Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1594
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Gahan Peter B - - 2008
DNA and RNA fractions have been isolated from the whole blood, serum, plasma, the surface of blood cells, and urine of both healthy individuals and patients. The ability to isolate, quantify, and analyze these molecules has led to the identification of specific nucleic acid fragments related to particular disorders such ...
Lo Y M Dennis - - 2008
The discovery of cell-free fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma has opened up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Over the last few years, a number of approaches have been demonstrated to allow such circulating fetal nucleic acids to be used for the prenatal detection of chromosomal aneuploidies. One such ...
Scott David J - - 2008
Hydrodynamic techniques such as analytical ultracentrifugation can provide key information about subunit stoichiometry and interaction strengths of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Analysis is complicated by (i) the need for low concentrations in order to observe both free and bound species and (ii) thermodynamic non-ideality. With the introduction of fluorescence optics, we ...
Gilliet Michel - - 2008
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are important mediators of antiviral immunity through their ability to produce large amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) on viral infection. This function of pDCs is linked to their expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9, which sense viral nucleic acids within the early endosomes. ...
Hyeon Changbong - - 2008
The sequence-dependent folding landscapes of nucleic acid hairpins reflect much of the complexity of biomolecular folding. Folding trajectories, generated by using single-molecule force-clamp experiments by attaching semiflexible polymers to the ends of hairpins, have been used to infer their folding landscapes. Using simulations and theory, we study the effect of ...
Lentacker Ine - - 2008
After administration to the body, nucleic acid containing nanoparticles (NANs) need to cross several extra- and intracellular barriers to reach the cytoplasm or nucleus of the target cells. In the last decade several groups tried to overcome these barriers by arming non-viral delivery systems with targeting moieties, polyethylene glycol chains, ...
Shin Jae-Ho - - 2008
Helicase involves many cellular processes that separate double-stranded nucleic acid into single strands. Although it is believed that helicase translocates nucleic acids, it is difficult to show the direct evidence of translocation on nucleic acids. In this study, an avidin-biotinylated nucleotides-based method for helicase translocation assay has been described, and ...
Shiraishi Takehiko - - 2008
In the search of facile and efficient methods for cellular delivery of peptide nucleic acids (PNA), we have synthesized PNAs conjugated to oligophosphonates via phosphonate glutamine and bis-phosphonate lysine amino acid derivatives thereby introducing up to twelve phosphonate moieties into a PNA oligomer. This modification of the PNA does not ...
Hoshino Katsuaki - - 2008
Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial immune cells detecting microorganisms and linking innate and adaptive immunity. Various microorganism-derived components, including lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids, activate DCs through various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs can principally detect non-self-components, but nucleic acid components are peculiar in that self-derived nucleic acids can also ...
Rotaru Alexandru - - 2008
Hairpin-structured phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing a singlet oxygen-sensitive linker in the loop were prepared. These compounds do not bind complementary nucleic acids in the dark. Upon irradiation with red light in the presence of chlorine e6 the linker within these compounds is cleaved and a single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotide is produced. The latter ...
Cissell Kyle A - - 2008
A rapid detection method for nucleic acid based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) from the luminescence donor Renilla luciferase to an acceptor quantum dot upon oligonucleotide probe hybridization has been developed. Utilizing a competitive assay, we detected the target nucleic acid by correlating the BRET signal with the amount ...
Kindrachuk Jason - - 2008
Toll-like receptor 9 has been the focus of considerable research attention for the ability to modulate its activity, and subsequent innate immune responses, through DNA-based immunotherapeutics. Nucleic acids are attractive as therapeutics for their low cost, chemical stability and ease of production. While the ability for TLR9 to be differentially ...
Morris Mark D - - 2008
Ultrafiltration of nucleic acids has been used for a wide variety of applications, including sequence reaction purification and amplicon cleanup prior to spotting onto microarrays. Here we describe a novel process, using ultrafiltration, that purifies cRNA products for sensitive downstream applications. Initial attempts at this high-throughput purification for cRNA resulted ...
Ly Tam - - 2008
Fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA-FISH) differentiates Staphylococcus aureus from other Gram-positive-cocci in clusters (GPCC). 101/202 patients with GPCC+ blood cultures were randomly assigned to clinician-notification of PNA FISH results. Notification was associated with reduced mortality (8% vs.17%, p = 0.05), further antibiotic use (median -2.5 ...
Bossa Jean-Baptiste - - 2008
We study low temperature reactivity of methylamine (CH3NH2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixed within different ratios, using FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. We report experimental evidence that the methylammonium methylcarbamate [CH3NH3(+)][C3NHCO2(-)] and methylcarbamic acid (CH3NHCOOH) are formed when the initial mixture CH3NH2:CO2 is warmed up to temperatures above 40 K. ...
Mugasa Claire M - - 2008
Currently, the conventional diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is by microscopic demonstration of trypomastigotes in blood, lymph, and/or cerebrospinal fluid. However, microscopic diagnosis of HAT is not sensitive enough and may give false-negative results, thus, denying the patient the necessary treatment of the otherwise fatal disease. For this reason, ...
Bize Ariane - - 2008
Screening for viruses in samples taken from acidic hot springs of Kamchatka (Russia) revealed a collection of morphotypes, including linear, spherical and complex fusiform shapes, which show partial similarity to those found in acidic geothermal environments in other geographical locations. One of the viruses, Acidianus filamentous virus 9, AFV9, was ...
Chan Kwok Hung - - 2008
The NucliSens easyMAG and BioRot 9604 automated nucleic acid extraction systems were evaluated and compared with the manual QIAamp (Qiagen) extraction method for their abilities to extract nucleic acid from nasopharyngeal aspirate samples for the detection of RNA and DNA respiratory viruses. The nucleic acids recovered by all three methods ...
Maitani Yoshie - - 2008
Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer activity. While only the lactone form of CPT is biologically active, this form exhibits poor aqueous solubility. Pharmaceutical formulation of CPT incorporated in liposomes is of significant importance to develop the therapeutic utilization of CPT. The aim of this study was to increase incorporation efficiency and ...
Sun Zhen-Ning - - 2008
A fluorescent probe, HKOCl-1, has been successfully developed for the detection of hypochlorous acid on the basis of a specific reaction with p-methoxyphenol. The formation of HOCl has been successfully detected not only in an abiotic system but also in an enzymatic system (myeloperoxidase/H2O2/Cl(-) system) and in living macrophage cells ...
Chan Derek J - - 2008
Techniques for the quantification of HIV-1 load in semen include culture and nucleic acid amplification techniques. The latter tend to be used in the reproductive, public health and research settings due to speed, throughput, sensitivity and capacity to eliminate and control for contamination or inhibitory substances from semen. Commercially-available assays ...
Dass Crispin R - - 2008
Gene therapy is rapidly gaining its hold in preclinical drug evaluation. However, upfront, ease of administration and greater patient compliance should strictly drive research efforts for developing modes of gene delivery. It has been a decade since plasmid DNA was first introduced orally in animals. Since then, two main modes ...
Isitor G N - - 2008
Nucleated erythrocytes of healthy domestic chicken and ducks, and lymphocytes of healthy Sprague Dawley rats were evaluated for nucleic acid distribution pattern, employing light and fluorescence microscopy procedures, as well as digital imaging analytical methods. The results demonstrate a unique organization of nuclear DNA of mature chicken and duck erythrocytes, ...
Sweredoski Michael J - - 2008
MOTIVATION: Accurate prediction of B-cell epitopes is an important goal of computational immunology. Up to 90% of B-cell epitopes are discontinuous in nature, yet most predictors focus on linear epitopes. Even when the tertiary structure of the antigen is available, the accurate prediction of B-cell epitopes remains challenging. RESULTS: Our ...
Willner Itamar - - 2008
Catalytic nucleic acids (DNAzymes or ribozymes) are selected by the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment process (SELEX). The catalytic functions of DNAzymes or ribozymes allow their use as amplifying labels for the development of optical or electronic sensors. The use of catalytic nucleic acids for amplified biosensing was ...
Pianowski Zbigniew L - - 2008
This tutorial review serves as an introduction to the use of oligonucleotides and in particular peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) to encode function beyond heredity. Applications in chemical biology are reviewed starting with the use of nucleic acid tags to program self-assembled microarrays of small and macromolecules, followed by the use ...
Lisdat F - - 2008
This review introduces the basic concepts and terms associated with impedance and techniques of measuring impedance. The focus of this review is on the application of this transduction method for sensing purposes. Examples of its use in combination with enzymes, antibodies, DNA and with cells will be described. Important fields ...
Hatton Bryan - - 2008
In the hydrothermal FeS-world origin of life scenarios nucleic acids are suggested to bind to iron (II) monosulphide precipitated from the reaction between hydrothermal sulphidic vent solutions and iron-bearing oceanic water. In lower temperature systems, the first precipitate from this process is nanoparticulate, metastable FeSm with a mackinawite structure. Although ...
Hégarat Nadia - - 2008
Numerous biological mechanisms depend on nucleic acid--protein interactions. The first step to the understanding of these mechanisms is to identify interacting molecules. Knowing one partner, the identification of other associated molecular species can be carried out using affinity-based purification procedures. When the nucleic acid-binding protein is known, the nucleic acid ...
Zhao Liangliang - - 2008
It is found that L-cysteine-capped nano-ZnS can further enhance the fluorescence intensity of the morin-nucleic acid system. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of nucleic acid in the range of 7.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-5) g mL(-1) for fish sperm DNA (fsDNA) and ...
Kuyama Hiroki - - 2008
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been one of the most powerful tools for analyzing protein phosphorylation. However, it is frequently difficult to detect phosphopeptides with high sensitivity by MALDI-MS. In our investigation of matrix/matrix-additive substances for improving the phosphopeptide ion response in MALDI-MS, we found that the addition ...
Blidner Richard A - - 2008
Various chemical modifications to RNA have been incorporated in attempts to improve their pharmacological properties for RNAi interference (RNAi). Recent studies have shown that small interfering RNA (siRNA) containing 2'-fluoro modifications can elicit gene silencing through RNAi. Despite developments in using chemical modifications for increased stability, safety, and efficiency of ...
Braun Birgit - - 2008
Mathematical treatment of light scattering within the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye limit for spheroids with polydispersity in both length and diameter is developed and experimentally tested using cellulosic nanowhiskers (CNW). Polydispersity indices are obtained by fitting the theoretical formfactor to experimental data. Good agreement is achieved using a polydispersity of 2.3 for the ...
Shah Pratik - - 2008
Polyamines are polycationic molecules with a hydrocarbon backbone and multiple amino groups. Descriptions of the physiological roles of polyamines have often been limited to their interaction with negatively charged nucleic acids. Of late, reports linking polyamines to microbial carcinogenesis, biofilm formation, escape from phagolysosomes, bacteriocin production, toxin activity and protection ...
Miller Andrew D - - 2008
Nucleic acid therapeutics (or gene therapy) has to date failed to deliver on promise but rapid improvements in the understanding and use of delivery technologies should reverse this situation. In this review of work performed in and in collaboration with the Imperial College Genetic Therapies Centre, progress towards safe nanoparticles ...
Prihirunkit Kreangsak - - 2008
A 1.6-year-old male domestic short hair cat was brought to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Kasetsart University, with signs of severe anemia, depression, and general lymph node enlargement. Complete blood count revealed leukocytosis and massive undifferentiated blasts. Testing for antibodies specific to feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was positive, and FeLV ...
Sheng Jia - - 2008
Selenium derivatization (via selenomethionine) of proteins for crystal structure determination via MAD phasing has revolutionized protein X-ray crystallography. It is estimated that over two thirds of all new crystal structures of proteins have been determined via Se-Met derivatization. Similarly, selenium functionalities have also been successfully incorporated into nucleic acids to ...
Khan Mohammad A K - - 2008
The electrochemical detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics was explored using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces in connection with ferrocene-amino acid conjugates. Various ferrocene-amino acid conjugates were synthesized and utilized as the recognition layer for the detection of CWA mimics. The ferrocene-amino acid conjugates ...
Ni Nanting - - 2008
Bacterial quorum sensing plays a very important role in the regulation of biofilm formation, virulence, conjugation, sporulation, and swarming mobility. Inhibitors of bacterial quorum sensing are important research tools and potential therapeutic agents. In this paper, we describe for the first time the discovery of several boronic acids as single ...
Miyoshi Daisuke - - 2008
Living cells contain a variety of biomolecules including nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, and metabolites as well as other soluble and insoluble components. These biomolecules occupy a significant fraction (20-40%) of the cellular volume. The total concentration of biomolecules reaches 400gL(-1), leading to a crowded intracellular environment referred to as molecular ...
Miyake Kensuke - - 2008
Nucleic acids from microbes were known to be immunogenic for a long time, but their sensors have been only recently identified. Two types of sensors, Toll-like receptors (TLR) and the RIG-I-like receptors (RLR), principally respond to nucleic acid. Discovery of these sensors have opened basic research as to how our ...
Berti Lorenzo - - 2008
Since the advent of practical methods for achieving DNA metallization, the use of nucleic acids as templates for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) has become an active area of study. It is now widely recognized that nucleic acids have the ability to control the growth and morphology of inorganic ...
Broemeling David J - - 2008
Forensic crime scene sample analysis, by its nature, often deals with samples in which there are low amounts of nucleic acids, on substrates that often lead to inhibition of subsequent enzymatic reactions such as PCR amplification for STR profiling. Common substrates include denim from blue jeans, which yields indigo dye ...
Moreira Paula I - - 2008
Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is intimately associated with Alzheimer disease pathophysiology. Nucleic acids (nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, and RNA) are one of the several cellular macromolecules damaged by reactive oxygen species, particularly the hydroxyl radical. Because neurons are irreplaceable and survive as long as the organism does, they ...
Mary Y Sheena - - 2008
5-Nitro-2-(p-fluorophenyl)benzoxazole was prepared by heating 2-hydroxy-5-nitro aniline with p-fluorobenzoic acid in polyphosphoric acid. The FT-IR spectrum is recorded and analysed. The vibrational frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments are examined theoretically using the Gaussian03 set of quantum chemistry codes. Predicted infrared and Raman intensities are reported.
Laurent Alain - - 2008
DNA and RNA labeling and detection are key steps in nucleic acid testing, particularly for molecular diagnostics applications. Here, we report a new class of aryldiazomethyl labels that include in their structure a biotin moiety as a detectable unit and a nitro substituted phenyl diazomethyl as a reactive group. The ...
Kaisho Tsuneyasu - - 2008
Dendritic cells (DC) detect nucleic acid adjuvants through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) or cytosolic sensors. Nucleic acid adjuvants activate DC to produce a variety of soluble factors including proinflammatory cytokines or type I interferons (IFNs). Type I IFN, especially IFN-alpha, induction is a characteristic function of nucleic acid adjuvants and ...
Nuc Katarzyna - - 2008
To investigate properties of yellow lupine cytosolic cyclophilin, an expression vector pET15CYP was constructed. The CyP cDNA (GenBank accession no.Y16088) reveals an open reading frame of 172 amino acids with the conserved tryptophan residue at position 128 and an insertion of seven amino acids spanning positions 48-54. Yellow lupine cyclophilin, ...
Real-Fernández Feliciana - - 2008
Glycopeptide analogues of CSF114(Glc), modified at N-terminus with new ferrocenyl carboxylic acid and a new ferrocenyl-thiphosphino amino acid, were used to implement a new electrochemical biosensor for autoantibody detection in multiple sclerosis. The ferrocenyl moiety of these "electrochemical probes" did not affect autoantibody recognition both in SP-ELISA and in inhibition ...
Kurz Matthias - - 2008
Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >