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Röhrl Clemens C Department of Medical Chemistry, Center for Pathobiochemistry and Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, - - 2014
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we ...
Kazgan Nevzat N Laboratory of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, - - 2013
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the most conserved mammalian NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, is an important metabolic sensor in many tissues. However, little is known about its role in the small intestine, which absorbs and senses nutrients. We investigated the functions of intestinal Sirt1 in systemic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in mice. ...
Adachi Tetsuo T Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu 501-1196, - - 2014
Secondary bile acids produced by enteric bacteria accumulate to high levels in the enterohepatic circulation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular injury. Relative hydrophobicity has been suggested to be an important determinant of the biological properties of these compounds, although the mechanism by which bile acids induce pathogenesis ...
Cheng Jie J National Cancer Institute, United - - 2013
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates vitamin D signaling involved in bone metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, cardiovascular function and bile acid regulation. Mice with an intestine-specific disruption of VDR (VdrΔIEpC) have abnormal body size, colon structure and imbalance of bile acid metabolism. Lithocholic acid (LCA), a secondary bile acid that ...
Zhou Xiaoming X 1] Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA - - 2014
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned ...
Vrieze Anne - - 2013
Obesity has been associated with changes in the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota. Modulation of the microbiota by antibiotics also alters bile acid and glucose metabolism in mice. Hence, we hypothesized that short term administration of oral antibiotics in humans would affect fecal microbiota composition and subsequently bile ...
Kitamura Takuya T Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Smithville, - - 2013
Although very few studies have addressed the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the development of biliary tract cancer (BTC), several lines of evidence suggest a role for the erbB receptor family. Overexpression and activation of erbB2 has been reported in a significant percentage of human BTC. Further, we previously reported ...
O'Leary C A - - 2013
To determine the heritability of extra-hepatic portosystemic shunts and elevated post-prandial serum bile acid concentrations in Maltese dogs. Maltese dogs were recruited and investigated by a variable combination of procedures including dynamic bile acid testing, rectal ammonia tolerance testing, ultrasonography, portal venography, surgical inspection or necropsy. In addition, nine test ...
Morton Gregory J GJ Department of Medicine (G.J.M., K.E.F.-S., D.E.C., M.W.S.) and Department of Dental Public Health Sciences (K.J.K.), School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195; and Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System (K.E.F.-S., D.E.C.), Seattle, Washington - - 2014
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) improves glycemic control in diabetic animals and is secreted from the gastrointestinal tract after meals in response to bile acid stimulation. We sought to understand how ingestion of carbohydrates, protein or lipids affect both FGF19 and bile acid concentrations in human plasma, with the hypothesis ...
Tazuma Susumu - - 2013
Nutritional factors play a key role in the pathogenesis of biliary diseases such as gallstones and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Gallstones are primarily classified into cholesterol stone and pigment stone according to the major composition. Cholesterol gallstone formation is very likely based upon supersaturated bile formation, and pigment stones are formed in ...
Wiemuth Dominik - - 2013
The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) is a key regulator of Na(+) absorption in various epithelia including the distal nephron and the distal colon. ENaC is a constitutively active channel, but its activity is modulated by a number of mechanisms. These include proteolytic activation, ubiquitination and cell surface expression, phosphorylation, intracellular ...
Weingarden Alexa R - - 2013
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which develops following antibiotic treatments. Microbiota play a critical role in the metabolism of bile acids in the colon, which in turn have major effects on the lifecycle of C. difficile bacteria. We ...
Okihara Rika Satoh Née - - 2013
Two novel N-acyl amidated bile acids, N-methyltaurine conjugated cholic acid and N-methyltaurine conjugated deoxycholic acid, were found to be major biliary bile acids in two species of angelfish the regal (Pygoplites diacanthus) and the blue-girdled (Pomacanthus navarchus) angelfish. The identification was based on their having MS and NMR spectra identical ...
Rössger Katrin - - 2013
In recent years, using trigger-inducible mammalian gene switches to design sophisticated transcription-control networks has become standard practice in synthetic biology. These switches provide unprecedented precision, complexity and reliability when programming novel mammalian cell functions. Metabolite-responsive repressors of human-pathogenic bacteria are particularly attractive for use in these orthogonal synthetic mammalian gene ...
Lozano Elisa - - 2013
Bile acid accumulation in liver with cholangiolar neoplastic lesions may occur before cholestasis is clinically detected. Whether this favors intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma development has been investigated in this study. The E. coli RecA gene promoter was cloned upstream from Luc2 in order to detect in vitro direct genotoxic ability by activation ...
Poša Mihalj - - 2013
The special geometry of the steroid skeleton causes that bile acid anions, in contrast to aliphatic amphiphiles, form micelles with a small aggregation number. The number-average aggregation numbers (n¯) are determined using Moroi-Matsuoka-Sugioka thermodynamic method. Also, for analysed bile acid sodium salts functions between spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and concentration ...
Ghaffarzadegan T - - 2013
A method based on hollow-fibre liquid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography was developed for determination of specific bile acids in caecal materials of rats. Nine unconjugated bile acids, including the primary bile acids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and α-muricholic acid) and the secondary bile acids (lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ...
Reshetnyak Vasiliy Ivanovich VI Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak, V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 107031 Moscow, - - 2013
This review considers the physiological and molecular biochemical mechanisms of bile formation. The composition of bile and structure of a bile canaliculus, biosynthesis and conjugation of bile acids, bile phospholipids, formation of bile micellar structures, and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids are described. In general, the review focuses on the ...
Martineau M - - 2013
Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) is associated with an increased risk of fetal morbidity and mortality and is characterised by elevated bile acids in the maternal and fetal compartments. Bile acids have been shown to attenuate renal 11βHSD2 expression and, given the protective role of placental 11βHSD2 in preventing fetal ...
Chatterjee Sagnik - - 2013
Excessive intrahepatic accumulation of bile acids (BAs) is a key mechanism underlying cholestasis. The aim of this study was to quantitatively explore the relationship between cytotoxicity of BAs and their intracellular accumulation in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRH). Following exposure of SCRH (on day-1 after seeding) to various BAs for 24h, ...
Barkun Alan N - - 2013
Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a common but frequently under-recognized cause of chronic diarrhea, with an estimated prevalence of 4% to 5%. The published literature for the period 1965 to 2012 was examined for articles regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of BAM to provide an overview of the management of ...
Zhang Yimin Y Lab of Beef Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018, PR China; Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-8700, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
We evaluated the intrinsic and inducible resistance of four human pathogenic strains of Listeria monocytogenes to acid and bile, factors associated with virulence. Cells were grown in media at pH7.4, or in media at pH6.0 containing 0 (HCl control) or 4.75mM of different organic acids, harvested at stationary or mid ...
Sánchez-Paradinas Sara - - 2013
This article explores the potential cytotoxic activity of bile-acid cisplatin derivatives like bisursodeoxycholate(ethylenediamine)platinum(II), PtU2, when conjugated with gold nanoparticles, being a promising alternative to cisplatin in the treatment of cancer due to their lower toxicity. For our purpose we analyzed the intracellular delivery ability of these compounds after conjugation with ...
Fang Zhong-Ze - - 2013
Increased levels of bile acids due to the various hepatic diseases could interfere with the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, and endobiotics including steroid hormones. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are involved in the conjugation and elimination of many xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The present study sought to investigate the potential for ...
Guo Cen - - 2013
Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) induces intra-hepatic cholestasis mixed with hepatocellular injury mainly by bile ductular damage. However, its direct effect on hepatic parenchymal cells (hepatocytes) is unclear. Sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRH) were applied to clarify this question. Though cytotoxicity was not observed (0-180μM) in ANIT-treated SCRH, metabonomics analysis of the hepatocytes revealed ...
Luo Lina - - 2013
Bile acids have been studied as potential biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury. However, the relationship between levels of individual bile acids and specific forms of liver injury remains to be fully understood. Thus, we set out to evaluate cholic acid (CA), glycocholic acid (GCA) and taurocholic acid (TCA) as potential ...
Vanwijngaerden Yoo-Mee - - 2013
Cholestatic liver dysfunction frequently occurs during critical illness. Administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) is thought to aggravate this. Underlying mechanisms are not clear. In a burn model of prolonged critical illness, rabbits were randomized to a nutritional strategy either accepting caloric deficits (Fasted, n=11) or covering caloric needs by PN ...
Ding Jie - - 2013
Background: Quantitative assessment of bile acids in biological matrixes is of growing interest, primarily due to hepatic toxicity resulting from drug interactions with the bile salt export pump. Nevertheless, many bile acids demonstrate poor fragmentation in MS, making conventional MS/MS not a good match for their selective quantitation in biological ...
Mahbubani Krishnaa T - - 2013
Enteric coated oral tablets or capsules can deliver dried live cells directly into the intestine. Previously, we found that a live attenuated bacterial vaccine acquired sensitivity to intestinal bile when dried, raising the possibility that although gastric acid can be bypassed, significant loss of viability might occur on release from ...
Jung Dongju - - 2013
Cholangiocytes, bile duct lining cells, actively adjust the amount of cholesterol and bile acids in bile through expression of enzymes and channels involved in transportation and metabolism of the cholesterol and bile acids. Herein, we report molecular mechanisms regulating bile acid biosynthesis in cholangiocytes. Among the cytochrome p450 (Cyp) enzymes ...
Prakash Priyanka - - 2013
Prolonged usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) causes gastrointestinal injury. Bile acids and phospholipids have been shown to exasperate and attenuate NSAIDs' toxicity, respectively. However the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain undetermined. We have investigated the molecular interactions in various mixtures of Indomethacin (Indo), a commonly used NSAID, and ...
Poša Mihalj - - 2013
Bile salts (BSs), in addition to their physiological role in the digestion of lipids in vertebrates, are also of significant importance in biomedical investigations. For predicting biological-pharmacological activity and physico-chemical properties of BSs it is important to develop such molecular descriptors that adequately describe the structural characteristics of the steroid ...
di Gregorio M Chiara - - 2013
In this paper, the preparation and characterization of an anionic and a cationic surfactant obtained by chemical modifications of a natural bile acid (cholic acid) are reported. The bile acid was modified by introducing a diamine or a dicarboxylic aromatic residue on the lateral chain. The pure cationic surfactant self-assembles ...
Ipharraguerre Ignacio R - - 2013
Early weaning is a stressful event characterized by a transient period of intestinal atrophy that may be mediated by reduced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 2. We tested whether enterally fed bile acids or plant sterols could increase nutrient-dependent GLP-2 secretion and improve intestinal adaptation in weanling pigs. During the ...
Sabit Hairat - - 2013
Human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT, SLC10A2) is responsible for intestinal reabsorption of bile acids and plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis. We used a targeted and systematic approach to delineate the role of highly conserved transmembrane helix 2 on the expression and function of hASBT. Cysteine mutation ...
Murashita Koji - - 2013
Bile acid transporters belonging to the SLC10A protein family, Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP or SLC10A1), apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2), and organic solute transporter alpha (Ost-alpha) have been known to play critical roles in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in mammals. In this study, ntcp, ...
Martinefski Manuela R - - 2013
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a high-risk liver disease given the eventual deleterious consequences that may occur in the foetus. It is accepted that the abnormal accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids in maternal serum are responsible for the disease development. Hydrophobic bile acids induce oxidative stress and apoptosis leading to ...
O'Brien Kate M - - 2013
During obstructive cholestasis, increased concentrations of bile acids activate ERK1/2 in hepatocytes, which up-regulates early growth response factor 1, a key regulator of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), which, in turn, exacerbates cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies have indicated that IL-17A contributes to hepatic inflammation during ...
Shu-Yao Z - - 2013
The glucuronidation process has been regarded as the key elimination process for toxic bile acids. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A3 is one important metabolizing enzyme involved in this process. To evaluate the inhibition of UGT1A3 by scutellarein which is an important herbal ingredient using in vitro method, trying to indicate the possibility ...
Cai Kai K Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093-0704, - - 2013
DGKs (diacylglycerol kinases) catalyse the conversion of diacylglycerol into PA (phosphatidic acid), a positive modulator of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). We have found that chenodeoxycholic acid and the synthetic FXR (farnesoid X receptor) ligand GW4064 induce the mRNA and protein expression of DGKθ in the HepG2 cell line and ...
Yuan Quan - - 2013
Liver is the sole organ responsible for the final elimination of cholesterol from the body either as biliary cholesterol or bile acids. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-derived cholesterol is the major source of biliary sterols and represents a mechanism for the removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues including artery wall-associated macrophage foam ...
Berrabah Wahiba - - 2013
Bile acid metabolism is intimately linked to the control of energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. The nuclear receptor FXR plays a major role in the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids, but the impact of nutrients on bile acid homeostasis is poorly characterized. Metabolically active hepatocytes cope with increases ...
Pattni S S - - 2013
Bile acid diarrhoea is a common, under-diagnosed cause of chronic watery diarrhoea, responding to specific treatment with bile acid sequestrants. We previously showed patients with bile acid diarrhoea have lower median levels compared with healthy controls, of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), which regulates bile acid synthesis. ...
Maeda Y - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between rats and hamsters, Two of the most widely used experimental animals, with respect to the effects of microsomal membrane solubilization on the inhibition of liver 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSDI) enzyme by bile acids. Liver microsome fractions were prepared, and the ...
Ye Weijian - - 2013
The efficient synthesis of some bile acid-derived cationic amphiphiles with a flexible long hydrocarbon tail was investigated. Firstly, the modification on the side-chain carboxyl of bile acids was carried out efficiently by one-pot amidation of bile acids and a long-chain aliphatic amine in the presence of HOBt and DCC to ...
Penno Carlos A - - 2013
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) mediates glucocorticoid activation and is currently considered as therapeutic target to treat metabolic diseases; however, biomarkers to assess its activity in vivo are still lacking. Recent in vitro experiments suggested that human 11β-HSD1 metabolizes the secondary bile acid 7-oxolithocholic acid (7-oxoLCA) to chenodeoxcholic acid (CDCA) ...
Magner Daniel B - - 2013
Hormone-gated nuclear receptors (NRs) are conserved transcriptional regulators of metabolism, reproduction, and homeostasis. Here we show that C. elegans NHR-8 NR, a homolog of vertebrate liver X and vitamin D receptors, regulates nematode cholesterol balance, fatty acid desaturation, apolipoprotein production, and bile acid metabolism. Loss of nhr-8 results in a deficiency ...
Groen Albert K - - 2013
Extensive transcriptional networks maintain sterol homeostasis across species, underscoring the importance of sterol balance for healthy life. Magner et al. (2013) now show that, in C. elegans, the nuclear receptor NHR-8 is key in regulation of cholesterol balance and production of dafachronic acid, a bile acid-like steroid that controls longevity.
Sreekanth Vedagopuram - - 2013
We have synthesized two series of bile acid tamoxifen conjugates using three bile acids Lithocholic Acid (LCA), Deoxycholic Acid (DCA) and Cholic Acid (CA). These bile acid-tamoxifen conjugates possess 1, 2, 3 tamoxifen molecules attached to hydroxyl groups of bile acids having free acid and amine functionalities at the tail ...
Vaquero Javier - - 2013
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key sensor in bile acid homeostasis. Although four human FXR isoforms have been identified, the physiological role of this diversity is poorly understood. Here we investigated their subcellular localization, agonist sensitivity and response of target genes. Measurement of mRNA revealed that liver predominantly ...
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