Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1831
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Sweazea Karen L - - 2006
Studies of prolonged avian flight have shown it to require large amounts of energy supplied mainly by free fatty acids (FFA). In the present study, the high levels of plasma ketone bodies found in sparrows (2.58 mmol l(-1)) are supportive of the use of fatty acids for flight. To determine ...
Balamurugan Krishnaswamy - - 2006
Studies from our laboratory and others have characterized different aspects of the intestinal folate uptake process and have shown that the reduced folate carrier (RFC) is expressed in the gut and plays a role in the uptake process. Little, however, is known about the actual contribution of the RFC system ...
Musters Mark W J M - - 2006
Long-chain fatty acids (FAs) are important substrates used by the heart to fulfil its energy requirements. Prior to mitochondrial oxidation, blood-borne FAs must pass through the cell membrane of the cardiac myocyte (sarcolemma). The mechanism underlying the sarcolemmal transport of FAs is incompletely understood. The aim of the present study ...
Abbot Emily L - - 2006
The aim of this investigation was to determine if the human proton-coupled amino-acid transporter 1 (hPAT1 or SLC36A1) is responsible for the intestinal uptake of the orally-administered antiepileptic agent 4-amino-5-hexanoic acid (vigabatrin). The Caco-2 cell line was used as a model of the human small intestinal epithelium. Competition experiments demonstrate ...
Cheng Shaoling - - 2006
The goal of this work was to investigate the synergistic effect between the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions upon the uptake of organic ions with hydrophobic moieties by ion-exchange resins with hydrophobic matrixes. The uptake of neutral amino acids by a macroporous polystyrene-based strongly acidic cation-exchange resin (D001) and two strongly ...
Peter George J - - 2006
We have identified carbon catabolite repression (CCR) as a regulator of amino acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, elucidated the permeases regulated by CCR, and identified the mechanisms involved in amino acid permease regulation by CCR. Transport of l-arginine and l-leucine was increased by approximately 10-25-fold in yeast grown in carbon ...
Persson Jörgen - - 2006
Although an increasing number of studies show that many plant species have the capacity to take up amino acids from exogenous sources, the importance of such uptake for plant nitrogen nutrition is largely unknown. Moreover, little is known regarding metabolism and distribution of amino acid-N following uptake or of the ...
Tamber Sandeep - - 2006
To circumvent the permeability barrier of its outer membrane, Pseudomonas aeruginosa has evolved a series of specific porins. These channels have binding sites for related classes of molecules that facilitate uptake under nutrient-limited conditions. Here, we report on the identification of a 19-member family of porins similar to the basic-amino-acid-specific ...
Nagata Shinichi - - 2006
Halotolerant Brevibacterium sp. JCM 6894 that was subjected to an osmotic downshock (0.7 M NaCl to 0 M) was examined for its survival and uptake of ectoine in the presence of ectoine and/or carbon sources. In the presence of ectoine alone, the rates of ectoine uptake by the 1 h-downshocked ...
Viadel Blanca - - 2006
An in vitro system, consisting of simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell culture, was used to estimate the uptake of calcium, iron and zinc from white beans, chickpeas and lentils, and the effect of cooking upon uptake, with the ultimate aim of evaluating legumes as a dietary source of the ...
Bapat Prashant M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Industrial fermentation typically uses complex nitrogen substrates which consist of mixture of amino acids. The uptake of amino acids is known to be mediated by several amino acid transporters with certain preferences. However, models to predict this preferential uptake are not available. We present the stoichiometry for the utilization ...
Alonso Manuel - - 2006
Brefeldin A is a commonly used antifungal agent that reversibly blocks protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. In this study, we aimed to characterize L-leucine uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of brefeldin A. For this purpose, we used a synthetic medium, containing L-proline and ...
Greenwood Susan L - - 2006
A method is described for measuring amino acid uptake by the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta in vitro using taurine as an example. Small fragments of placental villous tissue (2-3 mm3) are tied to a comb that enables them to be moved in concert between a series of incubation and ...
Rodriguez Lorena - - 2006
Endogenous porphyrin accumulation after administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid is employed in photodynamic therapy of tumours. Due to its low membrane permeability, esterified 5-aminolevulinic acid derivatives less hydrophilic than the parental compound are under investigation. Knowledge of the mechanisms of 5-aminolevulinic acid derivatives uptake into target cells is essential to understand ...
Ho Michael - - 2006
The effects of insulin and leptin on fatty acid uptake in differentiated (adipocytes) and undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells were investigated. It was demonstrated that in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells, insulin and leptin have no effect on fatty acid uptake. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin had a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect on fatty acid ...
Esteve Williams - - 2005
This work presents a study of the uptake of acetone, 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone), 2,4-pentanedione, and acetaldehyde by sulfuric acid solutions with an aim at understanding the reactivity of carbonyl compounds present in the atmosphere toward acidic aerosols. Experiments were performed in a rotating wetted-wall reactor coupled to a mass ...
Fang X - - 2005
Adiponectin has been shown to regulate glucose and fatty acid uptake and metabolism in skeletal muscle. Here we investigated the role of the recently cloned adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) isoforms in mediating effects of both globular (gAd) and full-length (fAd) adiponectin, and their regulation by hyperglycemia (25 mM, 20 h) and ...
Feng Qiang - - 2006
Controlled-fed perfusion, a new operation mode, which combines the advantages of fed-batch and perfusion, has been reported to enhance monoclonal antibody productivity. The aim of the present study was to further enrich this mode by an "oxygen uptake rate-amino acids (OUR-AA)" strategy in which the feeding of amino acids was ...
Peng Liang - - 2005
Uptake of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides in astrocytes is important for several reasons: (1) uptake of nucleosides contributes to nucleic acid synthesis; (2) astrocytes synthesize AMP, ADP, and ATP from adenosine and GTP from guanosine; and (3) adenosine and guanosine function as neuromodulators, whose effects are partly terminated by cellular ...
Palanivel Rengasamy - - 2005
Resistin has been proposed as a potential link between obesity and insulin resistance. It is also well established that altered metabolism of fatty acids by skeletal muscle can lead to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. However, little is known about the effect of resistin on long chain fatty acid uptake and ...
Choi Jun-Shik - - 2005
The present study investigated the cellular uptake mechanism of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Caco-2 cells. Diflunisal, diclofenac, ketoprofen and naproxen exhibited a strong inhibition effect on the cellular uptake of [14C]-benzoic acid in Caco-2 cells with IC50 values of 0.05-0.44 mM. The inhibition of naproxen and ketoprofen against the ...
Shimizu Motoyuki - - 2005
Protoplasts of the basidiomycete, Fomitopsis palustris (formerly Tyromyces palustris), were utilized to study a function of the fungal plasma membrane. Fungal protoplasts exhibited metabolic activities as seen with intact mycelial cells. Furthermore, the uptake of certain compounds into the protoplast cells was quantitatively observed by using non-radioactive compounds. Vanillin was ...
Lawrence Jennifer R - - 2005
The entry of HCl into 60-68 wt % D(2)SO(4) and HBr into 68 wt % acid containing 0-0.18 M 1-butanol was monitored by measuring the fractions of impinging HCl and HBr molecules that desorb as DCl and DBr after undergoing H --> D exchange within the deuterated acid. The addition ...
Landowski Christopher P - - 2005
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to synthesize amino acid ester prodrugs of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (floxuridine) to enhance intestinal absorption and resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism. METHODS: Amino acid ester prodrugs were synthesized and examined for their hydrolytic stability in human plasma, in Caco-2 cell homogenates, and in the presence ...
van Slegtenhorst Marjon - - 2005
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a tumor suppressor syndrome caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or the TSC2 gene. Previous studies have shown that deletion of the TSC1 or TSC2 ortholog in Schizosaccharomyces pombe results in an amino acid uptake defect, with conditional lethality. We identified a G1 cyclin, pas1+, ...
Navet Rachel - - 2005
In isolated potato tuber mitochondria, palmitic acid (PA) can induce a H+ leak inhibited by GTP in the phosphorylating (state 3) respiration but not in the resting (state 4) respiration. The PA-induced H+ leak is constant when state 3 respiration is decreased by an inhibition of the succinate uptake with ...
Caccia S - - 2005
It is well documented that in the model system Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)/Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera, Aphididae) host regulation by the parasitoid larva induces in the aphid haemolymph major changes of the titer of nutritional compounds such as proteins, acylglycerols and free amino acids, in order to meet the ...
Hu Yongjun - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to determine the polarity and directionality of the PEPT2-mediated uptake and transepithelial transport of the neuropeptide glycyl-L-glutamine (GlyGln) in choroid plexus. METHODS: The transport kinetics of [3H]GlyGln was studied in neonatal rat choroid plexus epithelial cells in primary culture grown on laminin-coated Transwell ...
Zhang Dan - - 2005
The internal mixing state of soot with sulfuric acid is believed to significantly impact the optical, cloud-forming, and chemical properties of soot-containing aerosols, but little is known about the interaction between soot and sulfuric acid. We report the first measurements of the uptake of H2SO4 on three types of soot ...
Murota Kaeko - - 2005
Long-chain fatty acid and sn-2-monoacylglycerol (2-MG) are the digestive products of dietary triacylglycerol (TG) hydrolysis. Although fatty acid uptake into the enterocyte has been examined widely, less is known about 2-MG uptake, and few studies have mimicked the physiologic conditions present in the postprandial situation. In this study, the cellular ...
Lowes Simon - - 2005
Initial rates of uptake of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; 20 microM) were measured in intact lateral choroid plexus from rat. Although inhibition of uptake by millimolar concentrations of estrone sulfate (ES) and unlabeled 2,4-D was maximal at 85%, inhibition by p-aminohippurate (PAH) saturated at about 50%. Inhibition by ES ...
Béhé Martin - - 2005
Uptake of radiolabeled peptides in the kidneys may obscure abdominal tumors in radiopeptide scintigraphy. This problem is much more pronounced in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (i.e., radiopeptide therapy), possibly leading to renal damage or even failure. Cationic peptide uptake in the kidneys can be reduced by the application of cationic ...
Duttaroy Asim K - - 2005
Placental transport of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is important for fetal growth and development. In order to examine the effects of leptin and insulin on fatty acid uptake by the placenta, placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells were used. BeWo cells were incubated for 5h at 37 degrees C in the ...
Hirano Masaru - - 2005
Pravastatin is a well known 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor. Cumulative studies have shown that pravastatin is taken up into hepatocytes by the organic anion transporting polypeptide family transporters and excreted into the bile as an intact form by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). It is generally accepted that the bile salt ...
Schaiff W Timothy - - 2005
Transplacental transfer of fatty acids from the maternal to the fetal circulation is essential for fetal development. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) regulates fatty acid transport and storage in adipocytes and other cell types. This study tested the hypothesis that PPARgamma and its heterodimeric nuclear receptor partner, retinoid ...
Sandberg Anna - - 2005
There is considerable controversy at present concerning the mechanisms responsible for the cellular uptake of anandamide. One particular issue concerns whether fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin should be used in the assays, it having been argued that such a presence effectively prevents the specific uptake of anandamide. In the present ...
Uemura Takeshi - - 2005
It has been reported that Gap1p on the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can catalyze the uptake of many kinds of amino acids. In the present study, we found that Gap1p also catalyzed the uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but not spermine. The Km and Vmax values for putrescine and ...
Johnston Kelly - - 2005
The effect of different classes of dietary polyphenols on intestinal glucose uptake was investigated using polarised Caco-2 intestinal cells. Glucose uptake into cells under sodium-dependent conditions was inhibited by flavonoid glycosides and non-glycosylated polyphenols whereas aglycones and phenolic acids were without effect. Under sodium-free conditions, aglycones and non-glycosylated polyphenols inhibited ...
Majumdar Soumyajit - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the functional activity of monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1) on the human retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cell line, ARPE-19, and to evaluate whether the cell line can function as an in vitro screening tool for intravitreally administered drugs/prodrugs targeted to ...
Han Fang - - 2005
Organic acids play an important role in metal uptake by, and accumulation in, plants. However, the relevant mechanisms remain obscure. Acetic, malic and citric acids increased the uptake of lanthanum (La) by barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots and enhanced La content in shoots under hydroponic conditions. Concentration-dependent net La influx in ...
Aremu David A - - 2005
Aluminum salts or doses that are unlikely in the human system have been employed in toxicity studies and much attention had been focused on the secondary target (neurons) of its toxicity rather than the primary target (astroglia). In order to address these issues, we have investigated the uptake and apoptotic ...
Schein Vanessa - - 2005
We investigated the transport of (14)C-methylaminoisobutyric acid ((14)C-MeAIB) and (14)C-alanine oxidation in hepatopancreas and jaw muscle of Chasmagnathus granulata submitted to 24, 72, and 144 h of hypo- or hyperosmotic stress. While (14)C-MeAIB uptake increased in jaw muscle and hepatopancreas from crabs submitted to hyperosmotic stress, it did not change ...
Jeon Choong - - 2005
Effects of ionic strength and organic materials on copper ion uptake capacity using carboxylated alginic acid which showed very high metal ion uptake capacity were investigated. The ionic strength only had a slight effect on the decrease of copper ion uptake capacity regardless of NaCl concentration. And, the effect of ...
Iordache Claudiu - - 2005
Glucocorticosteroids such as dexamethasone (Dex) increase sugar and lipid uptake in adult animals and accelerate the development of the immature intestine. The effect of Dex on the ontogeny of lipid absorption is unknown. In adult rats, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) has a trophic effect on the intestine and enhances nutrient absorption. ...
Igarashi Norio - - 2005
We investigated whether changes in myocardial uptake of fatty acid tracer after reperfusion following transient myocardial ischemia were closely related to alterations in intracellular fatty acid oxidation. METHODS: Using a fatty acid tracer of (131)I- and (125)I-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-9-methylpentadecanoic acid (9MPA), the myocardial uptake and metabolites were determined by dual-tracer autoradiography ...
Li Hong - - 2005
We developed a live-cell high-throughput assay system using the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to screen for chemical compounds that will inhibit fatty acid uptake. The target for the inhibitors is a mammalian fatty acid transport protein (mmFATP2), which is involved in the fatty acid transport and activation pathway. The mmFATP2 ...
Berk Paul D - - 2005
Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) enter cells by both facilitated transport and diffusion, the former accounting for > or = 90%. Facilitated LCFA transport is up-regulated in adipocytes from obese rats, mice, and humans. To clarify the role of hepatocellular LCFA uptake in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver), [3H]-oleic acid (OA) ...
Gessler Arthur - - 2004
Pedospheric nitrate uptake is closely integrated with the nitrogen (N) status and demand of the whole tree. Signaling substances communicating the N demand of the shoot to the roots are required in an integrated regulatory system. Besides phloem mobility, such signal compounds must have the potential to repress or increase ...
Yano Akira - - 2004
Photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate and early growth parameters of radish Raphanus sativus L. seedlings exposed to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) were investigated. Radish seedlings were exposed to a 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) (root mean square) sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) and a parallel 48 microT static MF ...
Chakraborty Sudipta - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Designing ideal radiopharmaceuticals for use as bone pain palliative agents requires the use of a moderate energy beta emitter as the radionuclide and a polyaminophosphonic acid as the carrier molecule. Cyclic polyaminophosphonic acid ligands are known for endowing higher thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of the radiolabelled agent when ...
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