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Results 201 - 250 of 1832
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Tsume Yasuhiro - - 2008
Dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine were synthesized, and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism, affinity for PEPT1, enzymatic activation and permeability in cancer cells were determined and compared to those of mono amino acid monoester floxuridine prodrugs. Prodrugs containing glycyl moieties were the least stable in ...
Holten Aleksander Talgøy - - 2008
The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) underlie the so-called "high affinity" uptake of glutamate, which is well characterized. In contrast, the "low-affinity" uptake of glutamate remains poorly defined, and it has been discussed whether it may represent a mere in vitro artifact. Here we have visualized "low-affinity" excitatory amino acid ...
Kato Yutaka - - 2008
Symbiotic Chlorella F36-ZK isolated from Paramecium bursaria F36 has constitutive amino acid transport systems, whereas free-living Chlorella does not. We found that in symbiotic algae, the rate of serine (Ser) uptake increased in the presence of glucose (Glc) and non-metabolisable analogues, whilst incorporation of Ser into protein was not affected. ...
Corrigan Ashley L - - 2008
The uptake of glyoxal by a variety of organic and inorganic aerosol types was examined in a Teflon chamber. Rapid glyoxal uptake was observed for all liquid-phase aerosols at all relative humidity levels tested (< 5 to 50% RH). Even for aerosol with known water content, Henry's Law cannot predict ...
Loseto L L - - 2008
Mercury (Hg) levels in the Beaufort Sea beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) population increased during the 1990s; levels have since declined but remain higher than the 1980s. The diet of this beluga population is not well-known, thus it is difficult to assess dietary Hg sources. During the summer, the Beaufort Sea belugas ...
Hofmann Ute - - 2008
An experimental set-up for acquiring metabolite and transient (13)C-labeling data in mammalian cells is presented. An efficient sampling procedure was established for hepatic cells cultured in six-well plates as a monolayer attached to collagen, which allowed simultaneous quenching of metabolism and extraction of the intracellular intermediates of interest. Extracellular concentrations ...
Chardwiriyapreecha Soracom - - 2008
We have identified the Schizosaccharomyces pombe SPBC3E7.06c gene (fnx2(+)) from a homology search with the fnx1(+) gene involving in G(0) arrest upon nitrogen starvation. Green fluorescent protein-fused Fnx1p and Fnx2p localized exclusively to the vacuolar membrane. Uptake of histidine or isoleucine by S. pombe cells was inhibited by concanamycin A, ...
Shearer Jane - - 2008
Insulin resistance is characterized by increased metabolic uptake of fatty acids. Accordingly, techniques to examine in vivo shifts in fatty acid metabolism are of value in both clinical and experimental settings. Partially metabolizable long chain fatty acid (LCFA) tracers have been recently developed and employed for this purpose: [9,10-3H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate ([3H]-BROMO) ...
Malmberg Sharon E - - 2008
ATF4 is a transcription factor that induces a genetic program for amino acid synthesis and amino acid uptake. Previous work demonstrated that ATF4 expression is increased either by insulin or by the general amino acid control (GAAC) response, an evolutionarily ancient pathway that is activated when eukaryotic cells are deprived ...
Aspuria Paul-Joseph PJ Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 1602 Molecular Sciences Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1489, - - 2008
The Tsc/Rheb signaling pathway plays critical roles in the control of growth and cell cycle. Studies in fission yeast have also implicated its importance in the regulation of amino acid uptake. Disruption of tsc2+, one of the tsc+ genes, has been shown to result in decreased arginine uptake and resistance ...
Mary Isabelle - - 2008
The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, the most abundant phototrophic organism on Earth, numerically dominates the phytoplankton in nitrogen (N)-depleted oceanic gyres. Alongside inorganic N sources such as nitrite and ammonium, natural populations of this genus also acquire organic N, specifically amino acids. Here, we investigated using isotopic tracer and flow cytometric ...
Stadlbauer Andreas - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine the spatial correlation of O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) uptake and the concentrations of choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) determined with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI) in cerebral gliomas for the multimodal evaluation of metabolic changes. METHODS: (18)F-FET PET and ...
Kapp Timo - - 2008
A series of G(0) and G(1) generation 1,3,5-tris(3-aminopropyl)benzene dendrimers surface modified with the amino acids phenylalanine (Phe), methionine (Met), aspartic acid (Asp), and diaminopropionic acid (Dap) was investigated with regard to their stability against enzymatic hydrolysis with the model enzymes papain, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and pepsin. Additionally, the cytosol of MCF-7 ...
Eyre Nicholas S - - 2008
Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is one of several proteins implicated in receptor-mediated uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). We have tested whether levels of FAT/CD36 correlate with cellular oleic acid import, using a Tet-Off inducible transfected CHO cell line. Consistent with our previous findings, FAT/CD36 was enriched in lipid raft-derived ...
Cosman L M - - 2008
A flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer was used to study the reactive uptake coefficients at 273 K of N2O5 on aqueous 60 wt % sulfuric acid solutions coated with insoluble organic monolayers. Both straight-chain surfactants (1-hexadecanol, 1-octadecanol, and stearic acid) and a branched surfactant (phytanic acid) ...
Smith Jill J Department of Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, - - 2008
FAT/CD36 is a membrane scavenger receptor that facilitates long chain fatty acid uptake by muscle. Acute increases in membrane CD36 and fatty acid uptake have been reported in response to insulin and contraction. In this study we have explored protein ubiquitination as one potential mechanism for the regulation of CD36 ...
Cappellazzo Gilda - - 2008
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are capable of exploiting organic nitrogen sources, but the molecular mechanisms that control such an uptake are still unknown. Polymerase chain reaction-based approaches, bioinformatic tools, and a heterologous expression system have been used to characterize a sequence coding for an amino acid permease (GmosAAP1) from the ...
Chen Shih-Yin - - 2008
Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib) is caused by deficiencies in the glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) transporter (G6PT) that have been well characterized. Interestingly, deleterious mutations in the G6PT gene were identified in clinical cases of GSD type Ic (GSD-Ic) proposed to be deficient in an inorganic phosphate (P(i)) transporter. We hypothesized ...
Chen Guiqiu - - 2008
A kind of agricultural waste, the byproduct of brown-rot fungus Lentinus edodes, was used as an efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium from water in this paper. The sorption conditions, such as pH, the dose of biomass and the initial concentration of cadmium were examined. Three kinds of adsorption ...
Cheney Marcos A - - 2008
Inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) and herbicides are important contaminants of world water systems with effects on aquatic organisms and humans. The uptake of Hg(2+) and glycine by the gills of the bivalve mollusks Mytilus californianus and Anodonta californiensis was determined. Additionally, the effects of glycine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) ...
Yasuda Satoru - - 2008
The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of folate transport in the placenta. A study of folate was carried out to determine which carriers transport folates in the human choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo, a model cell line for the placenta. We investigated the effects of buffer pH ...
Srivastava Shireesh S Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, - - 2008
Chronic exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) has been shown to cause cell death (lipotoxicity), but the underlying mechanisms of lipotoxicity in hepatocytes remain unclear. We have previously shown that the saturated FFAs cause much greater toxicity to human hepatoma cells (HepG2) than the unsaturated ones (Srivastava ...
Svennerstam Henrik - - 2008
* Specific transporters mediate uptake of amino acids by plant roots. Earlier studies have indicated that the lysine histidine transporter 1 and amino acid permease 1 participate in this process, but although plant roots have been shown to absorb cationic amino acids with high affinity, neither of these transporters seems ...
Mary Isabelle - - 2008
(35)S-Methionine and (3)H-leucine bioassay tracer experiments were conducted on two meridional transatlantic cruises to assess whether dominant planktonic microorganisms use visible sunlight to enhance uptake of these organic molecules at ambient concentrations. The two numerically dominant groups of oceanic bacterioplankton were Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria and bacteria with low nucleic acid (LNA) ...
Enginar Huseyin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Two 99mTc-DTPA attached estrone derivatives were synthesized and their radiopharmaceutical potential was determined using female albino Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two novel radiolabeled estrone derivatives, 99mTc-2,2',2"2"'-(2,2'-(2-(3-methoxy-13-methyl-17-oxo-7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 7-decahydro-6H- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-2-ylamino)-2- oxoethylazanediyl) bis(ethane-2,1-diyl)) bis(azanetriyl) tetraacetic acid (99mTc-2-DTPA-3-methoxy estrone) and 9mTc-2,2',2",2'"-(2,2'- (2-(3-methoxy-13-methyl-17-oxo- 7,8,9,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-decahydro- 6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethylazanediyl) ...
Kokta T A - - 2008
The insulin-independent and combined effects of fatty acids (FA; linoleic and oleic acids) and insulin in modulating lipid accumulation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated using a novel protocol avoiding the effects of a complex hormone 'induction' mixture. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) plus ...
Kansara Viral - - 2008
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the expression of a specialized carrier-mediated system for folic acid and to delineate its uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking in a human derived retinoblastoma cell line (Y-79). Uptake of [3H]Folic acid was determined at various concentrations, pH, temperatures, in the absence ...
Miller Anthony J - - 2008
The uptake of nitrogen (N) by roots is known to change with supply in a manner that suggests that the N status of plants is somehow sensed and can feedback to regulate this process. The most abundant source of N in soils for crops is nitrate. Uptake systems for nitrate, ...
Jia Bing B Medical Isotopes Research Center, Peking University, Beijing 100083, - - 2008
In this report, we present in vitro and in vivo evaluation of three 111 In-labeled DTPA conjugates of a cyclic RGDfK dimer: DTPA-Bn-SU016 (SU016 = E[c(RGDfK)] 2; DTPA-Bn = 2-( p-isothioureidobenzyl)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), DTPA-Bn-E-SU016 ( E = glutamic acid) and DTPA-Bn-Cys-SU016 (Cys = cysteic acid). The integrin alpha vbeta 3 binding ...
Glatz Jan F C - - 2007
Our knowledge about the regulation of myocardial fatty acid uptake has increased dramatically in the past decade. Fatty acid uptake was found to occur by a mechanism resembling that of cellular glucose uptake. Thus, following an acute stimulus--particularly insulin or muscle contraction--specific fatty acid transporters translocate from intracellular stores to ...
Prince Amy Preszler - - 2008
The heterogeneous chemistry of gas-phase acetic acid with CaCO(3)(calcite) aerosol was studied under varying conditions of relative humidity (RH) in an environmental reaction chamber. Infrared spectroscopy showed the loss of gas-phase reactant and the appearance of a gaseous product species, CO(2). The acetic acid is observed to adsorb onto the ...
Kimura Osamu - - 2008
The cellular uptake mechanism of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), a phenoxyacetic acid derivative, was investigated using Caco-2 epithelial cells. The cells were incubated with 50 microM MCPA at pH 6.0 and 37 degrees C, and the uptake of MCPA from the apical membranes was measured. The uptake of MCPA was significantly ...
Amark Kerstin - - 2007
AIM: The myocardial uptake of substrates in children has only been investigated on a small scale. The purpose of this study was to define myocardial substrate uptake in relation to the arterial supply of substrates, age, growth and oxygen saturation. METHODS: Thirty patients with congenital heart disease, aged 3 months ...
Marsteller Douglas A - - 2007
We used 2-week and 4-week citalopram infusion (10 mg/kg/day) to determine how this selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) would alter 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) uptake and neurotransmitter tissue levels in male Sprague-Dawley rodents. A weekly time course of 18FDG uptake altered by chronic citalopram treatment was determined in vivo with small animal ...
Tani Takeshi - - 2008
PURPOSE: To assess the contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a5 (Oatp1a5/Oatp3) in the intestinal absorption of an orally active endothelin receptor antagonist, (+)-(5S,6R,7R)-2-butyl-7-[2-((2S)-2-carboxypropyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-5-(3,4-methylene-dioxyphenyl)cyclopenteno[1,2-b]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid (compound-A) in rats. METHODS: Uptakes of [(14)C]compound-A by Oatp1a5-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes and isolated rat enterocytes were evaluated. RESULTS: The uptake of compound-A by Oatp1a5-expressing ...
Meriläinen Päivi - - 2008
Uptake of pulp and paper mill-derived pollutants by benthic invertebrates from sediment in Southern Lake Saimaa, eastern Finland, was studied. Two groups of benthic invertebrates (Diptera and Oligochaeta) were analyzed for their concentrations of resin acids (RAs), chlorophenolics (CPs) and beta-sitosterol. The samples were collected 1 and 3km downstream from ...
de Vos Martine G - - 2008
The environmentally persistent perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalkylated acid (PFA), which has been found to accumulate and biomagnify through food webs all over the world. In the present investigation, the accumulation kinetics of PFOS was explored using the bioaccumulation model OMEGA. As accumulation behavior of PFOS may show similarities ...
Li Hong - - 2008
Fatty acids are implicated in the development of dyslipidemias, leading to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We used a standardized small compound library to screen humanized yeast to identify compounds that inhibit fatty acid transport protein (FATP)-mediated fatty acid uptake into cells. This screening procedure used live yeast cells ...
Magni Danieli Valnes - - 2007
Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by striatal degeneration, seizures, and accumulation of glutaric acid (GA). Considering that GA impairs energy metabolism and induces reactive species generation, we investigated whether the acute administration of creatine, an amino acid with antioxidant and ergogenic properties, protects against ...
Glover Chris N - - 2008
Bioavailability is integral in mediating the delicate balance between nutritive and potentially toxic levels of copper in fish diets. Brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from freshwater rainbow trout intestine were used to characterise apical copper absorption, and to examine the influence of the amino acid histidine on this process. In the ...
Lagoutte D - - 2008
The mechanism of action of antifungal canthin-6-one series was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a rapid uptake, a preferential accumulation of the drug within lipid droplets was observed. The antifungal action of canthin-6-one was found as reversible. Canthin-6-one did not exhibit affinity for sterols, and membrane ergosterol was not necessary ...
Lemos Clara - - 2007
Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin with a crucial role in the synthesis and methylation of DNA and in the metabolism of several amino acids. In the present study we investigated whether beverages like wine, beer and tea, or some of their specific constituents, affect the intestinal uptake of (3)H-folic ...
Mao Sheng-Jun - - 2007
3-succinyl-30-stearyl glycyrrhetinic acid (Suc-GLAOSt) was synthesized as a targeting molecule, and incorporated in ordinary to liposomes (LP) to prepare a liposome surface-modified with glycyrrhetinic acid (LP-GLA), which could bind to the hepatocyte through the specific binding site of glycyrrhetinic acid (GLA) on the surface of rat cellular membrane. The maximal ...
Saeki Tohru - - 2007
Although ileal and hepatic Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporters (SLC10A2 and SLC10A1 respectively) share structural similarities, the mutation of conserved amino acids often has distinct effects on them. We have identified two Cys residues in mouse Slc10a2 (Cys(51) and Cys(106)) the replacement of which by Ala remarkably reduces taurocholic acid (TCA) ...
Yuan Hong - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular uptake of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and cytotoxicity of its paclitaxel delivery system. The conjugate of octadecylamine-fluorescein isothiocyanate (ODA-FITC) was synthesized, and used as a marker to prepare fluorescent SLN. The cellular uptakes of fluorescent SLN with different lipid material ...
Atluri Harisha - - 2008
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to elucidate the functional activity of large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) in rabbit retina and to delineate its role in the retinal uptake and intravitreal pharmacokinetics of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe). METHODS: In vivo retinal uptake of L-Phe and L-alanine (L-Ala) was determined in ...
Keating Elisa - - 2008
Folic acid (FA) is a vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine precursors of nucleic acids, which are critically important during pregnancy. Our group has previously shown that both reduced folate carrier (RFC1) and folate receptor alpha (FRalpha) seem to be involved in the ...
Parry Jesse J - - 2007
The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is overexpressed on a variety of tumor types and has been targeted with radiolabeled peptides for detection and therapy of these cancers. Analogues of the 14 amino acid bombesin (BN) peptide have been radiolabeled with both gamma- and positron-emitting radionuclides for detection of GRPR-expressing tumors. ...
Wang Qi - - 2007
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is an important determinant of the renal transport of the drug of abuse, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of MCT2 and MCT4, present in tissues including intestine, kidney, skeletal muscle, and brain, in the membrane transport of GHB ...
Levitt Nicholas P - - 2007
We have investigated the heterogeneous interaction between a number of carboxylic acids and soot generated from different fuel sources and formation mechanisms. A low-pressure fast flow reactor in conjunction with ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection was employed to study uptake of monocarboxylic (benzoic, oleic, and steric) and dicarboxylic (glutaric, ...
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