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Setchell Kenneth D R KD Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. - - 2013
The final step in bile acid synthesis involves conjugation with glycine and taurine, which promotes a high intraluminal micellar concentration to facilitate lipid absorption. We investigated the clinical, biochemical, molecular, and morphologic features of a genetic defect in bile acid conjugation in 10 pediatric patients with fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, some ...
Nagasaka Hironori - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic congenital portosysstemic venous shunt (CPSVS) presents hyperammonemia, cholestasis, hypergalactosemia and imbalanced vasomediators. Especially, fluctuating plasma ammonia often causing neurological signs and symptoms is a serious problem in the daily life. 4-phenylacetate (4-PA) has effects to eliminate blood ammonia, bile acids and bilirubin. 4-PA might be expected to improve ...
Sayin Sama I SI Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine and Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, 413 45 Gothenburg, - - 2013
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. Bile acid synthesis is under negative feedback control through activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the ileum and liver. Here we profiled the bile acid composition ...
Saeki Tohru - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: SLC10A2-mediated reabsorption of bile acids at the distal end of the ileum is the first step in enterohepatic circulation. Because bile acids act not only as detergents but also as signaling molecules in lipid metabolism and energy production, SLC10A2 is important as the key transporter for understanding the ...
Dai Jiaqi - - 2013
We observed that free bile acids (CA, DCA, and CDCA) inhibited the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells by promoting cell apoptosis, while the conjugated bile acids (GCA, GDCA, and GCDCA) stimulated cell growth. Consistently, we found that GDCA stimulated tumor growth and CDCA decreased tumor growth in xenografted mice. Further, the ...
Matsuhisa Takeshi - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The relationship between bile acid reflux into the stomach and the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia is still not well understood. Towards obtaining a better understanding, concentrations of bile acids were measured. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was carried out with the participation of 14 facilities in ...
Yamazaki Makoto - - 2013
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant consideration for drug development. Current preclinical DILI assessment relying on histopathology and clinical chemistry has limitations in sensitivity and discordance with human. To gain insights on DILI pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers for improved DILI detection, we performed untargeted metabolomic analyses on rats ...
Vivian Diana D Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, - - 2013
To synthesize a trifluorinated bile acid that can be used for (19)F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bile acid enterohepatic circulation, characterize its in vitro transporter affinity, stability, and (19)F-MRI signal, and assess its ability to concentrate in the gallbladder of C57BL/6 mice. Target compound CA-lys-TFA was synthesized and tested ...
Lu Jinrong - - 2013
Two fan-shaped bile acid trimers have been synthesized via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) 'click chemistry', and their extraction experiments of cresol red sodium (CR) and pyrene were investigated in the polar and non-polar solvents, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that the homogenous hollow capsules formed with the ...
Wang Xijun - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics has been proposed to be a hallmark of cancer, yet a systematic characterization of a metabolite and metabolic pathways in human hepatocarcinoma (HCC) remains challenge. METHODS: Using ultra-performance liquid-chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight coupled with high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS) in conjunction with multivariate data analysis methods, we identified and measured the metabolite ...
Abu-Hayyeh Shadi - - 2013
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, ...
Brborić J - - 2013
The partition coefficients (log P) of theoretically possible alkyliodinated iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives and commercial IDA derivatives were calculated using two computer programs: ChemSketch Log P and ChemOffice Ultra. Newly synthesized ligands (DIETHYLIODIDA and DIISOPROPYLIODIDA) with the highest calculated log P were labeled with technetium-99m. The biodistribution and the influence ...
Niu Yuge - - 2013
The effects of sulfation, hydroxypropylation and succinylation on gelling, water uptake, swelling, and bile acid-binding capacities of psyllium were examined and compared on a same molar substitution degree. Sulfated, hydroxypropyl and succinyl psyllium were prepared with a substitution level of 1.02, 0.88 and 0.79, respectively, and their structures were characterized ...
Sajisha V S - - 2013
Supramolecular chemistry is an emerging tool for devising materials that can perform specified functions. The self-assembly of facially amphiphilic bile acid molecules has been extensively utilized for the development of functional soft materials. Supramolecular hydrogels derived from the bile acid backbone act as useful templates for the intercalation of multiple ...
Liu Hong-Tao - - 2013
The apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT) plays a pivotal role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis. Inhibition of ASBT would reduce bile acid pool size and lower cholesterol levels. In this report, a series of novel arylsulfonylaminobenzanilides were designed and synthesized as potential inhibitors of ASBT. Most of them demonstrated ...
Posa Mihalj - - 2013
In this paper, bile acids' retention parameter, R(M), obtained in normal phase thin-layer chromatography is determined as a function of the temperature (293-323 K). Analyzed bile acids belong to congeneric group with two oxygen atoms (OH or oxo groups) on the steroid core and congeneric group with three oxygen atoms. ...
Xu Qing - - 2013
The objective of the present study was to investigate the cholesterol-reducing effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) completed by elevated excretion of fecal neutral steroids and/or bile acids. Blood and liver lipid profiles, fecal neutral steroids, bile acids, and mRNA and protein expression of the genes relevant to cholesterol homeostasis ...
Chanda Dipanjan - - 2013
Bile acids concentration in liver is tightly regulated to prevent cell damage. Previous studies have demonstrated that deregulation of bile acid homeostasis can lead to cholestatic liver disease. Recently, we have shown that ER-bound transcription factor Crebh is a downstream effector of hepatic Cb1r signaling pathway. In this study, we ...
Sabbatini Paola - - 2013
Bile acids have emerged as versatile signalling compounds of a complex network of nuclear and membrane receptors regulating various endocrine and paracrine functions. The elucidation of the interconnection between the biological pathways under the bile acid control and manifestations of hepatic and metabolic diseases have extended the scope of this ...
Koga Kenjiro - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to evaluate absorption and elimination from the gastrointestinal tract of glycyrrhizic acid diethyl ester (GZ-DE) which was prepared as a prodrug of glycyrrhizic acid (a poorly absorbed compound) in rats. After the GZ-DE solution was administered via the intravenous, intraduodenal, intraileal, and stomach routes, ...
Ellis Ewa C S - - 2013
Rodents are poor model for human hyperlipidemias because total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels are very low on a normal diet. Lipoprotein metabolism is primarily regulated by hepatocytes and we therefore assessed whether chimeric mice extensively repopulated with human cells can model human lipid and bile acid metabolism. FRG ...
Perreault Martin - - 2013
Biliary obstruction, a severe cholestatic condition, results in a huge accumulation of toxic bile acids (BA) in the liver. Glucuronidation, a conjugation reaction, is thought to protect the liver by both reducing hepatic BA toxicity and increasing their urinary elimination. The present study evaluates the contribution of each process in ...
Hagey Lee R LR Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, USA. - - 2013
Many current experiments investigating the effects of diet, dietary supplements, and pre- and probiotics on the intestinal environments do not take into consideration the potential for using bile salts as markers of environmental change. Intestinal bacteria in vertebrates can metabolize bile acids into a number of different structures, with deamidation, ...
Zhu Qiong N QN Department of Pharmacology and Key Lab of Basic Pharmacology of Guizhou, Zunyi Medical College , Zunyi , - - 2013
Background. Significant physiological changes occur during pregnancy and lactation. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a liver disease closely related to disruption of bile acid homeostasis. The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of bile acid synthesis and transport in normal pregnant and lactating rats. Materials and ...
Ruiz Lorena L Laboratory of Probiotics and Prebiotics, Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Asturias, - - 2013
Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been ...
Barrasa Juan I - - 2012
Bile acids are natural detergents mainly involved in facilitating the absorption of dietary fat in the intestine. In addition to this absorptive function, bile acids are also essential in the maintenance of the intestinal epithelium homeostasis. To accomplish this regulatory function, bile acids may induce programmed cell death fostering the ...
Cummings Bethany P - - 2012
Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of ...
Potthoff Matthew J MJ Departments of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2013
Bile acid sequestrants are nonabsorbable resins designed to treat hypercholesterolemia by preventing ileal uptake of bile acids, thus increasing catabolism of cholesterol into bile acids. However, sequestrants also improve hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia through less characterized metabolic and molecular mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that the bile acid sequestrant, colesevelam, significantly reduced ...
Bera Tanmay - - 2012
The concentration level of bile acids is a clinical biomarker for the diagnosis of intestinal diseases because individuals suffering from intestinal diseases have a sharply increased concentration of bile acids at micromolar levels. Here, we report the detection of lithocholic acid (LCA) in aqueous solution by using surfactant-stabilized 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) ...
Hu Guohua - - 2012
The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using hemicellulose from rice bran to scavenge cholesterol and bile acid in vitro study. This paper demonstrates that rice bran hemicellulose A (RBHA), rice bran hemicellulose B (RBHB) and rice bran hemicellulose C (RBHC) have the potential for binding ...
Gomez-Mendoza Miguel - - 2012
Bile acids (BAs) are a family of natural steroids biosynthesized from cholesterol in the liver that tend to form aggregates in solution. A fluorescent derivative of cholic acid, namely 3-Dns-ChA, was employed as a reporter to establish the speciation diagrams of the most abundant BAs that can be found mainly ...
Stanimirov B - - 2012
In addition to their well-established role in the digestion and absorption of dietary lipids, bile acids (BAs) are recognized as signalling molecules in a wide range of metabolic processes. Bile acids regulate their own metabolism and enterohepatic circulation by activating the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). BAs have been shown to ...
Seki Yoshitaka - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In two Japanese infants with neonatal cholestasis, 3-oxo-Δ(4)-steroid 5β-reductase deficiency was diagnosed based on mutations of the SRD5B1 gene. Unusual bile acids such as elevated 3-oxo-Δ(4) bile acids were detected in their serum and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We studied effects of oral chenodeoxycholic acid treatment. ...
Abu-Hayyeh Shadi - - 2012
Bile acids have been traditionally thought of as having an important role in fat emulsification. It is now emerging that they act as important signalling molecules that not only autoregulate their own synthesis but also influence lipid and glucose metabolism. Although, the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of bile acid ...
Hirsova Petra - - 2012
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been shown to be protective in various experimental models of liver injury, although opposite effects have also been reported. Since its effect on biliary physiology has not been thoroughly investigated, the present study evaluated effect of EGCG on bile flow and bile acid homeostasis in rats. ...
Cheng Jie J Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2013
Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition-induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to ...
Henkel Anne S AS Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA. - - 2013
The bile salt export pump, encoded by ABCB11, is the predominant canalicular transport protein for biliary bile acid secretion. The level of ABCB11 expression in humans is widely variable yet the impact of this variability on human disease is not well defined. We aim to determine the effect of hepatic ...
Reese Vanessa C - - 2013
In the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, retinoic acid, clofibric acid, and bile acid treatment can only modestly increase hepatitis B virus (HBV) biosynthesis. Utilizing the human embryonic kidney cell line 293T, it was possible to demonstrate that the retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) plus its ligand can support viral ...
Travaglini Leana - - 2012
An amino acid-substituted bile acid forms tubular aggregates with inner and outer diameters of about 3 and 6 nm. The diameters are unusually small for surfactant self-assembled tubes. The results enhance the spectrum of applications of supramolecular tubules and open up possibilities for investigating a novel class of biological amphiphiles.
Bhowmik Salil Kumar - - 2012
To characterize the impact of gut microbiota on host bile acid metabolism, we investigated the metabolic profiles of oxysterols and bile acids (BAs) in a conventional rat model (SD) (n=5) and its pseudo germ-free (GF) equivalent (n=5). GF rats were developed by the oral administration of bacitracin, neomycin and streptomycin ...
Griffin LaToya M LM Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2013
Inhibition of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) can cause intracellular accumulation of bile acids and is a risk factor for drug-induced liver injury in humans. Antiretroviral protease inhibitors lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) are reported BSEP inhibitors. However, the consequences of LPV and RTV, alone and combined (LPV/r), on ...
Magnusson Maria - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there is an association between bile acids and coagulation factors in children with chronic liver disease. METHODS: Forty-five patients (age 2.8 months-18.8 years) were included in this cross-sectional observational study carried out at a single tertiary referral center. Coagulation factors, prothrombin time, albumin, and total fasting ...
Ali Mahmoud S - - 2012
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess if, as previously reported in the literature, bile acids inhibit pepsin activity, resulting in pepsin having a less important role in laryngopharyngeal damage in reflux disease. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective translational research study. METHODS: A total of 78 patient's fasting gastric juice samples were obtained from routine endoscopy. ...
Wiemuth Dominik - - 2012
Bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC gene family of unknown function. Rat BASIC (rBASIC) is inactive at rest. We have recently shown that cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, are the main site of BASIC expression in the liver and identified bile acids, ...
Pavlović Nebojša - - 2012
The use of probiotics, alone or in interaction with bile acids, is a modern strategy in the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Numerous mechanisms for hypocholesterolemic effect of probiotics have been hypothesized, based mostly on in vitro evidence. Interaction with bile acids through reaction of deconjugation catalyzed by bile salt ...
Gonzalez Frank J - - 2012
Enterohepatic circulation is responsible for the capture of bile acids and other steroids produced or metabolized in the liver and secreted to the intestine, for reabsorption back into the circulation and transport back to the liver. Bile acids are secreted from the liver in the form of mixed micelles that ...
Woolbright Benjamin L BL Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, United - - 2012
Cholestasis results in a buildup of bile acids in serum and in hepatocytes. Early studies into the mechanisms of cholestatic liver injury strongly implicated bile acid-induced apoptosis as the major cause of hepatocellular injury. Recent work has focused both on the role of bile acids in cell signaling as well ...
Hagey Lee R - - 2012
A key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway by which C(24) bile acids are formed from cholesterol has long been considered to be varanic acid, (24ξ,25ξ)-3α,7α,12α-24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid. The (24R,25R)-epimer of this tetrahydroxy bile acid, in the form of its taurine N-acyl amidate, was thought to be the major biliary bile acid ...
Chen Yingjie Y Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, - - 2013
In this study we have developed a rapid method for the shotgun analysis of bile acids in intestinal fluid. The method is semi-quantitative, and requires little sample preparation. Bile salts might contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. In a pilot study we demonstrate the method by analysing the bile ...
Poupon Raoul - - 2012
Chronic cholestasis and liver inflammation are the two main pathophysiological components of the two major classes of disease - primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - leading to bile duct destruction and ultimately to cirrhosis and liver failure. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), initially introduced as a therapeutic approach ...
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