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Results 301 - 350 of 2103
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Ohtsuka Yoshikazu - - 2011
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease of premature infants. Although ω-3 fatty acids are known to have antiinflammatory effects, their effect against NEC remains unclear. Mother rats fed a soybean-based, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)- or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-enriched diet from days 7 to 20 of gestation were examined. On ...
Lagakos William Stacy - - 2011
It has long been known that mammalian enterocytes coexpress two members of the fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) family, the intestinal FABP (IFABP) and the liver FABP (LFABP). Both bind long-chain fatty acids and have similar though not identical distributions in the intestinal tract. While a number of in vitro properties ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2011
There is increasing recognition that specialized processes once thought to be relatively isolated to the oral cavity (e.g., taste) and intestine (e.g., nutrient absorption) are better characterized as common and continuous. This is exemplified by accumulating evidence linking oral detection of dietary fats to their intestinal processing. This review first ...
Nealon Jessica R - - 2011
Phospholipids are a major component of lens fiber cells and influence the activity of membrane proteins. Previous investigations of fatty acid uptake by the lens are limited. The purpose of the present study was thus to determine whether exogenous fatty acids could be taken up by the rat lens and ...
Merrifield Daniel L - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a commercial alginic acid source (Ergosan) on tilapia Oreochromis niloticus intestinal microbial balance, intestinal morphology, and growth parameters. Fish were fed a basal control diet or the basal diet plus a source of alginic acid (5 g kg(-1) Ergosan; Schering-Plough ...
Kuiper Jan Willem - - 2011
To examine whether acute lung injury from direct and indirect origins differ in susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and resultant systemic inflammatory responses. Rats were challenged by acid instillation or 24 h of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV) with either a low ...
Hou Yongqing - - 2011
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an intermediate of the Krebs cycle which bridges amino acid metabolism with glucose oxidation in animals. Of particular interest is the conversion of AKG into glutamate by mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase in the gastrointestinal tract where glutamate has multiple physiological functions (including regulation of cell function, neurotransmission, and ...
Young Richard L - - 2011
The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have ...
Wang Ning - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic activity of seven bile samples and bile acids using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) method. Free and conjugated bile acid standards were used to identify and quantify the chemical components ...
Poša Mihalj - - 2010
Retention coefficients (k) of cholic acid and its keto derivatives are determined by means of Reversed Phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography at different temperatures (303K, 309K, and 313K). At each studied temperature, retention factor decreases if the hydroxyl group in the cholic acid molecule replaces oxo group. In addition, the ...
Vijayaraj Panneerselvam - - 2011
A tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), is a potent carcinogen present in cigarette smoke, and chronic exposure to it can lead to pulmonary cancer. NNN causes changes in phospholipid metabolism and the mechanism is yet to be elucidated. Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to 50 μM NNN leads to a substantial decrease ...
Patel Pinal S PS Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United - - 2010
Epidemiologic evidence for the association between types of fatty acid and risk of type 2 diabetes is inconsistent. This may in part be due to the limitations of fatty acid measurement methods. The objective was to use 3 different measures of fatty acid to estimate the prospective association between fatty ...
Zanetti Samanta R - - 2010
Rat spermatozoa main lipid classes and their fatty acids were studied to assess their possible changes in capacitation and the acrosomal reaction (AR), induced in vitro. Capacitation-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and the efflux of 30% of the total cholesterol from gametes to the medium, took place concomitantly with the release ...
Rajakumari Sona - - 2010
Previous work from our laboratory had demonstrated that deletion of TGL3 encoding the major yeast triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase resulted in decreased mobilization of TAG, a sporulation defect and a changed pattern of fatty acids, especially increased amounts of C22:0 and C26:0 very long chain fatty acids in the TAG fraction ...
Langelier Bénédicte - - 2010
Rat neural stem cells/neural progenitors (NSC/NP) are generally grown in serum-free medium. In this study, NSC/NP were supplemented with the main long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) present in the brain, arachidonic acid (AA), or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and were monitored for their growth. Lipid and fatty acid contents of the ...
Lau Beatrice Y Y - - 2010
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) incorporation into bone may alter its metabolism through changes in the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids. Alteration of the membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition may influence bone cell signalling and, potentially, bone mineralization. The objective of this study was to use the fat-1 mouse, ...
Zhang Yanqiao Y Department of Integrative Medical Sciences Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine 4209 State Route 44 Rootstown, OH 44272 - - 2010
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays an important role in maintaining bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. Bile acids are endogenous ligands for FXR. However, bile acids may also activate pathways independent of FXR. The development of specific FXR agonists has provided ...
Hirota Satoko - - 2010
Arachidonic acid (ARA) is considered to be a minor contributor to the diet. Previous reports regarding the effect of ARA supplementation on the composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in the blood of humans are extremely limited. In the present study, we conducted a crossover double-blind, placebo-control study. Twenty-three ...
Contreras G A - - 2010
The periparturient period is characterized by sudden changes in metabolic and immune cell functions that predispose dairy cows to increased incidence of disease. Metabolic changes include alterations in the energy balance that lead to increased lipomobilization with consequent elevation of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations. The objective of this ...
Ariyama Hiroyuki - - 2010
Various kinds of fatty acids are distributed in membrane phospholipids in mammalian cells and tissues. The degree of fatty acid unsaturation in membrane phospholipids affects many membrane-associated functions and can be influenced by diet and by altered activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes such as fatty acid desaturases. However, little is known ...
Vauclare Pierre - - 2010
The effects of dark-induced stress on the evolution of the soluble metabolites present in senescent soybean (Glycine max L.) nodules were analysed in vitro using (13)C- and (31)P-NMR spectroscopy. Sucrose and trehalose were the predominant soluble storage carbons. During dark-induced stress, a decline in sugars and some key glycolytic metabolites ...
Miyata Masaaki - - 2010
Lithocholic acid (LCA) feeding causes both liver parenchymal and cholestatic damages in experimental animals. Although pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-mediated protection against LCA-induced hepatocyte injury may be explained by induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, the protection from the delayed cholestasis remains incompletely understood. Thus, the PCN-mediated protective mechanism has been studied from ...
Black Sylvester M - - 2010
We have shown previously that cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 induce protection in porcine vascular endothelial cells (EC) against killing by the membrane attack complex (MAC) of human complement. This protection is intrinsic, not due to changes in complement regulatory proteins, and requires activation of Akt and sterol receptor element binding ...
Aboshi Takako - - 2010
Tannins are polyphenols and defensive molecules occurring widely in plants. Dietary tannin may bind digestive enzymes of herbivores and affect them by reducing digestibility. In lepidopteran caterpillars, lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), known as surfactants present in the guts, are thought to interfere with tannin-protein interactions. However, details of biosynthetic pathways of lysoPC ...
Dagorn Flore - - 2010
Two tunicates, Eudistoma sp. and Leptoclinides uniorbis, collected from the tropical waters off Djibouti were investigated for lipids and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids. PL accounted for 38.2% of the total lipids in Eudistoma sp. and for 30.2% in L. uniorbis. PL classes were quantified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using ...
P?rez-Palacios Trinidad - - 2010
The main objectives of this study were to (1) determine the individual phospholipid (PL) classes content of fresh meat from Iberian pigs and their respective fatty acid and dimethylacetal composition and (2) assess the effect of different diets (acorn and grass vs oleic acid enriched concentrates) on these lipid species. ...
Goto Shin G - - 2010
We investigated the fatty acid compositions of phospholipids in Drosophila melanogaster lines showing rapid (CR), intermediate (CTL), or slow (CS) recovery from chill coma, which were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Compared to CTL, CS showed a low composition of dienoic acids and a small ...
Bhurruth-Alcor Yushma - - 2010
Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a modified fatty acid that appears to improve insulin sensitivity, lower blood lipid levels, enhance fatty acid oxidation and promote anti-inflammatory action in vivo, through mechanisms partly dependent upon peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). In order to improve the biological efficacy of TTA as a PPAR agonist, ...
Balgoma David - - 2010
The distribution of fatty acids among cellular glycerophospholipids is finely regulated by the CoA-dependent acylation of lysophospholipids followed by transacylation reactions. Arachidonic acid is the fatty acid precursor of a wide family of bioactive compounds called the eicosanoids, with key roles in innate immunity and inflammation. Because availability of free ...
Ivanova Pavlina T - - 2010
A large scale profiling and analysis of glycerophospholipid species in macrophages has facilitated the identification of several rare and atypical glycerophospholipid species. By using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and comparison of the elution and fragmentation properties of the rare lipids to synthetic standards, we were able to identify an ...
Ytrehus Kirsti - - 2009
Hypothermia-rewarming of the heart results in contractile dysfunction under in vitro as well as in vivo conditions. Increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and calcium overload are proposed mechanisms. In the first protocol of this study, the effect of putative phospholipase and calcium channel modulator mepacrine during deep ...
Portois Laurence - - 2009
Rats exposed from 7 weeks after birth and for the ensuing 3 to 7 months to a diet depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids were recently proposed as a new animal model for the metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed mainly at investigating whether, in this new model, the ...
Fullerton Morgan D - - 2009
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is an important inner membrane phospholipid mostly synthesized de novo via the PE-Kennedy pathway and by the decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine. CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2) catalyzes the formation of CDP-ethanolamine, which is often the rate regulatory step in the PE-Kennedy pathway. In the current investigation, we show that the reduced ...
Falomir Lockhart Lisandro J - - 2009
Sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) is an intracellular protein domain found in all forms of life. It was originally identified as a sterol transfer protein, but was recently shown to also bind phospholipids, fatty acids, and fatty-acyl-CoA with high affinity. Based on studies carried out in higher eukaryotes, it is ...
Yokoyama Hiroki - - 2009
The miscibility and phase behavior of two components of phospholipids and perfluorocarboxylic acids [FCn; perfluorododecanoic acid (FC12), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (FC14), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (FC16), and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (FC18)] have been systematically investigated using Langmuir monolayer technique. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) is utilized as a phospholipid component in biomembranes. Surface pressure (pi)-molecular area (A) ...
Hon Gloudina - - 2009
Measurement of fatty acids in biological fluids and cell membranes including leucocytes from multiple sclerosis patients is inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fatty acid composition within the different membrane phospholipid fractions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in multiple sclerosis patients, and correlate with severity ...
Yokoyama Hiroki - - 2009
Surface pressure (pi)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (DeltaV)-A isotherms have been measured for two-component monolayers of four different perfluorocarboxylic acids [FCn; perfluorododecanoic acid (FC12), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (FC14), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (FC16), and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (FC18)] and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) on 0.15M NaCl (pH 2) at 298.2K. The present study is focused ...
Hon G M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Reports on fatty acids levels in multiple sclerosis remain inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid levels in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate with Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale. METHODS: Fatty acid composition of 31 multiple sclerosis and 30 control individuals were measured by gas chromatography. RESULTS: ...
Taylor Lenka A - - 2010
GOALS OF WORK: Advanced tumor disease very often evokes excessive loss of body weight. Among others, fish oil or marine fatty acid ethyl esters were investigated for treatment of cancer cachexia with controversial results. In this study, a new formulation of marine fatty acids was investigated, the marine phospholipids, with ...
Peterlin Primoz - - 2009
The interaction of two types of vesicle systems was investigated: micrometer-sized, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) formed from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and submicrometer-sized, large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) formed from oleic acid and oleate, both in a buffered aqueous solution (pH 8.8). Individual POPC GUVs were transferred with a micropipette into a suspension ...
Hac-Wydro Katarzyna - - 2009
Fatty acids molecules have strong influence on membrane properties. In this work the interactions between fatty acids and phosphatidylcholines were studied in mixed binary and ternary Langmuir monolayers. The compounds investigated, both fatty acids and phospholipids were of the same hydrocarbon chain length and differed in their saturation degree (stearic ...
Clark Wayne M - - 2009
Citicoline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine or CDP-choline) is a precursor essential for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, one of the cell membrane components that is degraded during cerebral ischemia to free fatty acids and free radicals. Animal studies suggest that citicoline may protect cell membranes by accelerating resynthesis of phospholipids and suppressing the release ...
Martinez Jose G JG Department of Biological Sciences, California State University Los Angeles, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032, - - 2009
Antimicrobial polypeptides, including lysozymes, have membrane perturbing activity and are well-documented effector molecules of innate immunity. In cystic fibrosis, a hereditary disease with frequent lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the non-esterified fatty acid DA (docosahexaenoic acid), but not OA (oleic acid), is decreased, and DA supplementation has been shown to ...
Chaffai R - - 2009
A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) under copper and cadmium stress. The unsaturation level (double-bond index) of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was increased in response to both metal treatments, whereas the phosphatidylinositol (PI), the phosphatidylcholine (PC) showed no significant changes. The ...
Colquhoun Alison - - 2009
PURPOSE: Eicosapentaenoic acid has been tested in bladder cancer as a synergistic cytotoxic agent in the form of meglumine-eicosapentaenoic acid, although its mechanism of action is poorly understood in this cancer. The current study analyzed the mechanisms by which eicosapentaenoic acid alters T24/83 human bladder cancer metabolism in vitro. MATERIALS ...
Lee Lynette Hui-Wen - - 2009
Recently, there has been considerable interest in a possible link between changes in brain polyunsaturated fatty acids, neural membrane phospholipid degradation, serotonergic neurotransmission, and depression. The present study aims to examine effects of antidepressants on lipids in different regions of the brain at individual molecular species level, using the novel ...
Bodelier Paul L E - - 2009
Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MB) are the primary terrestrial sinks for the greenhouse gas methane. A distinct characteristic of MB is the presence of specific phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA) in their membranes that differentiate them from each other and also from all other organisms. These distinct PLFA patterns facilitate microbial ...
Malhotra Ashim - - 2009
Mitochondrial cardiolipin undergoes extensive remodeling of its acyl groups to generate uniformly substituted species, such as tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin, but the mechanism of this remodeling has not been elucidated, except for the fact that it requires tafazzin. Here we show that purified recombinant Drosophila tafazzin exchanges acyl groups between cardiolipin and phosphatidylcholine ...
Wang D Y - - 2009
Composition of intramuscular phospholipids and free fatty acids in 3 kinds of traditional Chinese duck meat products (dry-cured duck, roasted duck, and water-boiled salted duck) was investigated. Phospholipids were identified and quantified by HPLC combined with ultraviolet and evaporative light scattering detectors. The types and quantities of free fatty acids ...
Thiébaut Anne C M - - 2009
The fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids has been shown to reflect dietary intakes in the previous weeks or months. However, how serum phospholipids relate to fatty acid intakes over a few years has hardly been examined. We designed a cross-sectional study within the E3N cohort, the French component of ...
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