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Results 251 - 300 of 2090
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Turcotte Stéphane - - 2012
N-Aminosulfamides are peptidomimetics in which the C(α)H and the carbonyl of an amino acid residue are both respectively replaced by a nitrogen atom and a sulfonyl group. Aza-sulfurylglycinyl tripeptide analogs were effectively synthesized from amino acid building blocks by condensations of N-protected amino hydrazides and p-nitrophenylsulfamidate esters. The installation of ...
Gajda Anna D - - 2012
Aminopeptidases are proteolytic enzymes that remove one amino acid at a time from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. In plants, inhibitors of aminopeptidases can find potential applications in agriculture as herbicides. In this report we have used a library of fluorogenic derivatives of natural and unnatural amino acids for substrate specificity ...
Raffy Quentin - - 2012
Radical migration between aliphatic amino acid side chains can occur in solution and intramolecularly in peptides. The kinetic constant of the hydrogen transfer reaction was measured by using competition kinetics, and the half-life as well as the distance that a radical can move within a protein was calculated.
Pellicciari Roberto R Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università di Perugia , Via del Liceo 1, 06123 Perugia, - - 2012
Grounding on our former 3D QSAR studies, a knowledge-based screen of natural bile acids from diverse animal species has led to the identification of avicholic acid as a selective but weak TGR5 agonist. Chemical modifications of this compound resulted in the disclosure of 6α-ethyl-16-epi-avicholic acid that shows enhanced potency at ...
Ilisz István - - 2012
Amino acids are essential for life, and have many functions in metabolism. One particularly important function is to serve as the building blocks of peptides and proteins, giving rise to complex three dimensional structures through disulfide bonds or crosslinked amino acids. Peptides are frequently cyclic and contain protein as well ...
Saladino Raffaele - - 2012
The key role of proteins and amino acids in the structure and function of living matter has stimulated extensive studies. Modified amino acids with enhanced biological activity, proteolitic stability and bioavailability are of increasing interest in protein design and engineering as drug candidates. In the last few years, several efforts ...
André Christophe - - 2012
In order to investigate the ability of the (S)-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid 1 (H-(S)-ABOC-OH) to induce reverse turns into peptides, two model tripeptides, in which this bicyclic unit was incorporated into the second position, were synthesized and analyzed by FT-IR, CD, NMR, and X-ray studies.
Raychaudhuri Soumya S Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2012
The genetic association of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to rheumatoid arthritis risk has commonly been attributed to alleles in HLA-DRB1. However, debate persists about the identity of the causal variants in HLA-DRB1 and the presence of independent effects elsewhere in the MHC. Using existing genome-wide SNP data in 5,018 ...
Boeckx Bram - - 2012
Within the structure determination task for peptides, which is of large interest due to the relation between structure and functionality, infrared spectra can provide detailed information on the conformational behavior. The conformational landscape of N-acetylgycine has been studied by a combined theoretical and matrix-isolation FT-IR study. The acetylation simulates an ...
Varisco Brian M - - 2012
Thy-1 is a glycosylphosphytidylinositol-linked cell-surface glycoprotein present on a subset of lung fibroblasts, which plays an important role in postnatal alveolarization. In the present study, we define the role of Thy-1 in pulmonary lipofibroblast differentiation and in the regulation of lipid homeostasis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). Thy-1 was associated ...
Brown Robert A - - 2012
Peptide helices containing L-amino acids are typically right-handed. Exceptions are peptide helices containing the achiral amino acids 2-aminoisobutyric acid and glycine with a single chiral amino acid at the N terminus. These helices are left-handed when the N-terminal residue is a common tertiary proteinogenic amino acid, such as L-valine, but right-handed ...
Zhao Yue - - 2012
Lipopeptide is one of the most important biosurfactants. The content of each isoform of a lipopeptide is crucial to the study of the properties of metabolites as well as the biological and biochemical characters of microbes. However, this information has not been accurately provided by the current analysis method. A ...
Su Chun-Hung - - 2012
[This corrects the article on p. e30617 in vol. 7.].
Jusakul Apinya - - 2012
Bile acids are implicated as aetiological factors in many types of gastrointestinal tract cancer including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Alterations in bile acid concentrations may affect the pathogenesis of these different types of cancer. Our aim was to determine the bile acid profile in gallbladder bile from patients who underwent liver resection. ...
Förster Charlotte - - 2012
"Locked nucleic acids" (LNAs) belong to the backbone-modified nucleic acid family. The 2'-O,4'-C-methylene-β-D-ribofuranose nucleotides are used for single or multiple substitutions in RNA molecules and thereby introduce enhanced bio- and thermostability. This renders LNAs powerful tools for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. RNA molecules maintain the overall canonical A-type conformation upon ...
Pattni Sanjeev S - - 2012
Increased colonic bile acids can cause chronic diarrhea. Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is treatable by sequestrants, and may be secondary to ileal disease or primary BAD. It is underdiagnosed, partly because the selenium-75-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) retention test is not available in many countries, and is underutilized in others. Serum ...
Döring Barbara - - 2012
The SLC10 family represents seven genes containing 1-12 exons that encode proteins in humans with sequence lengths of 348-477 amino acids. Although termed solute carriers (SLCs), only three out of seven (i.e. SLC10A1, SLC10A2, and SLC10A6) show sodium-dependent uptake of organic substrates across the cell membrane. These include the uptake ...
Flower Darren R - - 2012
In this work we propose the hypothesis that replacing the current system of representing the chemical entities known as amino acids using Latin letters with one of several possible alternative symbolic representations will bring significant benefits to the human construction, modification, and analysis of multiple protein sequence alignments. We propose ...
Barrowman Jemima - - 2012
The proteolytic maturation of the nuclear protein lamin A by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is critical for human health. The lamin A precursor, prelamin A, undergoes a multi-step maturation process that includes CAAX processing (farnesylation, proteolysis and carboxylmethylation of the C-terminal CAAX motif), followed by ZMPSTE24-mediated cleavage of the last ...
Sykaras Alexandros G - - 2012
Enteroendocrine cells have a critical role in regulation of appetite and energy balance. I-cells are a subtype of enteroendocrine cells localized in duodenum that release cholecystokinin in response to ingested fat and amino-acids. Despite their potentially pivotal role in nutrient sensing and feeding behaviour, native I-cells have previously been difficult ...
Wu Tianfu - - 2012
The metabolic disturbances that underlie systemic lupus erythematosus are currently unknown. A metabolomic study was executed, comparing the sera of 20 SLE patients against that of healthy controls, using LC/MS and GC/MS platforms. Validation of key differences was performed using an independent cohort of 38 SLE patients and orthogonal assays. ...
Lei Jian - - 2012
Optimal growth and health of suckling neonates critically depend on milk production by their mothers. In both humans and animals, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are not only the major components of milk proteins but are also nitrogenous precursors for the synthesis of glutamate, glutamine, alanine, and aspartate in the mammary ...
Marschall Hanns-Ulrich HU Department of Internal Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, Gothenburg, Sweden. - - 2012
Rifampicin (RIFA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) were found to stimulate different but complementary hepatobiliary detoxification pathways in gallstone patients. To study whether single drug effects are sustained or even enhanced by combination of both drugs and whether possible effects are mediated by circulating fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), which has ...
Taft Florian - - 2011
Access of four new tumor specific folic acid/ansamitocin conjugates is reported that relies on a synthetic strategy based on the combination of mutasynthesis and semisynthesis. Two bromo-ansamitocin derivatives were prepared by mutasynthesis or by a modified fermentation protocol, respectively, that served as starting point for the semisynthetic introduction of an ...
Royce Simon G - - 2011
Airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness are major aspects of asthma pathology that are not targeted optimally by existing anti-inflammatory drugs. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have a wide range of effects that may potentially abrogate aspects of remodeling. One such histone deacetylase inhibitor is valproic acid (2-propylvaleric acid). Valproic acid is used ...
Rice Todd W - - 2011
The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, along with γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants, may modulate systemic inflammatory response and improve oxygenation and outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. To determine if dietary supplementation of these substances to patients with acute lung injury would increase ventilator-free days ...
Larsen Søren T - - 2012
Methyl formate (MF) is a volatile solvent with several industrial applications. The acute airway effects of MF were evaluated in a mouse bioassay, allowing the assessment of sensory irritation of the upper airways, airflow limitation of the conducting airways and deep lung (pulmonary) irritation. MF was studied at vapour concentrations ...
Selwal Krishan K - - 2011
The present investigation represents the effect of freeze drying on some properties as acid and bile tolerance of Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 1938 culture isolated from dairy products. The cell paste obtained from milk based medium was freeze dried with a pressure of 50-100 mtorr for 24h at -40°C. Acid and ...
Yeh Yu-Ting - - 2011
(-)-Anonaine (1), (-)-asimilobine (2), (-)-nuciferine (3), (-)-anolobine (4), (-)-romerine (5), (-)-N-acetylanonaine (6), liriodenine (7), (+)-syringaresinol (8), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (9), N-cis-feruloyltyramine (10), scopoletin (11), 4-acetonyl-3,5-dimethoxy-p-quinol (12), vanillin (13), vanillic acid (14), syringic acid (15), beta-sitosterol (16) and stigmasterol (17) were isolated from branches of Michelia champaca L. In addition, a cell proliferation ...
Parthasarathi Kaushik - - 2011
Acid aspiration is a major cause of acute lung injury. However, the mechanisms that underlie this spatial expansion of the injury remain undefined. In current animal models of acid injury, intratracheal acid instillation replicates the lung injury. However intratracheal instillation causes a global effect, precluding studies of how the injury ...
van Eijl Sven - - 2011
Tobacco smoke is the main factor in the etiology of lung emphysema. Generally prolonged, substantial exposure is required to develop the disease. Humic acid is a major component of cigarette smoke that accumulates in smokers' lungs over time and induces tissue damage. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether humic acid pre-loading potentiates ...
Kim Yuri - - 2012
Many epidemiological studies show the benefit of fruits and vegetables on reducing risk of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Previously, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure (SM)-induced lung lesions in ferrets were prevented by a combination of low dose of β-carotene, α-tocopherol (AT), ...
Jin Hailian - - 2011
Mesoporous MFI zeolites (ZSM-5, TS-1, S-1) having intracrystalline mesoporosity within zeolite crystals were synthesized by microwave induced assembly through the ionic interaction between the sulfonic acid functionalized MFI zeolite nanoparticles and alkyltrimethylammonium cationic surfactants.
Lin Shuxin - - 2011
We have reported that airway nociceptors [C fibre receptors (CFRs) and high-threshold Aδ fibre receptors (HTARs)] are activated during oleic acid (OA)-induced acute lung injury. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that this nociceptor activation is mediated by arachidonic acid products. In anaesthetized, open-chest, mechanically ventilated rabbits, we ...
Sumiyoshi Tomiki - - 2011
Abnormal fatty acid composition in neural membranes, that is, the balance between essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs) and saturated fatty acids, has been suggested to be related to the psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the ability of atypical antipsychotic ...
Martín-Venegas Raquel - - 2011
dl-2-Hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) is a synthetic source of dietary methionine (Met) widely used in poultry nutrition. HMTBA is transported in the intestinal epithelium by the monocarboxylate transporter 1, after which its biological utilisation relies on its conversion to l-Met. This process involves stereospecific HMTBA oxidation to 2-keto-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid (KMB) and ...
Schwab Clarissa - - 2011
The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient ...
Ohtsuka Yoshikazu - - 2011
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease of premature infants. Although ω-3 fatty acids are known to have antiinflammatory effects, their effect against NEC remains unclear. Mother rats fed a soybean-based, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)- or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-enriched diet from days 7 to 20 of gestation were examined. On ...
Lagakos William Stacy - - 2011
It has long been known that mammalian enterocytes coexpress two members of the fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) family, the intestinal FABP (IFABP) and the liver FABP (LFABP). Both bind long-chain fatty acids and have similar though not identical distributions in the intestinal tract. While a number of in vitro properties ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2011
There is increasing recognition that specialized processes once thought to be relatively isolated to the oral cavity (e.g., taste) and intestine (e.g., nutrient absorption) are better characterized as common and continuous. This is exemplified by accumulating evidence linking oral detection of dietary fats to their intestinal processing. This review first ...
Nealon Jessica R - - 2011
Phospholipids are a major component of lens fiber cells and influence the activity of membrane proteins. Previous investigations of fatty acid uptake by the lens are limited. The purpose of the present study was thus to determine whether exogenous fatty acids could be taken up by the rat lens and ...
Merrifield Daniel L - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a commercial alginic acid source (Ergosan) on tilapia Oreochromis niloticus intestinal microbial balance, intestinal morphology, and growth parameters. Fish were fed a basal control diet or the basal diet plus a source of alginic acid (5 g kg(-1) Ergosan; Schering-Plough ...
Kuiper Jan Willem - - 2011
To examine whether acute lung injury from direct and indirect origins differ in susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and resultant systemic inflammatory responses. Rats were challenged by acid instillation or 24 h of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV) with either a low ...
Hou Yongqing - - 2011
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an intermediate of the Krebs cycle which bridges amino acid metabolism with glucose oxidation in animals. Of particular interest is the conversion of AKG into glutamate by mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase in the gastrointestinal tract where glutamate has multiple physiological functions (including regulation of cell function, neurotransmission, and ...
Young Richard L - - 2011
The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have ...
Wang Ning - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic activity of seven bile samples and bile acids using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) method. Free and conjugated bile acid standards were used to identify and quantify the chemical components ...
Poša Mihalj - - 2010
Retention coefficients (k) of cholic acid and its keto derivatives are determined by means of Reversed Phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography at different temperatures (303K, 309K, and 313K). At each studied temperature, retention factor decreases if the hydroxyl group in the cholic acid molecule replaces oxo group. In addition, the ...
Vijayaraj Panneerselvam - - 2011
A tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), is a potent carcinogen present in cigarette smoke, and chronic exposure to it can lead to pulmonary cancer. NNN causes changes in phospholipid metabolism and the mechanism is yet to be elucidated. Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to 50 μM NNN leads to a substantial decrease ...
Patel Pinal S PS Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United - - 2010
Epidemiologic evidence for the association between types of fatty acid and risk of type 2 diabetes is inconsistent. This may in part be due to the limitations of fatty acid measurement methods. The objective was to use 3 different measures of fatty acid to estimate the prospective association between fatty ...
Zanetti Samanta R - - 2010
Rat spermatozoa main lipid classes and their fatty acids were studied to assess their possible changes in capacitation and the acrosomal reaction (AR), induced in vitro. Capacitation-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and the efflux of 30% of the total cholesterol from gametes to the medium, took place concomitantly with the release ...
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