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Results 251 - 300 of 1832
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Jayasankar Adivaraha - - 2007
The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanisms by which moisture can generate cocrystals when solid particles of cocrystal reactants are exposed to deliquescent conditions (when moisture sorption forms an aqueous solution). It is based on the hypothesis that cocrystallization behavior during water uptake can be derived from ...
Keating Elisa - - 2007
The aim of this work was to test the putative involvement of members of the ABC superfamily of transporters on folic acid (FA) cellular homeostasis in the human placenta. [(3)H]FA uptake and efflux in BeWo cells were unaffected or hardly affected by multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) inhibition (with verapamil), multidrug ...
Lee Yong-Hwa - - 2007
Amino acids are available to plants in some soils in significant amounts, and plants frequently make use of these nitrogen sources. The goal of this study was to identify transporters involved in the uptake of amino acids into root cells. Based on the fact that high concentrations of amino acids ...
Liao Chengyong - - 2007
This research examines the effects of ethanolamine and other amino alcohols on the dynamics of acridine orange (AO), oxonol V, and [3H]-D-aspartic acid in synaptic preparations isolated from mammalian brain. Ethanolamine concentration-dependently enhanced AO release from synaptosomes. Similar effects were observed with methylethanolamine and dimethylethanolamine, but not choline. The enhancement ...
Covey Scott D - - 2007
Caveolin-1 and CD36 are plasma membrane fatty acid binding proteins that participate in adipocyte fatty acid uptake and metabolism. Both are associated with cholesterol-enriched caveolae/lipid rafts in the plasma membrane that are important for long chain fatty acid uptake. Depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol reversibly inhibited oleate uptake by adipocytes ...
Habets Daphna D J - - 2007
CD36, also named fatty acid translocase, has been identified as a putative membrane transporter for long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). In the heart, contraction-induced 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling regulates cellular LCFA uptake through translocation of CD36 and possibly of other LCFA transporters from intracellular storage compartments to the sarcolemma. ...
Imai Makoto - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of myocardial fatty acid oxidation has been suggested as a therapeutic approach for improving cardiac function in chronic heart failure (HF). The novel piperazine derivative CVT-4325 was shown to inhibit fatty acid oxidation in cardiac mitochondria and in isolated perfused rat hearts. In the present study, we tested ...
Tupe R S - - 2007
Zinc plays a dual role, as an integral part of metabolic machinery and in defense against reactive oxygen species. Hepatocytes are important sites for zinc metabolism for synthesis of zinc metalloproteins and maintaining its homeostasis. However, the factors influencing post absorptive zinc metabolism under normal and oxidative stress (OS) conditions ...
Zong Wei - - 2007
The extracts of Eriobotrta japonica leaves with the 3H-glucose uptaking activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were separated by TLC for two times. On the basis of UV-vis spectral, NMR and MS data, corosolic acid was identified as activity components. Moreover, the effects of corosolic acid on carbohydrate metabolism and differentiation of ...
Dijkgraaf Ingrid - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Due to the selective expression of the alpha(v)beta3 integrin in tumors, radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides are attractive candidates for tumor targeting. Minor modifications of these peptides could have a major impact on in vivo characteristics. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of linker modification between two ...
Wu Rebecca P - - 2007
Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are promising transporters for intracellular delivery of antisense morpholino oligomers (PMO). Here, we determined the effect of L-arginine, D-arginine and non-alpha amino acids on cellular uptake, splice-correction activity, cellular toxicity and serum binding for 24 CPP-PMOs. Insertion of 6-aminohexanoic acid (X) or beta-alanine (B) residues into ...
Patt Marianne - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was a) to present a facilitated method for the preparation and workup of [11C]d-threo-methylphenidate ([11C]d-threo-MP) (a ligand that was shown to bind selectively to the presynaptic dopaminergic transporters) from [11C]methyliodide ([11C]CH3I), b) to demonstrate that the ligand can as well be produced by an ...
Takekuma Yoh - - 2007
PURPOSE: Mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressant, is excreted as its glucuronized form, MPAG. In humans, MPAG is mostly excreted into urine, whereas more than 80% of the dose is excreted into bile in rats. The aim of this study was to clarify the cause of the species difference. We investigated ...
Nonaka Takashi - - 2007
Ciclesonide is a novel inhaled corticosteroid for the treatment of airway inflammation. In this study we investigated uptake and in vitro metabolism of ciclesonide in human alveolar type II epithelial cells (A549). Ciclesonide uptake was compared with fluticasone propionate, an inhaled corticosteroid that is not metabolized in lung tissue. A549 ...
Nguyen Theresa V - - 2007
The aims of this study were (1) to determine whether amino acid and dipeptide loading can improve the effective permeability of gabapentin and (2) to characterize the underlying mechanism that is responsible for this interaction. An in situ single-pass rat intestinal perfusion model was used to assess the effective permeability ...
Vargas Rita C - - 2007
The QDR2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a putative plasma membrane drug:H(+) antiporter that confers resistance against quinidine, barban, bleomycin, and cisplatin. This work provides experimental evidence of defective K(+) (Rb(+)) uptake in the absence of QDR2. The direct involvement of Qdr2p in K(+) uptake is reinforced by the fact ...
Zhao Jun - - 2006
Recent environmental chamber studies have suggested that acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions of organic carbonyls contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We report the first measurements of uptake of methylglyoxal on liquid H2SO4 over the temperature range of 250-298 K and acidic range of 55-85 wt %. From the ...
Levitt Nicholas P - - 2006
Recent environmental chamber studies suggest that acid-catalyzed reactions between alcohols and aldehydes in the condensed phase lead to the formation of hemiacetals and acetals, enhancing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth. We report measurements of heterogeneous uptake of butanol and decanol on liquid H2SO4 in the range of 62-84 wt % ...
Chakraborty Soma - - 2006
Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been functionalized and the specific surface areas of the functionalized nanotubes measured. Contrary to expectations, functionalization leads to a decrease in specific surface area compared to that of the unfunctionalized nanotubes. Treatment with a concentrated 1:1 nitric/sulfuric acid mixture followed by high-temperature baking at 1000 degrees ...
Lobo Sandra - - 2007
The role of fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and FATP4 in facilitating adipocyte fatty acid metabolism was investigated using stable FATP1 or FATP4 knockdown (kd) 3T3-L1 cell lines derived from retrovirus-delivered short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Decreased expression of FATP1 or FATP4 did not affect preadipocyte differentiation or the expression ...
Wu Qiwei - - 2006
Nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat through the uncoupling of mitochondrial beta-oxidation from ATP production. The principal energy source for this process is fatty acids that are either synthesized de novo in BAT or are imported from circulation. How uptake of fatty acids is mediated and regulated ...
Formánek P - - 2008
The abandonment of traditional mowing methods of mountain meadows in the Czech Republic at the end of the last century has resulted in secondary re-colonization of these areas. Altered accumulation of plant biomass resulted in a deceleration of N turnover. A mountain meadow may be regarded as a N-limited ecosystem ...
Zabalza Ana - - 2006
The pattern of nitrogen assimilation in soybean plants treated with a herbicide that inhibits branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis was evaluated by (15)N isotopic analysis. The herbicide imazethapyr caused a strong decrease in nitrate uptake by roots, partly due to a reduced stomatal conductance. The inhibition of (15)N uptake was accompanied ...
Lusty James R - - 2006
Sulfamate is an analogue of thiosulfate, and the sodium and potassium salts of sulfamic acid inhibited the chemolithoautotrophic growth on thiosulfate of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Halothiobacillus neapolitanus. The chemo-organotrophic growth of Paracoccus versutus on sucrose was similarly inhibited by sulfamate. Thiosulfate oxidation by suspensions of H. neapolitanus was, however, unaffected ...
Milger Katrin - - 2006
Long-chain fatty acids are important metabolites for the generation of energy and the biosynthesis of lipids. The molecular mechanism of their cellular uptake has remained controversial. The fatty acid transport protein (FATP) family has been named according to its proposed function in mediating this process at the plasma membrane. Here, ...
Janoria Kumar G - - 2006
PURPOSE: The objective of this research was to investigate the presence of sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) on rabbit corneal epithelial cells. METHODS: Primary cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells (rPCECs)and freshly excised rabbit corneas were used for characterization of biotin uptake and transport, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed ...
Eales Kathryn L - - 2006
The in situ physiology of the filamentous bacterium Skermania piniformis frequently seen in activated sludge foams in Australia was investigated. An oligonucleotide probe, Spin1449, targeting the 16S rRNA of S. piniformis was designed for its identification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), validated with pure cultures and applied successfully to ...
Walsby Anthony E - - 2006
The rates of uptake of five amino acids--alanine, glutamate, glycine, leucine and serine--by axenic cultures of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens were measured over a range of irradiances using the (14)C-labelled amino acids at the nanomolar concentrations observed in Lake Zürich. The rates in the light exceeded the dark rates by ...
Laloknam Surasak - - 2006
Aphanothece halophytica is a halotolerant alkaliphilic cyanobacterium which can grow in media of up to 3.0 M NaCl and pH 11. This cyanobacterium can synthesize betaine from glycine by three-step methylation using S-adenosylmethionine as a methyl donor. To unveil the mechanism of betaine uptake and efflux in this alkaliphile, we ...
Eder Angela R - - 2006
This study investigated the role of doxorubicin (DOX) accumulation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production detected in individually electrophoresed organelles, including mitochondria, acidic organelles, and peroxisomes. While bulk measurements of ROS production in cells and organelles are not capable of discriminating between the effects of preparative procedures on measured ROS ...
Nash David G - - 2006
The oleic acid ozonolysis in mixed oleic and myristic acid particles was studied in a flow tube reactor using single particle mass spectrometry. The change in reactivity was investigated as a function of the myristic acid concentration in these 2 micron particles. For pure oleic acid aerosol, the reactive ozone ...
Fujisawa Takuo - - 2006
Uptake and transformation of 14C-labeled metabolites from several pesticides, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (1), 3,5-dichloroaniline (2), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3), (R,S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutanoic acid (4), and (1RS)-trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (5), were examined by using duckweed (Lemna gibba) in Hoagland's medium. More uptake into duckweed from the exposure water at pH 7.0 was observed for non-ionized 1 and ...
Yang Yingkui - - 2007
The increase in the prevalence of human obesity highlights the need to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in control of feeding and energy balance. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an endogenous lipid produced primarily in the small intestine, has been identified to play an important role in the regulation of animal food ...
Lewis R M RM Centre for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, University of Southampton, Level F MP887, Princess Anne Hospital, Coxford Road, Southampton SO16 5YA, UK. rml2@soton.ac.uk - - 2007
The human fetus requires more glycine than any other amino acid but placental glycine transfer to the fetus is insufficient to meet fetal demand. L-Serine could represent a major metabolic source of glycine for the human fetus but little is known about the kinetics and physiology of L-serine uptake by ...
Doege Holger - - 2006
Long-chain fatty acids are both important metabolites as well as signaling molecules. Fatty acid transport proteins are key mediators of cellular fatty acid uptake and recent transgenic and knockout animal models have provided new insights into their contribution to energy homeostasis and to pathological processes, including obesity and insulin desensitization.
Palanivel Rengasamy - - 2006
Alterations in cardiac glucose and fatty acid metabolism are possible contributors to the pathogenesis of heart failure in obesity. Here we examined the effect of leptin, the product of the obese (ob) gene, on metabolism in murine cardiomyocytes. Neither short-term (1 hour) nor long-term (24 hours) treatment with leptin (60 ...
Ji F - - 2006
Three experiments were conducted with everted gut sacs to investigate the effects of Mn source and Ca on Mn absorption in different intestinal segments of broilers. In Experiment 1, the Mn uptake by everted sacs of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum after different incubation times was compared to determine an optimum ...
Dluzniewska Paulina - - 2006
The present study shows for the first time the influence of exogenously applied amino acids and cytokinin on the physiological and molecular aspects of N metabolism in poplar trees. In a short-term feeding experiment, glutamine or trans-zeatin riboside (tZR) was added directly to the nutrient solution. NO3- net uptake declined ...
Glass Samuel V - - 2006
Vacuum evaporation and molecular beam scattering experiments have been used to monitor the loss of water and dissolution of HCl and HBr in deuterated sulfuric acid at 213 K containing 0 to 100 mM hexanol. The addition of 1-hexanol to the acid creates a surface film of hexyl species. This ...
Grunwald Simone - - 2006
Maillard products arise from condensation reactions between amino acids or proteins with reducing sugars during food processing. As ubiquitous components of human food, these early or advanced glycation products may be subject to intestinal absorption. The present study was performed to investigate the intestinal uptake of Maillard products and to ...
Talluri Ravi S - - 2006
To investigate the mechanism of L-ascorbic acid uptake by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and to functionally characterize the specific transporter involved in this translocation process. Uptake studies were carried out with SIRC (Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea) and rPCEC (rabbit Primary corneal epithelial cell culture) in 12-well plates using [14C] Ascorbic ...
Shilling John E - - 2006
The uptake of formic (C1), propanoic (C3), butanoic (C4), and pentanoic (C5) acids onto ammonium nitrate (AN) has been investigated as a function of temperature and relative humidity using a Knudsen cell flow reactor coupled with FTIR-reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIR-RAS). The uptake of acetone and methanol onto AN was also ...
Hagos Yohannes - - 2006
In the present study, we determined the functional role of 15 positively charged amino acid residues at or within 1 of the predicted 11 transmembrane helixes of the flounder renal sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter fNaDC-3. Using site-directed mutagenesis, histidine (H), lysine (K), and arginine (R) residues of fNaDC-3 were replaced by alanine ...
Tsukada Hideo - - 2006
The aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of the D-amino acid isomers O-(18)F-fluoromethyl tyrosine ((18)F-FMT), O-(18)F-fluoroethyl tyrosine ((18)F-FET) and O-(18)F-fluoropropyl tyrosine ((18)F-FPT) as tumour-detecting agents with PET in comparison with the corresponding L-isomers. L- or D-(18)F-FMT, (18)F-FET or (18)F-FPT, prepared by (18)F-fluoromethylation, (18)F-fluoroethylation or (18)F-fluoropropylation of L- ...
Barneix Atilio J - - 2007
Wheat is unique among cereals for the baking qualities of its flour, which are dependent upon the type and concentration of its proteins. As a consequence, the grain protein concentration (GPC) is one of the main determinants of wheat international market price. More than 50-70% of the final grain N ...
Wang Yang - - 2006
Stealth solid lipid nanoparticles (SSLN) were prepared and evaluated for the effect of evading phagocytic uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages in situ. Fluorescent SSLNs were prepared by emulsion/evaporation with rhodamine B as the fluorescent marker and polyoxyethylene stearate as stealth agent in a stearic acid matrix. Macrophages were induced chemically ...
Ring Axel - - 2006
Several lines of evidence suggest that lipid rafts are involved in cellular fatty acid uptake and influence fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) function. However, it remains unknown whether caveolae, a specialized raft type, are required for this mechanism. Here, we show that wild-type (WT) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and caveolin-1 knockout ...
Doege Holger - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5/Slc27a5) has been shown to be a multifunctional protein that in vitro increases both uptake of fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) analogues and bile acid/coenzyme A ligase activity on overexpression. The aim of this study was to further investigate the diverse ...
Rodriguez Lorena - - 2006
The porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is being widely used in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Improvement in ALA delivery has been sought through the use of ALA derivatives, in particular the esterification of ALA with aliphatic alcohols, which in certain cases can improve cellular penetration and selectivity. ALA uptake systems ...
Elwan M A - - 2007
In this study we tested the ability of monkey amniotic epithelial cells (MAEC) to take up and decarboxylate l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) by incubating the cells in buffer containing l-DOPA under different experimental conditions followed by assaying cellular dopamine (DA) content using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cellular contents of ...
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