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Results 301 - 350 of 1207
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Davis Meryl A - - 2005
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans can use a wide range of compounds as nitrogen sources. The synthesis of the various catabolic enzymes needed to breakdown these nitrogen sources is regulated by the areA gene, which encodes a GATA transcription factor required to activate gene expression under nitrogen-limiting conditions. The areA102 ...
Mao I-Fang - - 2005
This study involved sampling over 1 year of data on exposure to acid aerosols in the geothermal area of metropolitan Taipei. The temporal and spatial variations of the concentrations of acid aerosols were assessed by sampling at three sites: A, B, and C. Results indicate that the SO2 concentrations lead ...
Stewart Gavin S - - 2005
Maintaining a correct balance of N is essential for life. In mammals, the major sources of N in the diet are amino acids and peptides derived from ingested proteins. The immediate endproduct of mammalian protein catabolism is ammonia, which is toxic to cells if allowed to accumulate. Therefore, amino acids ...
Moughan Paul J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Accurate estimates of endogenous ileal total nitrogen and amino acid flows are necessary to ascertain true dietary amino acid digestibility coefficients and for the factorial estimation of dietary amino acid requirements. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to ascertain endogenous amino acid losses from the small bowel in human subjects consuming ...
Yang Chi Ming - - 2005
To explore how chemical structures of both nucleobases and amino acids may have played a role in shaping the genetic code, numbers of sp2 hybrid nitrogen atoms in nucleobases were taken as a determinative measure for empirical stereo-electronic property to analyze the genetic code. Results revealed that amino acid hydropathy ...
Auer Nadja - - 2005
Three lignocellulolytic fungi, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Coprinus cinereus, and two cellulolytic fungi Trichoderma reesei and Chaetomium elatum were tested for their ability to degrade nitrocellulose. They were provided with different carbon and nitrogen sources in liquid cultures. Nitrocellulose (N content above 12%) was added as nitrogen source (in ...
Vuralhan Zeynep - - 2005
Aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D were grown with different nitrogen sources. Cultures grown with phenylalanine, leucine, or methionine as a nitrogen source contained high levels of the corresponding fusel alcohols and organic acids, indicating activity of the Ehrlich pathway. Also, fusel alcohols derived from the other two ...
Hernández-Sebastià Cinta - - 2005
Several approaches were taken to examine the role of N-assimilate supply in the control of soybean (Glycine max) seed composition. In the first study, developing seeds were grown in vitro with D-[U-14C]sucrose (Suc) and different concentrations of Gln. Light stimulated carbon flux into oil and protein, and was required to ...
Hirota Sachiko - - 2005
Local pH in the oral cavity can decrease to below 7 at the site where acid-producing bacteria are proliferating. Effects of pH on nitration of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid were studied using dialyzed human saliva. Dialyzed saliva nitrated 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetic acid in the presence of nitrite and H(2)O(2). The rate ...
Nabais Cristina - - 2005
The storage and remobilization of nitrogen in deciduous and evergreen species is a major source of N, supporting the seasonal growth of trees. In evergreens, in addition to wood and roots, older leaves are important reservoirs of N used in the growth of new foliage. Just before bud burst, when ...
Fuller Malcolm F - - 2005
Because the digestion of many dietary proteins is incomplete, and because there is a continuous (but variable) entry into the intestinal lumen of endogenous protein and amino acid nitrogen that is also subject to digestion, the fluxes of nitrogen, amino acids, and protein in the gut exhibit a rather complicated ...
Krappmann S S Institute of Microbiology & Genetics, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Genetics, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany. - - 2005
Aspergilli represent unique pathogens. Based on their saprophytic life style they are able to colonize a variety of ecological niches, among them the immunocompromised individual. Distinct fungal attributes that play a role in pathogenicity of aspergilli have been described, and primary metabolism indisputably has to be taken into account for ...
Allen Mary M - - 2005
(1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to compare the uptake of nitrogen into cyanobacterial cyanophycin from two sources: from the breakdown of intracellular proteins and amino acids, and directly from the external growth medium. Cells grown initially in medium containing (14)N-nitrate were transferred to (15)N-nitrate medium in the presence of chloramphenicol ...
Bégué Jean-Pierre - - 2005
Trifluoromethylated nitrogen-containing molecules have been shown to have important biological effects and their synthesis is in the focus of the pharmaceutical industry. In the last few years, simple nitrogen derivatives of fluoral, i.e. imines, acetals and oxazolidines, have emerged as powerful building blocks to synthesize these target molecules and relevant ...
Ward Patrick G - - 2005
Pseudomonas putida CA-3 is capable of converting the aromatic hydrocarbon styrene, its metabolite phenylacetic acid, and glucose into polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) when a limiting concentration of nitrogen (as sodium ammonium phosphate) is supplied to the growth medium. PHA accumulation occurs to a low level when the nitrogen concentration drops below 26.8 ...
Rolletschek Hardy - - 2005
Storage protein synthesis is dependent on available nitrogen in the seed, which may be controlled by amino acid import via specific transporters. To analyze their rate-limiting role for seed protein synthesis, a Vicia faba amino acid permease, VfAAP1, has been ectopically expressed in pea (Pisum sativum) and Vicia narbonensis seeds ...
Tsahar Ella - - 2005
We measured minimal nitrogen requirements (MNR), total endogenous nitrogen loss (TENL) and the effect of protein and water intake on the nitrogenous waste composition in two frugivorous bird species: yellow-vented bulbuls Pycnonotus xanthopygos and Tristram's grackles Onychognathus tristrami. The nitrogen requirements of both species were much lower than expected for ...
Beltran Gemma - - 2005
Nitrogen deficiencies in grape musts are one of the main causes of stuck or sluggish wine fermentations. In the present study, we have supplemented nitrogen-deficient fermentations with a mixture of ammonium and amino acids at various stages throughout the alcoholic fermentation. The timing of the nitrogen additions influenced the biomass ...
Vione Davide - - 2005
The nitration of naphthalene was studied in aqueous solution to gain insight into the processes leading to the nitration of aromatic compounds in atmospheric hydrometeors. Reactants used were nitric acid, nitrogen dioxide and peroxynitrous acid in the dark, nitrate, and nitrite/nitrous acid under illumination. Naphthalene nitration can lead to two ...
Legrouri K - - 2005
Activated carbon has been prepared from molasses, a natural precursor of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry in Morocco. The preparation of the activated carbon from the molasses has been carried out by impregnation of the precursor with sulphuric acid, followed by carbonisation at varying conditions (temperature and gas ...
Hashimoto Makoto - - 2005
The biosynthesis of pamamycin-607 (PM-607), a sixteen-membered macrodiolide compound, was studied with 13C- and 15N-labeled precursor units in Streptomyces alboniger. Feeding experiments with 13C-labeled acetate or propionate indicate that the carbon skeleton of PM-607 was derived from six acetate, four propionate and three succinate units. MS analyses of 15N-labeled PM-607 ...
Ventura Oller, Marc
: The aim of this thesis was to describe the life history variability of the assemblage of crustacean zooplankton in Lake Redon, with special emphasis in their life-cycles, ecological characteristics and their trophic relationships. The end of the ice-covered period was the key limnological feature characterising the timing of the ...
Banks Craig E - - 2005
The voltammetric response of nitrogen dioxide in aqueous sulfuric acid using an edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode has been explored and contrasted with that from basal plane pyrolytic graphite, glassy carbon or boron-doped diamond electrodes. Edge plane graphite electrode is found to produce an excellent voltammetric signal in comparison with ...
Silva Erin M - - 2005
The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have been the focus of many potato research ...
Bianchi Giampaolo - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have a peculiar role in whole-body nitrogen metabolism. BCAAs are not only a substrate for protein synthesis, but also modulate several components of the synthetic machinery and help to conserve muscle mass; accordingly, several conditions, characterized by protein loss and catabolic status, are ...
Chew Shit F - - 2005
The African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, was able to maintain a low level of blood plasma ammonia during exposure to high concentrations of environmental ammonia. After 6 d of exposure to 30 or 100 mM NH(4)Cl, the total ammonia concentrations in the blood plasma were 0.288 and 0.289 mM, respectively, which ...
Leyva J S - - 2005
AIMS: To calculate the energetic requirements for benzoic acid tolerance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii in chemostat experiments. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 5.6-l stirred-tank chemostat was used. The yield of ATP (Y(ATP)) was calculated under nitrogen atmosphere, assuming equimolar ATP and ethanol production. Under these conditions Y(ATP), equal to 20 g mol(-1) ...
Sun L - - 2005
AIMS: To investigate how carbon dioxide affects the acid resistance of Escherichia coli. METHODS AND RESULTS: Escherichia coli W3110 was grown in minimal EG medium at pH 7.5, and cells were adapted at pH 5.5 at 37 degrees C with and without supply of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gases. The ...
Mani Ali R - - 2005
Assessment of protein nitration is commonly used as a footprint for the formation of reactive nitrogen species in vivo. However, one of the major disadvantages of measuring nitrotyrosine in proteins is that nitrated proteins are broken down at variable rates, and the resulting free nitrotyrosine is taken up by cells, ...
García-González Vicente - - 2005
Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP is the model strain for studying bacterial degradation of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine. In this work, we focused on the expression of the atzDEF operon, involved in mineralization of the central intermediate of the pathway, cyanuric acid. Expression analysis of atzD-lacZ fusions in Pseudomonas sp. strain ...
Tilsner Jens - - 2005
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) needs very high nitrogen fertilizer inputs. Significant amounts of this nitrogen are lost during early leaf shedding and are a source of environmental and economic concern. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the remobilization of leaf amino acids could be limiting for ...
Urbanczyk-Wochniak Ewa - - 2005
The role of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in the production of amino acids is one of the most important biochemical processes in plants. For this reason, a detailed broad-range characterization of the metabolic response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves to the alteration of nitrate level was performed. Tomato plants were grown ...
Pinho Olivia - - 2004
Changes in the microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical characteristics of Terrincho cheese as represented by native microflora, pH, water activity, soluble nitrogen fractions, free amino acids, and biogenic amines (e.g., ethylamine, dimethylamine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, cystamine, and spermine) during ripening were monitored. Terrincho is a traditional Portuguese cheese ...
Bagh Kirsten - - 2004
In vivo (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as well as (15)N solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy were used to investigate nitrogen metabolism in cultured white spruce (Picea glauca) buds. Long-term as well as short-term experiments were carried out involving the use of inhibitors of the nitrogen pathways such ...
Pritchett Jason - - 2004
Human cystatin C is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor with potential applications as an anti-viral agent, cancer tumor growth inhibitor, and in prevention of proteolysis during food processing. A glycosylated cystatin C mutant with increased temperature stability was developed for the latter application [Nakamura et al. (1998) FEBS Lett 427:252-254]. A ...
Gómez-García M A - - 2005
This article summarises the abatement of NO(x) pollution by using sorbing catalytic materials with special relevance to the challenge presented in fixed installations sources. A general vision of the origins of the different pollutants, with emphasis on nitrogen oxides formation, is presented as introduction. The impact of NO(x) pollution comprises ...
Seebauer Juliann R - - 2004
Nitrogen (N) is an essential requirement for kernel growth in maize (Zea mays); however, little is known about how N assimilates are metabolized in young earshoots during seed development. The objective of this study was to assess amino acid metabolism in cob and spikelet tissues during the critical 2 weeks ...
Gaio-Oliveira Gisela - - 2005
The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses to increased nitrogen (N) supply between the nitrophytic lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and the acidophytic lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. The two lichens were exposed to a weekly dosage of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.6 or 2.4 g ...
Jeong Mijeong Lee - - 2004
Profiles of small polar metabolites from aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves spanning the sink-to-source transition zone were compared. Approximately 25% of 250 to 300 routinely resolved peaks were identified, with carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids being most abundant. Two-thirds of identified metabolites exhibited greater than 4-fold changes in abundance ...
Jackson Alan A - - 2004
The metabolic fate of salvaged urea-nitrogen was explored in normal adults who had consumed a diet that provided 36 g protein/day for 7 days. We hypothesised that the colonic microflora utilise nitrogen derived from urea salvage to synthesise lysine in functionally significant amounts for the host. Oral lactose-[(15)N(15)N]ureide is resistant ...
Yaylayan Varoujan A - - 2004
Investigations of different sources of acrylamide formation in model systems consisting of amino acids and sugars have indicated the presence of two pathways of acrylamide generation; the main pathway specifically involves asparagine to directly produce acrylamide after a sugar-assisted decarboxylation step, and the second, nonspecific pathway involves the initial formation ...
Marchán Vicente - - 2004
Several nitrogen-sulfur reagents have been investigated as potential 5'-hydroxyl protecting groups for deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites to improve the synthesis of oligonucleotides on glass microarrays. Out of the nitrogen-sulfur-based protecting groups so far investigated, the 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-3-one-1-sulfinyl group exhibited near optimal properties for 5'-hydroxyl protection by virtue of the mildness of its deprotection ...
Bragg Jason G - - 2004
There is growing recognition that the elemental composition of genomes and proteins can be related to resource limitation. We examine the possibility that the elemental composition of nucleic acids and the amino acids (and proteins) they encode are correlated. We report a positive association between the stoichiometric ratio of N/C ...
Liao Wei - - 2004
Effective dilute acid hydrolysis of dairy manure which contains roughly 12% hemicellulose on a dry matter basis can produce a variety of mono-sugars such as arabinose, xylose and galactose, as well as to further benefit utilization of cellulose in the manure. To enhance the effectiveness of this dilute acid hydrolysis, ...
Hazan Reut - - 2004
Microbial spoilage of food causes losses of up to 40% of all food grown for human consumption worldwide. Yeast growth is a major factor in the spoilage of foods and beverages that are characterized by a high sugar content, low pH, and low water activity, and it is a significant ...
Rakocević Miloje M - - 2004
In this paper is presented a new, very harmonic structure of the genetic code (GC) within a system of "4 x 5" (and/or of "5 x 4") of amino acids (AAs) in two variants. In first variant, the five rows within the system start with one polar charged amino acid ...
Chiaiese Pasquale - - 2004
In order to increase the concentration of the nutritionally essential sulphur amino acids in seed protein, a transgene encoding a methionine- and cysteine-rich protein, sunflower seed albumin (SSA), was transferred to chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L). Transgenic seeds that accumulated SSA contained more methionine and less oxidized sulphur than the controls, ...
Petranovic Dina - - 2004
CodY is a pleiotropic transcriptional regulator conserved in low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria. Two distinct signals have been shown independently to influence the activity of this regulator: the level of intracellular GTP in Bacillus subtilis and the level of intracellular branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) isoleucine, leucine and valine in Lactococcus lactis. Measurement ...
Lundberg Peter - - 2004
The primary nitrogen metabolism of the N2-fixing root nodule symbiosis Alnus incana (L.)- Frankia was investigated by 31P and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Perfusion of root nodules in a pulse-chase approach with 15N- or 14N-labeled NH4+ revealed the presence of the amino acids alanine (Ala), gamma-amino butyric acid, ...
Scannell Amalia G M - - 2004
Porcine longissimus dorsi muscles were cured by brine injection. Curing brine containing 15% (w/v) NaCl, 1.33% (w/v) glucose, 750 ppm sodium nitrite, and appropriate levels of either Lactobacillus sakei LAD, L. sakei LAD plus Kocuria varians FT4 (formally Micrococcus varians), L. sakei LAD plus papain and GDL (glucono-delta-lactone) plus K. ...
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