therapy. However, this often does little to control carcinogenic ...
Appleby Richard N RN Section of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Imperial College London, Imperial College Healthcare, Hammersmith Hospital, London, - - 2014
Bile acids are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of functional GI disorders. New mechanisms have recently been described in the irritable bowel syndrome, chronic diarrhea and chronic idiopathic constipation. Identification of bile acid signaling through farnesoid X receptor (FXR), transmembrane G-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) ...
Bae Sun Hwan SH Department of Pediatrics, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, - - 2014
Omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids appear to be effective in preventing and treating parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, and several mechanisms were proposed for this observation. An 8-week-old male infant with cholestasis and acholic stool was diagnosed non-syndromic intrahepatic interlobular bile duct paucity by open-wedge liver biopsy. Initially he was treated ...
Ajouz Hana - - 2014
Bile acids were first proposed as carcinogens in 1939. Since then, accumulated evidence has linked exposure of cells of the gastrointestinal tract to repeated high physiologic levels of bile acids as an important risk factor for gastrointestinal cancers. High exposure to bile acids may occur in a number of settings, ...
Gärtner Stefanie S a BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing , Berlin , - - 2014
ABSTRACT Bile acids are relevant markers for clinical research. This study reports the production of antibodies for isolithocholic acid, the isomer of the extensively studied lithocholic acid. The IgG titer and affinity maturation were monitored during the immunizations of three mice and two rabbits. In both animal models, polyclonal antibodies ...
Hofmann Alan F AF University of California, San Diego, United States; - - 2014
During the last 80 years there have been extraordinary advances in our knowledge of the chemistry and biology of bile acids. We present here a brief history of the major achievements as we perceive them. Bernal, a physicist, determined the x-ray structure of cholesterol crystals and his data together with ...
König Alexander A Institute of Medical Virology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, National Reference Center for Hepatitis B and D Viruses, Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg, Schubertstr. 81, 35392 Giessen, Germany; German Center for Infection Research - - 2014
The human liver bile acid transporter Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) has recently been identified as liver-specific receptor for infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) which attaches via the myristoylated preS1 (myr-preS1) peptide domain of its large surface protein to NTCP. Since binding of the myr-preS1 peptide to NTCP is an ...
He Sihui S CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, - - 2014
The interaction between bile acids and surfactants at interfaces plays an important role in fat digestion. In this paper, we study the competitive adsorption of cholic acid (CA) at the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-laden liquid crystal (LC)/aqueous interface formed with cyanobiphenyl (nCB, n = 5-8) and the mixture of 5CB ...
Jones Mitchell Lawrence ML Biomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Physiology and Artificial Cells and Organs Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, 3775 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, - - 2014
The human gut microbiome produces potent ligands to bile acid receptors, and probiotics could act as therapeutics of bile acid dysmetabolism. A recent study in Cell Reports demonstrates that probiotic VSL#3 affects bile acid deconjugation and excretion, as well as the gut-liver FXR-FGF15 axis.
Kuipers Folkert F Department of Pediatrics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen, - - 2014
Over the past decade, it has become apparent that bile acids are involved in a host of activities beyond their classic functions in bile formation and fat absorption. The identification of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) as a nuclear receptor directly activated by bile acids and the discovery that bile ...
Poša Mihalj M Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Hajduk Veljka 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Bile acid salts are biosurfactants which form mixed micelles with phospholipids in vertebrates. These mixed micelles are suitable for solubilisation of cholesterol. For therapeutic purposes some bile acid salts as sodium ursocholate are used. However, bile acid anions posses low capacity for solubilisation of cholesterol. Thus, synthesis of more hydrophobic ...
Vallapragada Venkata Vivekanand VV 1 Invagen Pharmaceutical Inc., 7 Oser Avenue, Hauppauge, NY 11788, - - 2014
A simple, precise and accurate gradient reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of bile acids [glycocholic acid (GCA), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA)) in in vitro bile acid-binding study of Welchol tablets. The method was developed using Phenomenex Kinetex C18 (50 × 2.10 ...
Qi Yunpeng Y Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, - - 2014
Bile acid synthesis is the major pathway for catabolism of cholesterol. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway in the liver and plays an important role in regulating lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing CYP7A1 (CYP7A1-tg mice) were resistant to high-fat diet ...
Roda Aldo A University of - - 2014
We report on the relationship between the structure-pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and therapeutic activity of semi-synthetic bile acid analogues including 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (a selective FXR receptor agonist), 6α-ethyl-23(S)-methyl-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (a specific TGR5 receptor agonist), and 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-24-nor-5β-cholan-23-sulfate (a dual FXR/TGR5 agonist). We measured the main physicochemical properties of these molecules, including ionization constants, ...
Sonne David Peick DP D Sonne, Department of Medicine, Gentofte Hospital, Diabetes Research Division, Hellerup, - - 2014
Bile acid sequestrants have been used for decades for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Sequestering of bile acids in the intestinal lumen interrupts enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids, which initiate feedback mechanisms on the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver, thereby lowering cholesterol concentrations in the circulation. In ...
Shivanna Vinay V Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 1800 Denison Avenue, KS 66506, United - - 2014
Replication of porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) in LLC-PK cells is dependent on the presence of bile acids in the medium. However, the mechanism of bile acid-dependent PEC replication is unknown. Understanding of bile acid-mediated PEC replication may provide insight into cultivating related human noroviruses, currently uncultivable, which are the major ...
Autio Kaija J - - 2014
Cholesterol is catabolized to bile acids by peroxisomal β-oxidation in which the side-chain of C27-bile acid intermediates is shortened by three carbon atoms to form mature C24-bile acids. Knock-out mouse models deficient in α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (Amacr) or multifunctional enzyme type 2 (Mfe-2), in which this β-oxidation pathway is ...
Woolbright Benjamin L BL Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, Kansas University Medical Center, - - 2014
Lithocholic acid (LCA) supplementation in the diet results in intrahepatic cholestasis and bile infarcts. Previously we showed that an innate immune response is critical for cholestatic liver injury in the bile duct ligated mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophils in the mechanism ...
Erlinger Serge S University of Paris 7, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
The elegant paper by Fickert et al. on bile duct ligated mice provides convincing evidence for the hypothesis that bile acids retained in the serum during cholestasis and excreted through the kidneys are toxic to collecting duct cells. The authors propose that bile acids initiate a chain of reactions leading ...
Ryan Karen K KK Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45237, - - 2014
Bariatric surgical procedures, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are at present the most effective therapy for the treatment of obesity, and are associated with considerable improvements in co-morbidities, including type-2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to these benefits remain largely undetermined, despite offering the potential to reveal ...
Walters Julian R F JR Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0HS, - - 2014
Chronic diarrhoea induced by bile acids is common and the underlying mechanisms are linked to homeostatic regulation of hepatic bile acid synthesis by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). Increasing evidence, including that from several large case series using SeHCAT (selenium homocholic acid taurine) tests for diagnosis, indicates that bile acid ...
De Bruyn Tom T Drug Delivery and Disposition, KU Leuven Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, O&N2, Leuven, 3000, - - 2014
This study aimed to characterize the in vitro hepatic transport mechanisms in primary rat and human hepatocytes of the fluorescent bile acid derivative N-(24-[7-(4-N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole)]amino-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-27-nor-5β-cholestan-26-oyl)-2'-aminoethanesulfonate (tauro-nor-THCA-24-DBD), previously synthesized to study the activity of the bile salt export pump (BSEP). The fluorescent bile acid derivative exhibited saturable uptake kinetics in suspended rat ...
Xiong Aizhen - - 2014
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most hepatotoxic natural products that produce irreversible injury to humans via consumption of herbal medicine, tea preparation, and honey. Toxicity and death caused by PA exposure have been reported worldwide. Metabolomics and genomics provide scientific and systematic views of living organism, and have become ...
Kakiyama Genta G Virginia Commonwealth University / McGuire VA Medical Center, United - - 2014
We have developed a simple and accurate HPLC method for measurement of fecal bile acids using phenacyl derivatives of unconjugated bile acids, and applied it to the measurement of fecal bile acids in cirrhotic patients. The HPLC method has the following steps: 1) lyophilization of stool sample; 2) reconstitution in ...
Ridlon Jason M JM aDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University bMcGuire VA Medical Center cDivision of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, - - 2014
We examine the latest research on the emerging bile acid-gut microbiome axis and its role in health and disease. Our focus revolves around two key microbial pathways for degrading bile salts, and the impact of bile acid composition in the gut on the gut microbiome and host physiology. Bile acid ...
Quinn Matthew M Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX, - - 2014
The blood brain barrier tightly regulates the passage of molecules into the brain and becomes leaky following obstructive cholestasis. The aim of this study was to determine if increased serum bile acids observed during cholestasis permeabilize the blood brain barrier. Rats underwent bile duct ligation or deoxycholic or chenodeoxycholic acid ...
Boesjes Marije - - 2014
In the last decade, it became clear that bile acids, in addition to their role in intestinal absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, are major regulators of metabolism. They activate signal transduction pathways through binding to the specific bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR. Indirectly, bile acids influence metabolism via ...
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