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Results 451 - 500 of 2107
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Mazzella N - - 2005
In this study, we investigated, in vitro, the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid composition of Corynebacterium sp. Strain 8. The usual ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids E/Z (or trans/cis) was calculated. This ratio led to unexpected results because we found similar values for growths on ...
Beermann Christopher - - 2005
The sn-position of FA in membrane lipids has an influence on the physiological function of cells, is predictive for diseases, and therefore is useful for diagnostics. The current study compares the compositions of acyl chain substituents in the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of the glycerol backbones of phospholipids derived from ...
Li Zhenya - - 2005
In the absence of adequate levels of cellular acidic phospholipids, Escherichia coli remain viable but are arrested for growth. Expression of a DnaA protein that contains a single amino acid substitution in the membrane-binding domain, DnaA(L366K), in concert with expression of wild-type DnaA protein, restores growth. DnaA protein has high ...
Sul Donggeun - - 2005
The present study investigated the effects of inhalation exposure of benzene at 0, 10, 200 and 600 ppm for 1, 2 and 4 weeks on n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and ceramide levels in the rat liver. No significant difference in the ratio of saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty ...
Moe Morten K - - 2005
In the present work, the unsaturated fatty acid substituents of some phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol species were converted to their 1,2-di-hydroxy derivatives by OsO(4). The subsequent electrospray ionization tandem low-energy mass spectrometry analysis of the deprotonated species allowed positional determination of the double bonds by the production of ...
Baggio Bruno - - 2005
Clinical and experimental investigations seem to underline the important role of fatty acids in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria, a well-known risk factor for lithogenesis. To evaluate the relationships between the previously reported increase in plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid level and the factors responsible for calcium metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, ...
Fabisiak James P - - 2005
Membrane phospholipids are gaining increasing attention as important mediators in a variety of signal transduction processes. Oxidation and changes in membrane topography of lipids are probably important elements in the regulation of phospholipid-dependent signaling. Phosphatidylserine (PS), in particular, is implicated in the regulation of macrophage-dependent clearance of apoptotic cell "corpses" ...
Quaglia M G - - 2005
The lipophilicity of pipemidic, nalidixic and oxolinic acids was determined by forming phospholipidic micelles directly in an electrophoretic capillary. Phosphatidylcholine derivatives, namely L-alpha-dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) or L-alpha-dimiristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), were added in the run buffer (50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.4). To obtain a mixed micelle, phospholipidic derivatives and ...
Stasiuk Maria - - 2004
Merulinic acid (heptadecenylresorcinolic acid, resorcinolic acid) is one of the members of resorcinolic lipids, the natural amphiphilic long-chain homologues of orcinol (1,3-dihydroksy-5-methylbenzene). In the present study, membrane properties of merulinic acid were investigated. Merulinic acid exhibits strong haemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes (EH50 of 5+/-2 microM) regardless of the form ...
Vlaardingerbroek H - - 2004
Evidence that the essential fatty acid (EFA) status during pregnancy and at birth may not be optimal is mainly based on fatty acid profiles of maternal and neonatal plasma phospholipids. However, erythrocyte phospholipids may be more reliable than plasma phospholipids to reflect the EFA status of an individual. Therefore, the ...
Bonaventure Gustavo - - 2004
Although the surface waxes from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and stems have been thoroughly characterized, the monomer composition of the polyesters of the cuticular membrane has not been analyzed. Delipidated Arabidopsis leaves or stems, when depolymerized under conditions to cleave polyesters, produced typical omega-hydroxy fatty acid cutin monomers such as 16-hydroxy-palmitate, ...
Gebert Julia - - 2004
The microbial community structure of two biofilters used for the oxidation of methane and organic trace gases generated in landfills was analysed by phospholipid fatty acid composition. Community structure varied with biofilter depth, reflecting varying conditions of substrate supply as well as of organic carbon content, nutrient status and osmotic ...
Piperi Christina - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Biochemical abnormalities, increased efflux of soluble enzymes and muscle proteins, and altered permeability of muscle membranes imply the presence of a disorganized erythrocyte membrane in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate this hypothesis of a generalized membrane defect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five ...
de Carvalho Carla C C R - - 2005
Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 has the ability to convert the terpene (-)-carveol to the valuable flavour compound (-)-carvone when growing on a wide range of carbon sources. To study the effect of carbon and energy sources such as alkanes, alkanols and terpenes on the biotechnological process, the cellular adaptation at the ...
Kulagina T P - - 2004
Lipid composition of homogenate and neuronal and glial nuclei of the brain cortex of Wistar rats was studied under normal conditions and after seizures induced by injection of picrotoxin. Seizures increased contents of lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and total phospholipids in the homogenate. In neuronal nuclei contents of total phospholipids, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, ...
Caiazza Daniela - - 2004
Endothelial lipase (EL) is a newly identified member of the triglyceride lipase gene family that hydrolyzes high-density lipoprotein (HDL) phospholipids. This study investigates the ability of the major apolipoproteins of rHDL to regulate the kinetics of EL-mediated phospholipid hydrolysis in well-characterized, homogeneous preparations of spherical rHDL. The rHDL contained either ...
Morrill Gene A - - 2004
Iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation was examined using 1H NMR in a biphasic aqueous-chloroform system. At physiological pH (7.4), mole ratios of phospholipids/Fe3+ as low as 1300:1 catalyzed the rapid disappearance of endogenous lipid hydroperoxides with a loss of two of the four double bonds in PC containing palmitic (16:0) and arachidonic ...
Matsumoto Ken-Ichi - - 2004
Tenascin-X (TNX) is a member of the tenascin family of glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix. We previously showed that TNX regulates the synthesis of triglyceride and the composition of triglyceride-associated fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to determine whether TNX controls the synthesis of phospholipids and the ...
Jain Shashi - - 2004
Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) is a highly sensitive, fast and powerful technique for the metabolite and metabolomic analysis of mixtures of lipids in a biological extract. We have exploited this technique to identify and characterize various phospholipids present in the placenta of preeclamptic and normal pregnant women. Multiple major ...
Peretó Juli - - 2004
Archaea possess unique membrane phospholipids that generally comprise isoprenoid ethers built on sn-glycerol-1-phosphate (G1P). By contrast, bacterial and eukaryal membrane phospholipids are fatty acid esters linked to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). The two key dehydrogenase enzymes that produce G1P and G3P, G1PDH and G3PDH, respectively, are not homologous. Various models propose that ...
Sugai Rie - - 2004
GnsA overproduction was previously found to suppress both the secG null mutation and the fabA6 mutation in Escherichia coli by increasing the unsaturated fatty acid contents. We report here that it also increased the acidic phospholipid contents at 20 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C. GnsA overproduction at ...
Kompauer I - - 2004
The dietary intake of certain fatty acids might contribute to the development of atopic diseases like allergic rhinitis and asthma. We investigated the association between the ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipids and hay fever or allergic sensitisation in adults. Data from a population based cross-sectional ...
Enriquez Yanik Rodríguez - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Relationships between fatty acids in erythrocyte phospholipids and insulin parameters have been described in healthy and overweight individuals, but not in obese diabetics. We assessed whether erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acids are related to insulin parameters in obese type 2 diabetics on Metformin. METHODS: In 23 diabetics, the fractions of ...
Chen Irene A IA Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2004
Membrane vesicles composed of fatty acids can be made to grow and divide under laboratory conditions, and thus provide a model system relevant to the emergence of cellular life. Fatty acid vesicles grow spontaneously when alkaline micelles are added to buffered vesicles. To investigate the mechanism of this process, we ...
Aricha Barak - - 2004
Phase variation in the colonial opacity of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been implicated as a factor in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. This study examined the relationship between membrane characteristics and colony morphology in a few selected opaque-transparent couples of S. pneumoniae strains carrying different capsular types. Membrane fluidity was determined ...
Elkahoui Salem - - 2004
Salt treatment strongly affected cell growth by decreasing dry weight. Exposure of Catharanthus roseus cell suspensions to increasing salinity significantly enhanced total lipid (TL) content. The observed increase is mainly due to high level of phospholipids (PL). Hundred mM NaCl treatment increased phospholipid species phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), whereas ...
McHowat J - - 2004
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of sn-2 fatty acids from membrane phospholipids resulting in the production of several biologically active phospholipid metabolites such as lysophospholipids, arachidonic acid, eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor. The majority of myocardial PLA2 activity is membrane-associated and does not require Ca2+ for activity (iPLA2). Myocardial iPLA2 ...
Kivini Hanna - - 2004
Quantitative and qualitative high-performance liquid chromatographic methods were utilized to separate phospholipid classes. After qualitative separation, the fatty acid moieties of each separated phospholipid class were determined using a gas chromatographic method. On the basis of these analyses, the effect of supplemented feeds on hen egg yolk lipids can be ...
Glew Robert H - - 2004
The incidence of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and myocardial infarction is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. Since dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are protective of the cardiovascular system in humans, we were interested in the question of the PUFA status of adults in northern Nigeria who had experienced a recent stroke. We ...
Nusair Nisreen A - - 2004
This is the first time (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy and spin-labeled EPR spectroscopy have been utilized to probe the structural orientation and dynamics of a stearic acid incorporated into magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers or bicelles. The data gleaned from the two different techniques provide a more complete description of the ...
Batrakov Stanislav G - - 2004
The cell lipids of the zygomycete Absidia corymbifera F-965 extracted with isopropanol and CHCl3-MeOH mixtures at the exponential growth phase comprise 20+/-2% of mycelium dry wt. The lipids consist of: triacylglycerols (51% of the total lipids extracted), diacylglycerols (9%), monoacylglycerols (3%), ergosterol (5%), ergosterol peroxide (5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-diene-3beta-ol) (3%), fatty-acid esters of ...
Felton C V - - 2004
The lipid composition of erythrocyte membranes was explored as a surrogate for that of skeletal muscle in investigations into the influence of membrane fatty acid composition on insulin sensitivity. In a preliminary study (study 1), erythrocyte and monocyte/platelet membrane fatty acid percentages were compared with those of muscle membrane in ...
Doley Robin - - 2004
We previously demonstrated that venom from the Indian monocled cobra Naja kaouthia is a rich source of phospholipase A2 enzymes, and we purified and characterized a major PLA2 isoenzyme (NK-PLA2-I) from N. kaouthia venom. In the present study, we report the purification and biochemical characterization of a second PLA2 isoenzyme ...
Kummerow Fred A - - 2004
Our hypothesis that the trans fatty acids in hydrogenated fat inhibited the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipid of arterial cells was tested with five groups each with six pregnant porcine fed from d 35 of gestation and during lactation. The basal diet contained 2% corn oil (control). ...
Johnston Norah C - - 2004
We have identified phosphatidylethanolamine as one of the major phospholipids of Clostridium perfringens by two dimensional thin layer chromatography of the intact lipids and of their deacylation products and by liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry of the intact neutral phospholipid fraction. The principal fatty acids of phosphatidylethanolamine are myristic ...
Iivonen Sari - - 2004
We studied the effects of root zone temperature (RZT) and nutrient availability on free sterols and phospholipids in the plasma membrane (PM) and on PM-ATPase activity in roots of 1-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings during growth initiation in the spring. Seedlings were grown for 6 weeks in hydroponic ...
Horrocks Lloyd A - - 2004
The central nervous system has the second highest concentration of lipids after adipose tissue. Long chain fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are integral components of neural membrane phospholipids. Alterations in neural membrane phospholipid components cannot only influence crucial intracellular and intercellular signaling but also alter many membrane ...
Douliez Jean-Paul - - 2004
The interaction between cutin and suberin monomers, i.e., omega -hydroxylpalmitic acid, alpha, omega -hexadecanedioic acid, alpha, omega --hexadecanediol, 12-hydroxylstearic acid, and phospholipid vesicles biomimicking the lipid structure of plant cell membranes has been studied by optical and transmission electron microscopy, quasielastic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and (31)P solid-state NMR. ...
Williams E Eugene - - 2004
Crustaceans are covered by a cuticle that does not grow. In order for an individual to grow, the cuticle must periodically be shed (ecdysis). Replacement of the old cuticle with a new one depends on processes that require precise timing and control, yet the nature and location of these controls ...
Hatch Grant M - - 2004
Phospholipids are important structural and functional components of all biological membranes and define the compartmentation of organelles. Mitochondrial phospholipids comprise a significant proportion of the entire phospholipid content of most eukaroytic cells. In the heart, a tissue rich in mitochondria, the mitochondrial phospholipids provide for diverse roles in the regulation ...
Iwasaki Yugo - - 2004
Structured lipids (SLs) are defined as lipids that are modified chemically or enzymatically in order to change their structure. This review deals with structured triacylglycerols (STGs) and structured phospholipids (SPLs). The most typical STGs are MLM-type STGs, having medium chain fatty acids (FAs) at the 1- and 3-positions and a ...
Pari Leelavinothan - - 2004
The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of Phaseolus vulgaris, an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India, on blood glucose, plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and fatty acid composition of total lipids in liver, kidney, and brain of normal and ...
Ishida Mayuko - - 2004
Nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) was applied to identify the molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine of Caenorhabditis elegans, which has a high concentration of phospholipids with a fatty acyl chain having an odd number of carbon atoms. The molecular species of diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine with one ...
Nakamura Manabu T - - 2004
Fatty acid desaturases introduce a double bond in a specific position of long-chain fatty acids, and are conserved across kingdoms. Degree of unsaturation of fatty acids affects physical properties of membrane phospholipids and stored triglycerides. In addition, metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids are used as signaling molecules in many organisms. ...
Moe Morten K - - 2004
We report a novel method allowing the complete structural characterization of intact species of the phospholipid classes phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine by utilizing negative electrospray ionization quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Information on the molecular weight of the intact phospholipid species, the class to which it belongs, the molecular mass of ...
Górska M - - 2004
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ceramide is the main second messenger in the sphingomyelin-transmembrane signalling pathway. The compound is likely to play a role in the induction of insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of streptozotocin diabetes on the content and composition of ceramides and sphingomyelins and ...
Sakai Hiromichi - - 2004
The basidiomycetous mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) exhibits a unique process of cell differentiation termed "fruiting-body formation". To clarify the relationship between membrane lipids and fruiting-body formation in this fungus, we investigated variations in levels of phospholipids, cerebrosides, fatty acyl residues in the major phospholipids, and fatty acyl and sphingoid base ...
Ross Brian M - - 2003
A variety of biochemical, clinical and genetic evidence suggests that phospholipid metabolism may play an aetiological role in schizophrenia. A key piece of evidence is the reduced vasodilatory response of patients with schizophrenia to nicotinic acid (NA). NA causes vasodilation via the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) leading to the ...
Skosnik P D - - 2003
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 1% of the general population, and is characterized by symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and blunted affect. While many ideas regarding SZ pathogenesis have been put forth, the majority of research has focused on neurotransmitter function, particularly in relation to altered dopamine ...
Turk Martina - - 2004
The halophilic melanized yeast-like fungi Hortaea werneckii, Phaeotheca triangularis, and the halotolerant Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from salterns as their natural environment, were grown at different NaCl concentrations and their membrane lipid composition and fluidity were examined. Among sterols, besides ergosterol, which was the predominant one, 23 additional sterols were identified. ...
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