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Results 201 - 250 of 1596
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Börjesson Karl - - 2009
We present the first nucleobase analog fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-pair. The pair consists of tC(O), 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine, as an energy donor and the newly developed tC(nitro), 7-nitro-1,3-diaza-2-oxophenothiazine, as an energy acceptor. The FRET-pair successfully monitors distances covering up to more than one turn of the DNA duplex. Importantly, we show ...
Panter Gabriela - - 2009
Intracellular TLRs, represented by TLRs 3, 7, 8 and 9, are specialized for the recognition of different types of microbe-derived nucleic acids. However, endogenous nucleic acids can also activate these TLRs, triggering autoimmunity. Nucleic acid-sensing TLRs initiate innate immune responses upon infection, but these receptors also initiate the development of ...
Hung E C W - - 2009
The discovery of cell-free circulating fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma has opened up new possibilities in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. The rapid advancement of this field in the past decade is catalysed by the discovery of new classes of fetal nucleic acid markers and technological developments in nucleic acid detection ...
Mo Jingjie - - 2009
Nucleic acid higher order structure is of intense interest in antisense and antigene strategies toward novel chemotherapeutic agents. Understanding how structural characteristics affect solution-phase properties is essential for a rational approach to nucleic acid-targeted drug design. The most dominant nucleic acid secondary structure is the hairpin, formed by intrastrand hydrogen ...
Sharov Alexei A - - 2009
Coenzymes are often considered as remnants of primordial metabolism, but not as hereditary molecules. I suggest that coenzyme-like molecules (CLMs) performed hereditary functions before the emergence of nucleic acids. Autocatalytic CLMs modified (encoded) surface properties of hydrocarbon microspheres, to which they were anchored, and these changes enhanced autocatalysis and propagation ...
Hansen Alexandar L - - 2009
We present an off-resonance carbon R(1rho) NMR experiment utilizing weak radiofrequency fields and selective polarization transfers for quantifying chemical-exchange processes in nucleic acids. The experiment extends the range of accessible time scales to approximately 10 ms, and its time-saving feature makes it possible to thoroughly map out dispersion profiles and ...
Conrad Curdin - - 2009
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are specialized sensors of viral nucleic acids that initiate protective immunity through the production of type I interferons (IFNs). Normally, pDCs fail to sense host-derived self-nucleic acids but do so when self-nucleic acids form complexes with endogenous antimicrobial peptides produced in damaged skin. Whereas regulated expression ...
Xie Shengnan - - 2009
Modern tools for the analysis of cellular function aim for the quantitative measurement of all members of a given class of biological molecules. Of the analyte classes, nucleic acid measurements are typically the most tractable, both on an individual analyte basis and in parallel. Thus, tools are being sought to ...
Kricka Larry J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The inherent fluorescent properties of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids are limited, and thus the need has arisen for fluorescent labeling of these molecules for a variety of analytical applications. CONTENT: This review traces the analytical ancestry of fluorescent labeling of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids, with an emphasis ...
Sahu Bichismita - - 2009
A general method for preparing optically pure guanidine-based gamma-peptide nucleic acid (gammaGPNA) monomers for all four natural nucleobases (A, C, G, and T) is described. These second-generation gammaGPNAs differ from the first-generation GPNAs in that the guanidinium group is installed at the gamma- instead of the alpha-position of the N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine ...
Alp Alpaslan - - 2009
Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA viral load in blood is a clinically validated tool for the management and follow-up of patients infected with this virus. HIV-1 RNA quantification can be performed by several kinds of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The sensitivity of these ...
Chen Jesse J - - 2009
Glycerol nucleic acid (GNA) is an interesting base-pairing system with an acyclic, three-carbon backbone. In the present study, GNA analogues with N2'-->P3' phosphoramidate linkages (npGNA) have been synthesized and their base-pairing properties examined. Thermal denaturation and circular dichroism studies show that npGNA can form stable duplexes with itself and with ...
Hollenstein Marcel - - 2009
The selection of modified DNAzymes represents an important endeavor in expanding the chemical and catalytic properties of catalytic nucleic acids. Few examples of such exist and to date, there is no example where three different modified bases have been simultaneously incorporated for catalytic activity. Herein, dCTP, dATP and dUTP bearing, ...
Castro Christian - - 2009
Nucleic acid polymerases catalyze the formation of DNA or RNA from nucleoside-triphosphate precursors. Amino acid residues in the active site of polymerases are thought to contribute only indirectly to catalysis by serving as ligands for the two divalent cations that are required for activity or substrate binding. Two proton-transfer reactions ...
Medza Grzegorz - - 2009
Fluorescence emission properties of 8-azacaffeine, 8-azatheophylline and other N-alkylated 8-azaxanthines (8-azaXan) have been examined. It is shown that N-methylated 8-azaxanthines, as well as 8-azatheophylline, are highly fluorescent in aqueous medium as the neutral, and, in some instances, also as the monoanionic, forms. 8-Azacaffeine exhibits moderate emission, but its isomer, 1,3,8-trimethyl-8-azaXan, ...
Pena John T G JT Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 186, New York, New York 10065, - - 2009
MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs with many biological functions and disease associations. We showed that in situ hybridization (ISH) using conventional formaldehyde fixation results in substantial microRNA loss from mouse tissue sections, which can be prevented by fixation with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide that irreversibly immobilizes the microRNA at its 5' phosphate. ...
Kuruba Ramalinga - - 2009
Targeted delivery of functional nucleic acids (genes and oligonucleotides) to pulmonary endothelium may become a novel therapy for the treatment of various types of lung diseases. It may also provide a new research tool to study the functions and regulation of novel genes in pulmonary endothelium. Its success is largely ...
Haasnoot Joost - - 2009
For almost three decades, researchers have studied the possibility to use nucleic acids as antiviral therapeutics. In theory, compounds such as antisense oligonucleotides, ribozymes, DNAzymes, and aptamers can be designed to trigger the sequence-specific inhibition of particular mRNA transcripts, including viral genomes. However, difficulties with their efficiency, off-target effects, toxicity, ...
Hom Christopher - - 2009
The transport of nucleic acid-based reagents is predicated upon developing structurally stable delivery systems that can preferentially bind and protect DNA and RNA, and release their cargo upon reaching their designated sites. Recent advancements in tailoring the size, shape, and external surface functionalization of silica materials have led to increased ...
Todt Sascha - - 2009
Among the parameters which influence the success of a microarray experiment, the attachment of the nucleic acid captures to the support surface plays a decisive role.This article attempts to review the main concepts and ideas of the multiple variants which exist in terms of the immobilization chemistries used in nucleic ...
Thurber Rebecca V - - 2009
This collection of laboratory protocols describes the steps to collect viruses from various samples with the specific aim of generating viral metagenome sequence libraries (viromes). Viral metagenomics, the study of uncultured viral nucleic acid sequences from different biomes, relies on several concentration, purification, extraction, sequencing and heuristic bioinformatic methods. No ...
Greenfeld Max - - 2009
The ion atmosphere of nucleic acids directly affects measured biochemical and biophysical properties. However, study of the ion atmosphere is difficult due to its diffuse and dynamic nature. Standard techniques available have significant limitations in sensitivity, specificity, and directness of the assays. Buffer exchange-atomic emission spectroscopy (BE-AES) was developed to ...
Mayer Günter - - 2009
Aptamers are small single-stranded nucleic acids that fold into a well-defined three-dimensional structure. They show a high affinity and specificity for their target molecules and inhibit their biological functions. Aptamers belong to the nucleic acids family and can be synthesized by chemical or enzymatic procedures, or a combination of the ...
Bouvet Philippe - - 2009
A technique is described for the identification of nucleic acid sequences bound with high affinity by proteins or by other molecules suitable for a partitioning assay. Here, a histidine-tagged protein is allowed to interact with a pool of nucleic acids and the protein-nucleic acid complexes formed are retained on a ...
Piasecki Shawn K - - 2009
Random sequence nucleic acid pools can be used in a variety of applications, including the selection of functional nucleic acids such as protein binding sites, aptamers, and ribozymes. while the design, synthesis, and purification of pools is relatively straightforward, keeping track of the size and complexity of a nucleic acid ...
Hyman Paul - - 2009
Bacteriophage growth may be differentiated into sequential steps: (i) phage collision with an adsorption-susceptible bacterium, (ii) virion attachment, (iii) virion nucleic acid uptake, (iv) an eclipse period during which infections synthesize phage proteins and nucleic acid, (v) a "post-eclipse" period during which virions mature, (vi) a virion release step, and ...
Shcherbakova Inna - - 2009
Hydroxyl-radical footprinting utilizes the ability of a highly reactive species to nonspecifically cleave the solvent accessible regions of a nucleic acid backbone. Thus, changes in a nucleic acids structure can be probed either as a function of time or of a reagent's concentration. When combined with techniques that allow single ...
Phe M H - - 2009
Water disinfection is usually evaluated using mandatory methods based on cell culturability. However, such methods do not consider the potential of cells to recover, which should also be kept as low as possible. In this paper, we hypothesized that a successful disinfection is achieved only when the applied chlorine leads ...
Deslee Gaetan G Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2009
Oxidative stress is a key element in the pathogenesis of emphysema, but oxidation of nucleic acids has been largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative damage to nucleic acids in severe emphysematous lungs. Thirteen human severe emphysematous lungs, including five with alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), were obtained ...
Milani Silvia - - 2008
This contribution presents a neutron diffraction investigation of anionic lamellar phases composed of mixtures of 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl phosphatidyl-nucleosides (POPN, where N is either adenosine or uridine), and POPC (1-palmitoyl,2-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline). Their behavior is studied for two different mole ratios and in the presence of nucleic acids. The samples are formed by ...
Guo Meng - - 2009
This study found that in Tris-HCl buffer, the resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity of the Eu(3+)-nicotinic acid system can be greatly enhanced by nucleic acids and the enhanced intensity is proportional to the concentration of nucleic acid in the range of 7 x 10(-8)-1 x 10(-5 ) g x mL(-1) ...
Roviello G N - - 2010
In order to develop new oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) analogs to be used in biotechnological applications, we report here the synthesis, characterization and nucleic acid binding studies of novel nucleopeptides, that we called epsilon-lys/gamma-dabPNAs, containing a backbone of alternated L-diaminobutyric acid and L-lysine moieties. Exploring the hybridization properties of the new ODN ...
Garland Peter B - - 2009
Conventional solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis overcomes the reversibility of acid-dependent detritylation by washing away the released dimethoxytrityl cations (DMT(+)) with acid. This option is unavailable if the acid is photogenerated in an overlying solid film, as in the photolithographic fabrication of oligonucleotide arrays on planar surfaces. To overcome the resulting reversibility ...
Geng L S - - 2008
We calculate the baryon magnetic moments using covariant chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) within the extended-on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. By fitting the two available low-energy constants, we improve the Coleman-Glashow description of the data when we include the leading SU(3)-breaking effects coming from the lowest-order loops. This success is in dramatic contrast ...
Brown Richard C - - 2009
Chemiluminescent acridinium esters (AEs) permit the development of high sensitivity ligand binding assays due to a combination of high intensity light emission and very low backgrounds. Here these advantages are exploited for use in homogeneous nucleic acid hybridisation assays using quenched chemiluminescence. AE chemiluminescence is conventionally initiated at highly alkaline ...
Islam Rafique Ul - - 2009
To advance the use of cationic lipids for non-viral nucleic acid vector formulation, a panel of novel nitrogen heterocycle cholesteryl derivatives containing a biodegradable carbamate linker was synthesised. Optimally acting piperazine and cyclen compounds had nucleic acid-binding and lipoplex nanoparticle formation properties that were suitable for their use as non-viral ...
Gherna Michael - - 2009
Candida albicans and Candida glabrata can be identified in blood culture bottles within 2.5 h using peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization. A 1.25-h protocol was compared to the standard with 40 positive (clinical and spiked) blood culture bottles tested in batches of 5. All C. albicans (15) and ...
Wuttisela Karntarat - - 2009
Surface chemical microstructure of hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed tapioca starch producing different amylose:amylopectin (Am:Ap) ratios were studied with scanning chemical force microscopy (CFM). The chemical force probes were functionalized of two types with -OH (phosphate specific) and -CH3 (carbon specific). Lateral force trace-minus-retrace (TMR) images from -OH and -CH3 probes revealed ...
Emmerich F - - 2009
We report on a novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B allele, HLA-B*3714. This allele differs from HLA-B*3711 by two nucleic acid substitutions at positions 317 and 319 in exon 2, both resulting in amino acid exchanges. The first one leads to the exchange from arginine to leucine at position 82, and ...
Carrera Monica - - 2009
The objective of this study was to develop a non-virulent simulant to replace several virulent organisms during the development of detection and identification methods for biological threat agents. We identified and selected specific genes to detect Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Rickettsia sp., Coxiella burnetii, Brucella sp., ...
Börjesson Karl - - 2009
The fluorescent cytosine analog tC(O) is on average the brightest probe of its kind and, moreover, it introduces minimal perturbations to the normal secondary structure of DNA. Here several ways of how tC(O), with an advantage, can be used as a local fluorescent probe in nucleic acid systems are presented. ...
Philipp Alexander - - 2008
Success of nucleic acid based therapies often depends on target-cell specific delivery of genetic materials such as plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotides or small interfering RNA. Such extracellular targeting strategies include the incorporation of hydrophilic shielding domains into nucleic acid carriers which protects them from unspecific interactions with non-target tissues (passive ...
Kov??cs J??nos - - 2008
Two Cu(2+)-binding ligands were covalently attached to termini of short DNAs. The optimal compound of this type forms a catalytically inert complex with Cu(2+). In the presence of a complementary nucleic acid the complex is decomposed forming products, which may catalyze hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters. We have demonstrated that ...
Hu Mei Rong - - 2009
Phloroglucinol, thymol, and violuric acid (VIO) were selected as laccase mediators after screening 14 different compounds with indigo carmine (indigoid dye) as a substrate. With the presence of these three mediators, a nearly complete decolorization (90-100%) was attained in 1 h. Thus, these three compounds were used as mediators for ...
Martin Sandra L - - 2008
L1 is a ubiquitous interspersed repeated sequence in mammals that achieved its high copy number by autonomous retrotransposition. Individual L1 elements within a genome differ in sequence and retrotransposition activity. Retrotransposition requires two L1-encoded proteins, ORF1p and ORF2p. Chimeric elements were used to map a 15-fold difference in retrotransposition efficiency ...
Sadlej-Sosnowska Nina - - 2008
The multidimensional similarity measure, operating in the space spanned by potential values, and introduced recently for benzoic acids and monosubstituted benzenes, was applied to tetrazoles, hydrogenated tetrazoles, and phenyltetrazoles. High correlation of potentials at individual atoms constituting five-membered ring in tetrazoles was also found in hydrogenated tetrazoles despite the loss ...
Nagatsugi Fumi - - 2008
A new method for the synthesis of ODN-luciferase conjugate was investigated as a signal-amplifying sensor of the target nucleic acids. The conjugation of the luciferase was successfully achieved between the cysteine residue and the 2-amino-6-vinylpurine nucleoside of the ODN probe without significant inactivation of luciferase. The ODN-luciferase conjugate modified with ...
Mehiri Mohamed - - 2008
With the aim of developing a general and straightforward procedure for the intracellular delivery of naked peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), we designed an intracellularly biodegradable triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation based transporter system. In this system, TPP is linked, via a biolabile disulfide bridge, to an activated mercaptoethoxycarbonyl moiety, allowing its direct ...
Altincicek Boran - - 2008
Extracellular nucleic acids play important roles in human immunity and hemostasis by inducing IFN production, entrapping pathogens in neutrophil extracellular traps, and providing procoagulant cofactor templates for induced contact activation during mammalian blood clotting. In this study, we investigated the functions of extracellular RNA and DNA in innate immunity and ...
Tsai Hui-Hsu Gavin - - 2008
A facile one-pot synthesis route for preparation of a well-ordered cubic mesoporous silica SBA-1 functionalized with -COOH functional groups is reported for the first time. The results of 29Si{1H} HETCOR NMR provide direct evidence for the interactions between the carboxylic acid and silanol groups in carboxylic acid functionalized SBA-1. Density ...
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