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Results 401 - 450 of 1474
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Ma D - - 1999
The measurement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid (Glu) in the whole brain and in various regions of the brain in 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA)-treated rats has been developed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure ionization interface system. The recoveries of these compounds were 94.90+/-4.18% for GABA, 95.60+/-2.86% ...
Cornford EM - - 1999
The objective of this article is to provide the reader with an update of some of the BBB research highlights which have occurred in recent times, and to review the impact and contributions of immunogold electron microscopic studies on our understanding of the brain capillary endothelium. Glucose and monocarboxylic acids ...
Suzuki K - - 1999
Mice that are genetically deficient in UDP-galactose: ceramide galactosyltransferase are unable to synthesize galactosylceramide. Consequently, sulfatide, which can be synthesized only by sulfation of galactosylceramide, is also totally absent in affected mouse brain. Alpha-hydroxy fatty acid-containing glucosylceramide partially replaces the missing galactosylceramide. A substantial proportion of sphingomyelin, which normally contains ...
Terashima T - - 1999
Time-dependent changes of theanine (gamma-glutamylethylamide) and other amino acids in various tissues of rats were investigated during the 24 hrs after theanine administration. When theanine (4 g/kg of body weight) was intragastrically administered to rats, the concentrations of theanine in the serum, liver and brain were significantly increased 1 hr ...
Chang M C - - 1999
Using a method and model developed in our laboratory to quantitatively study brain phospholipid metabolism, in vivo rates of incorporation and turnover of docosahexaenoic acid in brain phospholipids were measured in awake rats. The results suggest that docosahexaenoate incorporation and turnover in brain phospholipids are more rapid than previously assumed ...
Ogita K - - 1999
Prior treatment with ferrous chloride led to marked inhibition of [3H](+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imi ne (MK-801) binding to an open ion channel associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in a concentration-dependent manner at concentrations of higher than 1 microM in rat brain synaptic membranes. Both phospholipases A2 and C significantly prevented the inhibition ...
Fowler C J - - 1999
The endogenous cannabimimetic anandamide is hydrolyzed by a fatty acid amide hydrolase to yield arachidonic acid and ethanolamine. In the present study, the regional distribution of the activity and its sensitivity to inhibition by the enantiomers of ibuprofen, ketorolac, and flurbiprofen has been investigated. The rate of [3H]anandamide hydrolysis was ...
Kawai K - - 1999
The possibility of using L-meta-tyrosine (L-mTyr) with high metabolic stability and amino acid transport affinity was evaluated. mTyr was first separated into D- and L-isomers with high-performance liquid chromatography and both were labelled with non-carrier-mediated 125I. Biodistribution and pharmacological studies of radioiodinated mTyr in mice and rats were then performed. ...
Yoneda Y - - 1999
Prior treatment with ferrous chloride led to the marked inhibition of [3H](+)-5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a, d]cyclohepten-5, 10-imine (MK-801) binding to an open ion channel associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in a concentration-dependent manner at concentrations of higher than 1 microM in rat brain synaptic membranes. Both phospholipases A2 and C significantly ...
Clandinin M T - - 1999
Membrane lipids are necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of development of the human brain and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant ...
McTavish S F - - 1999
We report the effects of a tyrosine (and phenylalanine)-free amino acid mixture on tyrosine levels, ex vivo catecholamine synthesis and in vivo catecholamine release in brain regions of the rat. Administration of a tyrosine-free amino acid load reduced tissue levels of tyrosine (-50% after 2 h) in all brain regions ...
Baran H - - 1999
L-kynurenine (L-KYN) serves as a substrate for the synthesis of neurotoxic 3-OH-kynurenine (3-OH-KYN) and neuroprotective kynurenic acid (KYNA). KYNA is able to interact with ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors that are involved in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biosynthetic machinery ...
Klaassen T - - 1999
Thirteen healthy subjects were subjected to tryptophan (TRP) depletion, lysine (LYS) depletion, and a placebo condition in a double blind cross-over study. The aim of the study was to test the specificity of psychological effects induced by TRP depletion. Subjects ingested a 100 g amino acid mixture with or without ...
Chopineau J - - 1998
A major challenge in correcting disorders affecting the central nervous system is to induce blood-brain barrier (BBB) crossing of exogenous biological compounds such as proteins or specific nucleic acid sequences. Fatty acids, due to their high membrane affinity and low toxicity, are good potential candidates to promote this barrier crossing ...
Hildebrandt H - - 1998
Polysialic acid on the neural cell adhesion molecule is developmentally regulated and has been implicated in the plasticity of cell-cell interactions. The sialyltransferases ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV are able to catalyze the synthesis of polysialic acid. This study compares the expression of ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV mRNA during ...
Huang S C - - 1998
Variations in the cerebellum to plasma ratio at late times in 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA studies are shown to be consistent with competitive binding of large neutral amino acids for a common transporter in the blood-brain barrier and the stability of brain tissue large neutral amino acid level in the presence of plasma ...
Ricciolini R - - 1998
This study was undertaken to explore the metabolic fate of acetyl-L-carnitine in rat brain. To measure the flux of carbon atoms into anabolic processes occurring at regional levels, we have injected [1-(14)C]acetyl-L-carnitine into the lateral brain ventricle of conscious rats. After injection of [1-(14)C]acetyl-L-carnitine, the majority of radioactivity was recovered ...
Badawy A A - - 1998
Tryptophan (Trp) metabolism and disposition and excitatory and other amino acid concentrations were determined in alcohol-dependent subjects in relation to the alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Parameters were examined in 12 alcohol-dependent male subjects, undergoing elective upper digestive tract tumour resection, and 12 age-, gender-, and medication-matched controls on three occasions: pre-operatively, ...
García S C - - 1998
1. Delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport through the rat blood-brain barrier (BBB) was studied. 2. GABA transport (Km=3.2+/-0.1 microM and Vmax=0.299+/-0.045 micromol/mg protein min) is probably mediated by a permease similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae PUT4; this result also indicates that the isolated capillaries are metabolically active. 3. ...
Schaeffer M C - - 1998
Vitamin B-6 is a cofactor in many reactions of nitrogen metabolism. Deficiency alters tissue amino acid concentrations but effects of excess vitamin B-6 have not been well described. We fed female rats (218 g, 7 per group) 1 (control), 10, 100, 175 or 250x) the National Research Council recommended level ...
Xu G Y - - 1998
The following issues are further addressed: (1) Is there considerable leakage of amino acids from the circulation into the space around microdialysis probes, or are amino acid concentrations naturally much higher in the interstitial space than is generally thought? (2) Do observed high interstitial concentrations or depletion of substances in ...
Chen P - - 1998
The design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of brain-targeted chemical delivery systems (CDS) for a kyotorphin analogue (Tyr-Lys) are described. The brain-targeted compound contains the active peptide in a packaged, disguised form, flanked between the lipophilic cholesteryl ester on the C-terminus and the 1, 4-dihydrotrigonellyl redox targetor, attached to the N-terminus ...
Semba J - - 1998
The effects of the glutamate transporter inhibitor, trans-PDC, on extracellular amino acids, were investigated in the frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum of rats using in vivo microdialysis. Trans-PDC infusion (0.1, 1, 10 mM) dose-dependently increased Glu and Asp levels, and these increases in the cerebellum were smaller than those ...
Rassoulpour A - - 1998
Tissue levels of the endogenous excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) and of its bioprecursor L-kynurenine were measured in rats of different ages after d-amphetamine administration. In adult animals, extracellular KYNA concentrations were also determined in vivo by hippocampal microdialysis. In the adult brain, d-amphetamine caused a transient, ...
Birdsall T C - - 1998
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is the intermediate metabolite of the essential amino acid L-tryptophan (LT) in the biosynthesis of serotonin. Intestinal absorption of 5-HTP does not require the presence of a transport molecule, and is not affected by the presence of other amino acids; therefore it may be taken with meals without ...
Chen W - - 1998
NMR spectroscopy has been applied extensively to study metabolism noninvasively in the human brain and other tissues. However, it usually suffers from poor signal-to-noise ratio due to low NMR sensitivity and low metabolite concentrations. In this study, the technique of proton-observe-carbon-edited (POCE) NMR spectroscopy combined with a single-shot localization sequence ...
Kitazawa T - - 1998
The mechanism for the efflux of taurocholic acid (TC) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was studied by examining the elimination of [3H]TC after microinjection into the cerebral cortex. The efflux of [3H]TC from the brain was saturable with a Vmax of 15.0 pmol/min/g brain and a Km value of 0.396 ...
Vanbilloen H P - - 1998
99mTc-ethylene dicysteine diethyl ester (99mTc-L,L-ECD) is a neutral lipophilic tracer agent that crosses the blood-brain barrier and is retained in the brain of primates following enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the ester functions to the ionized mono-ester, mono-acid metabolite. Up to now, it is not clear whether the second ethylcarboxylate ...
Gastmann U A - - 1998
The purpose of this review was to give an answer to the question whether there are convincing data to support the hypothesis of an amino acid imbalance as one possible mechanism to explain overtraining syndrome. Animal studies point to an enhanced synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine through an amino acid ...
Heyes M P - - 1998
This study investigated the sources of quinolinic acid, a neurotoxic tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolite, in the brain and blood of HIV-infected patients and retrovirus-infected macaques. In brain, quinolinic acid concentrations in HIV-infected patients were elevated by > 300-fold to concentrations that exceeded cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by 8.9-fold. There were no significant ...
Bednarski E - - 1998
Incubation of cultured hippocampal slices with chloroquine, a compound that increases the pH of acidic subcellular organelles, for 10 h reduced the activity of cathepsin L by 83 +/- 0.87% (mean +/- s.e.m.) while only marginally suppressing cathepsin B. This effect was followed within 3 h by an increase in ...
Hsu F F - - 1998
The sphingolipid sulfatide is a component of myelin and some non-neuronal cells. Antibodies to sulfatide occur in some patients with autoimmune neuropathies and in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) caused by immunologic destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic islet beta-cells. Distinct sulfatide molecular species may differ in immunogenicity, and facile means ...
Roberts L J LJ - - 1998
F2-isoprostanes are prostaglandin F2-like compounds that are formed nonenzymatically by free radical-induced oxidation of arachidonic acid. We explored whether oxidation of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6omega3), which is highly enriched in the brain, led to the formation of F2-isoprostane-like compounds, which we term F4-neuroprostanes. Oxidation of docosahexaenoic acid in vitro yielded a ...
Doppenberg E M - - 1998
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) complicates about 15%-20% of severe head injury patients and is one of the major causes for bad outcome, yet the pathomechanisms involved are not well understood. This study has employed a recently developed technique to determine whether ASDH induces free radicals in the underlying brain. We ...
Yokogoshi H - - 1998
Theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major components of amino acids in Japanese green tea. Effect of theanine on brain amino acids and monoamines, and the striatal release of dopamine (DA) was investigated. Determination of amino acids in the brain after the intragastric administration of theanine showed that theanine was ...
Kaplan R J - - 1998
The degree to which fatty acids modulate brain function beyond periods of rapid brain growth is poorly understood. Nevertheless, recent evidence suggests that dietary fatty acid composition influences numerous behaviors including body temperature regulation, pain sensitivity, feeding behavior including macronutrient selection, and cognitive performance. Importantly, alterations are observed in the ...
Pardridge W M - - 1998
The transport of neutral amino acids through the brain capillary endothelial wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, is an important control point for the overall regulation of cerebral metabolism, including protein synthesis and neurotransmitter production. The Michaelis-Menten kinetics of BBB amino acid transport have been investigated ...
Rabin O - - 1998
Transient cerebral ischemia (5 min) releases unesterified fatty acids from membrane phospholipids, increasing brain concentrations of fatty acids for up to 1 h following reperfusion. To understand the reported anti-ischemic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761), we monitored its effect on brain fatty acid reincorporation in a gerbil-stroke model. ...
Nonaka M - - 1998
The cell volume is regulated not only by inorganic ions, but also by organic osmolytes, such as amino acids, methylamines, and polyhydric alcohols (polyols). Using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), we measured the tissue concentrations of amino acids (alanine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glutamine, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), taurine), methylamines ...
Yokogoshi H - - 1998
Following the administration of theanine, the brain tryptophan content significantly increased or tended to increase, but the contents of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) decreased. The use of inhibitors of serotonin metabolism enable us to speculate that theanine reduced serotonin synthesis and also increased serotonin degradation in the brain.
Bergström K A - - 1998
A new ligand for the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype, E-(R,R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-alpha-phenylacetate (E-IQNP), was labelled with 125I and 123I for autoradiographic studies on human whole-brain cryosections and SPET studies, respectively, in Cynomolgus monkey. Autoradiography demonstrated E-[125I]IQNP binding in M1 receptor-rich regions such as the neocortex and the striatum. The binding was ...
Gietzen D W - - 1998
Amino acid-imbalanced (IMB) diets induce an acute amino acid deficiency and hypophagic responses in most animals. The neural circuits underlying these responses are unknown. To ascertain potential neural circuits involved in the recognition of IMB, we measured the concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, their metabolites and 20 amino acids in ...
Hossain M S - - 1998
Female Wistar rats, 100 weeks old, were divided into four groups: one group was fed a high-cholesterol diet, one received a non-cholesterol diet, and the others were fed either a non- or a high-cholesterol diet plus docosahexaenoic acid. The level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in brain tissue was measured with ...
Mikami T - - 1998
Equine brain gangliosides were isolated and their structures were characterized, to examine whether equine brain has N-glycolyl neuraminic acid in gangliosides, since other mammals predominantly possess N-acetyl neuraminic acid in brain gangliosides, and equine erythrocytes and organs except the brain have gangliosides exclusively containing N-glycolyl neuraminic acid. The gangliosides purified ...
Wakefield A E - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This laboratory has previously described the aggregation of intravenously administered lipid-coated microbubbles (LCM) around tumors and areas of injury. 7Beta-hydroxycholesterol has been used to inhibit astrocytic proliferation in nervous system injury models. The compound has been given by direct infusion, by epidural catheter, or in liposomes (delivered stereotactically to ...
Edmond J - - 1998
To determine the transport and utilization of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the developing brain and other organs, artificially reared rat pups were fed a rat milk substitute containing the perdeuterated (each 97 atom% deuterium) fatty acids, i.e., palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic, ...
Beltramo M - - 1998
To improve basic knowledge about the neurochemical organization of the urodele brain, and to study discrepancies in the localization of monoaminergic markers, we immunohistochemically charted the distribution of four such markers (tyrosine hydroxylase, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, dopamine, and serotonin) in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) forebrain. Catecholaminergic and serotoninergic systems ...
Alexander J J - - 1998
The accumulation of dicarboxylic acids is a prominent feature of inborn and toxin induced disorders of fatty acid metabolism which are characterized by impaired mental status. The formation of dicarboxylic acids is also a critical step in liver in the induction of intracellular fatty acid binding proteins and the proliferation ...
Jakeman P M - - 1998
Although fatigue during prolonged exercise has traditionally been associated with peripheral factors relating to muscle metabolism, such as the depletion of muscle glycogen, more recent research has generated a renewed interest in amino acid metabolism per se and in the role of amino acids as precursors of brain neurotransmitter function. ...
Tetzloff S U - - 1998
Proteolipid protein (PLP), the major protein of central nervous system myelin, contains covalently bound fatty acids, predominantly palmitic acid. This study adapts a stable isotope technique (Kuwae, T., Schmid, P. C., Johnson, S. B., and Schmid, H. O. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 5002-5007) to quantitatively determine the minimal proportion ...
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