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Results 401 - 450 of 1631
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Dounay AB - - 1999
A small change to the structure of okadaic acid (1), the omission of the single hydroxy group at C7, facilitated substantially the first total synthesis of the derivative 7-deoxyokadaic acid (2). The conformation of 2 is in agreement with that of 1 and this minimal structural variation has been reported ...
Ritz V - - 1999
Okadaic acid as well as other, structurally different, inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A induce apoptosis in pituitary GH3 cells. Incubation with stepwise raised concentrations of okadaic acid resulted in the isolation of cells that were increasingly less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of this agent. After about 18 ...
Caron A - - 1999
Cytoplasmic body myopathy (CBM) and desmin-related myopathy (DRM) are both characterized by an abnormal accumulation of desmin. To determine whether these abnormalities involve similar or different forms of desmin, we performed desmin two-dimensional electrophoresis: our results showed an increase in the two acidic isoforms in CBM muscles as compared with ...
Sharma B - - 1999
Carbaryl, a carbamate pesticide, (LC50 15.08 mg/l for 96 hr, i.e. lethal concentration with 50% mortality) induced perturbations in the levels of certain biochemical components including the activities of some enzymes in the blood and liver of the fresh-water catfish, Clarias batrachus exposed to sublethal concentrations (1, 2 and 4 ...
Holland N - - 1999
Fruits of cv. Fortune mandarin were periodically harvested throughout the ripening period to evaluate changes in carbohydrate content and metabolism in flavedo tissue and to determine the potential role of carbohydrates in the tolerance of citrus fruit to chilling injury (CI). Sucrose showed little change in the flavedo during the ...
Sieder S - - 1999
LoVo adenocarcinoma cells are fairly sensitive to cytostatic drugs, e.g. doxorubicin, but can develop drug resistance by expression of a P-glycoprotein-mediated MDR1 phenotype. LoVo cells respond with apoptosis to nanomolar concentrations of okadaic acid and micromolar concentrations of cantharidic acid. Interestingly, LoVoDx cells which had become about 10-fold less sensitive ...
Moon Y G - - 1999
Enzymatic conversion of brain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alkaline phosphatase (GPI-AP), amphiphilic, was examined. When GPI-AP was incubated with glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD), a negligible conversion of GPI-AP to hydrophilic form was observed. The inclusion of monoacylglycerols enhanced the enzymatic conversion, although the action of monoacylglycerols differed greatly according to the size of ...
Quilliam M A - - 1999
The 1997-1998 period brought many new developments to the phycotoxin field. There were several reviews on phycotoxins in general, on their toxicological evaluation, and on their analysis. The ecophysiology, biosynthesis, and metabolism of polyether toxins and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were also reviewed. The proceedings of the Eighth International ...
Babu E - - 1999
Cisplatin caused differential toxic effects on blood glucose and plasma urea, uric acid and creatinine levels. Cisplatin also showed an inhibitory effect on kidney marker enzymes like alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. However, administration of glutathione ester modulates the toxic side effect of cisplatin observed in ...
Irie M - - 1999
It is surprising that only relatively recently has attention been directed to the characterization of the properties of acid ribonucleases (RNases), leading to some understanding of their biochemistry and their functional roles. The present review summarizes current progress in this field under the following general topics: (1) the wide distribution ...
Ambühl P M - - 1999
In the absence of exogenous glucocorticoids, decreasing media pH (from 7.4 to 6.8) for 24 hours increased the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) activity in opossum kidney (OKP) cells. 10(-7) M and 10(-8) M hydrocortisone increased NHE3 activity, and in their presence, acid incubation further increased NHE3 activity. Hydrocortisone (10(-9) M) ...
Florin-Christensen J - - 1999
The purification and characterization of a novel phosphodiesterase (PDE) is presented. The activity was detected in the extracellular medium of Tetrahymena thermophila cultures, by the release of p-nitrophenol from p-nitrophenylphosphocholine (PNPPC) with an acidic pH optimum. In cell homogenates, it is sedimentable, shows a latency similar to that of acid ...
Kennedy M E - - 1999
GIRK1 and GIRK4 subunits combine to form the heterotetrameric acetylcholine-activated potassium current (IKACh) channel in pacemaker cells of the heart. The channel is activated by direct binding of G-protein Gbetagamma subunits. The GIRK1 subunit is atypical in the GIRK family in having a unique ( approximately 125-amino acid) domain in ...
Issa A M - - 1999
The mechanisms regulating the compartmentation of acetylcholine (ACh) and the relationship between transmitter release and ACh stores are not fully understood. In the present experiments, we investigated whether the inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A, calyculin A and okadaic acid, alter subcellular distribution and the release of ACh in ...
Roach H I - - 1999
The activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases were localized by enzyme histochemistry in the chondroepiphyses of 5 week old rabbits. Using paraformaldehyde-lysine-periodate as fixative, the activity of acid phosphatase was particularly well preserved and could be demonstrated not only in osteoclasts, but also in chondrocytes as well as in the ...
Rodriguez P H - - 1998
Genetic mechanisms of filarial nematode susceptibility were studied in Aedes togoi. Acid hydrolases may play an important role in this process, including humoral or cell-mediated defenses. Levels of acid phosphatase, alpha-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase were determined for 1st- and 4th-instar larvae, male and female pupae, and 1- and 7-day-old adults ...
Kim I T - - 1998
The distribution and shape of melanosomes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and acid phosphatase activity in melanosomes were studied in rabbits. The rabbit eyes were observed using electron microscopy and enzyme cytochemical electron microscopy. The majority of melanosomes were located near the apical region of the RPE. Melanosomes in ...
Schadeck R J - - 1998
Colletotrichum graminicola, a pathogen of sorghum and corn, was investigated prior and during germination as to certain aspects of acid phosphatase activity and lipid mobilization. Ungerminated conidia cytoplasm was filled with lipid deposits, which were mobilized during the germination process. Cytochemical ultrastructural examination showed that conidia vacuoles exhibit acid phosphatase ...
LaCount M W - - 1998
Acid phosphatase activity in the blood serum is usually separated into tartrate-resistant and tartrate-refractory, which is reported as the prostatic acid phosphatase level. Human prostatic acid phosphatase crystals soaked in N-propyl-L-tartramate were used to collect x-ray diffraction data to 2.9 A resolution under cryogenic conditions. Positive difference electron density, corresponding ...
Mukhopadhyay S S Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, Massachusetts 01536, - - 1998
Cyclic AMP has been proposed to stimulate Na+/taurocholate (TC) cotransport in hepatocytes by translocating Na+/TC cotransport polypeptide (Ntcp) to the plasma membrane and to induce Ntcp dephosphorylation. Whether protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1/2A) are involved in the regulation of Na+/TC cotransport by cAMP was investigated in the present study. ...
Broulik P D - - 1998
Parathormone has been shown to increase the secretion and production of lysosomal enzymes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. All our 68 patients with proven primary hyperparathyroidism had signs of hyperparathyroid bone disease. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and bone alkaline phosphatase activities are raised as a result of enhanced bone remodelling. Serum beta ...
Trull M C - - 1998
Plant response to phosphorus starvation includes the increased production and secretion of acid phosphatase. We have isolated a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., phosphatase-underproducer 1 (pup1), that has reduced histochemical staining for acid phosphatase activity in roots of plants grown under phosphorus-starvation conditions. Although pup1 is defective in the ...
Nakazato H - - 1998
We recently presented clear evidence that the major low-phosphate-inducible phosphatase of the duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, and, to our knowledge, is the first described from higher plants (N. Morita, H. Nakazato, H. Okuyama, Y. Kim, G.A. Thompson, Jr. [1996] Biochim Biophys Acta 1290: 53-62). In this ...
Wyss M - - 1998
Enzymes that are used as animal feed supplements should be able to withstand temperatures of 60 to 90 degrees C, which may be reached during the feed pelleting process. The thermostability properties of three histidine acid phosphatases, Aspergillus fumigatus phytase, Aspergillus niger phytase, and A. niger optimum pH 2.5 acid ...
Klumpp S - - 1998
Type 2C serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP2C) so far require unphysiologically large amounts of Mg2+ ions for activity. Activators and inhibitors are not available, targeting subunits unknown. Studying the regulation of PP2C isozymes in bovine retinae, we found that the activity of PP2C increased specifically by the addition of mono- and ...
Morisawa Y - - 1998
In a male infant who had cardiomyopathy, generalized muscle weakness and increased serum creatine kinase levels, his muscle biopsy revealed myopathic changes with tiny intracytoplasmic vacuoles containing PAS-positive material and high acid phosphatase activity, but had normal acid maltase activity biochemically. These findings were consistent with those seen in lysosomal ...
Okamoto Y - - 1998
Alveolar and peritoneal macrophages (MPs) of mouse, dog and cat were compared in relation to their scanning electron microscopic features and the lysosomal activities of nonspecific esterase, acid phosphatase, and beta-glucuronidase. The long spindle shape of peritoneal MPs differed from the spherical form of alveolar MPs in all species. There ...
Yuan Q X - - 1998
Drug-primed mice form Mallory bodies in their liver after various types of liver injury such as heat shock, drug refeeding, or ethanol ingestion. However, the mechanisms involved that lead to Mallory body formation after these different treatments are unknown. There may be a common pathway of Mallory body formation that ...
Zecca L - - 1998
Brush border lactase-phlorizin hydrolase carries two catalytic sites. In the human enzyme lactase comprises Glu-1749, phlorizin hydrolase Glu-1273. The proteolytic processing of pro-lactase-phlorizin hydrolase by (rat) enterocytes stops two amino acid residues short of the N-terminus of 'mature' final, brush border lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Only these two amino acid residues are ...
Shukla S - - 1998
The effect of two new chelating agents-Tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulphonic acid disodium salt) and succinic acid--on the mobilization of beryllium was studied. Animals were exposed to beryllium nitrate (1 mg kg(-1) i.p.) daily for 21 days. Administration of beryllium nitrate showed a marked decrease in haemoglobin percentage, blood sugar, serum alkaline ...
Ternan N G - - 1998
A strain of Pseudomonas putida that utilized the biogenic organophosphonate 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid as sole carbon and energy, nitrogen and phosphorus source contained 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid: pyruvate aminotransferase and phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase (phosphonatase) activities which were inducible by the presence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid in the culture medium, regardless of the phosphate status of ...
Fladmark K E - - 1998
A number of algal toxins were tested for the ability to induce apoptosis (regulated cell death) in primary hepatocytes from salmon and rat. The tested toxins included the liver targeting substances microcystin-LR and nodularin, substances associated with the diarrhetic shellfish poison complex (okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and pectenotoxin-1) and calyculin A. ...
Grothe K - - 1998
We cloned a protein phosphatase 2C gene from Paramecium (PtPP2C), which codes for one of the smallest PP2C isoforms (Klumpp, S., Hanke, C., Donella-Deana, A., Beyer, A., Kellner, R., Pinna, L. A., and Schultz, J. E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 32774-32780). After mutation of 9 ciliate Q codons (TAA) ...
Popken-Harris P - - 1998
The cDNA for eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP) encodes a prepromolecule with a total length of 222 amino acids (preproMBP). PreproMBP includes a secretory leader of 15 amino acids, an acidic propiece of 90 amino acids, and a basic MBP portion of 117 amino acids. The function of the ...
Dawson R M - - 1998
Microcystins are a family of more than 50 structurally similar hepatotoxins produced by species of freshwater cyanobacteria, primarily Microcystis aeruginosa. They are monocyclic heptapeptides, characterised by some invariant amino acids, including one of unusual structure which is essential for expression of toxicity. Microcystins are chemically stable, but suffer biodegradation in ...
Malke H - - 1998
The function of the streptococcal cytoplasmic membrane lipoprotein, LppC, was identified with isogenic Streptococcus equisimilis H46A and Escherichia coli JM109 strain pairs differing in whether they contained [H46A and JM109(pLPP2)] or lacked (H46A lppC::pLPP10 and JM109) the functional lppC gene for comparative phosphatase determinations under acidic conditions. lppC-directed acid phosphatase ...
Chen Q X - - 1998
Green crab (Scylla Serrata) alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) is a metalloenzyme which catalyzed the nonspecific hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. In the present paper, the effects of several N-thiophosphoryl amino acids on the activity of green crab alkaline phosphatase have been studied. The results show that these derivatives of amino acids ...
Vilalta P M - - 1998
To understand how protein phosphorylation modulates cytoskeletal organization, we used immunofluorescence microscopy to examine the effects of okadaic acid, a serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor, and taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing agent, on stable (acetylated and detyrosinated) microtubules, vimentin intermediate filaments and other cytoskeletal elements in CV-1 cells. Okadaic acid caused major changes ...
Murakami N - - 1998
Long-term administration of chloroquine to rats induces a vacuolar myopathy, which is specifically termed chloroquine myopathy (CM). In CM, tau mRNA levels were transiently upregulated in the early phase, while tau itself slowly accumulated in the late phase. The temporal profiles of tau mRNA levels and its accumulation were very ...
Ekmekcioglu C - - 1998
The objective of the present study was to examine whether cinnamic acid exerts antitumor activity against colon cancer cells in vitro. For this purpose we investigated the effect of cinnamic acid on cell proliferation and on the differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase, sucrase and aminopeptidase N in human colon adenocarcinoma cells ...
Bland Y S - - 1998
It has been suggested that acid phosphatase activity is present in newly formed bone matrix at sites of endochondral ossification in rabbit fracture calluses. Because acid phosphatases are usually found intracellularly, it was decided to test this possibility more rigorously. Tissue from 10- and 14-day healing rabbit fractures was subjected ...
Matsuda Y - - 1998
One of the hydrolysis products of sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) was detected in formalin-fixed brain tissues of victims poisoned in the Tokyo subway terrorist attack. Part of this procedure, used for the detection of sarin hydrolysis products in erythrocytes of sarin victims, has been described previously. The test materials were four ...
Branco M - - 1998
Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) red cell and tissue acid phosphatases were studied by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing followed by enzyme blotting. Red cell acid phosphatase 1 (ACP1) is monomorphic while tissue acid phosphatase 2 (ACP2) is polymorphic in a wild rabbit population, with two alleles: ACP2*1 ...
Khan A - - 1998
Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was measured in hepatic microsomes and in pancreatic islets from ob/ob mice. In hepatic microsomes vanadate, phlorizin, 3-mercaptopicolinic acid and a derivative of chlorogenic acid (S-3483) inhibited the translocase activity of the enzyme, vanadate in addition inhibited hydrolase activity. In islets, vanadate inhibited both components of the enzyme, ...
Hooks S B - - 1998
Two human isoforms of membrane associated phosphatidic acid phosphatase have been described (PAP-2a and -2b), and both enzymes have been shown to have broad substrate specificity and wide tissue distribution [Kai et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 24572-24578]. With this report we describe a third isoform, PAP-2c, that we ...
Colombo S L - - 1998
Shikimic acid has been described as a potent competitive inhibitor of the activity of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from Amaranthus viridis. In the present study, the effects of shikimic acid were examined further with the dephospho (dark-form) and in vitro phosphorylated forms of homogeneous PEPC from A. viridis. Kinetic analysis ...
Pederson B A - - 1998
Certain amino acids stimulate glycogenesis from glucose. The regulatory volume decrease mechanism explaining these effects was defined by Meijer et al. (1992, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 5823-5828). It involves amino acid-induced swelling of hepatocytes resulting in loss of chloride ions which leads to deinhibition of glycogen synthase phosphatase. This results ...
Smith G D - - 1998
Exposure of mammalian oocytes to the protein phosphatase (PP)-1 (PP1) and PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) stimulates oocyte meiosis. However, treated oocytes do not develop beyond metaphase I (MI), and they display morphological aberrations. Experiments were conducted to define inhibitor treatment conditions for macaque oocytes that would result in germinal ...
Mullaney E J - - 1998
Aspergillus niger (ficuum) and the kidney bean purple acid phosphatases retained all the essential amino acids in the active site despite a low degree of total sequence homology. This high degree of homology in the sequence motif of A. niger fungal acid phosphatase (Apase6) active site with Kidney bean metallo ...
Nishimura N - - 1998
Three different microstructures were obtained on a titanium surface via immersion in HCl, H3PO4, or mixed acid of HNO3 and HF (HNO3/HF) solution. The microstructure and Rmax of the acid-treated surfaces were dependent on the acid type and immersion conditions. The growth rate of the osteogenic cell line MC3T3-E1 on ...
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