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Results 351 - 400 of 1476
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Zancanaro C - - 2001
The developmental patterns of the rat brain at several postnatal time points were investigated in Folch (chloroform-methanol) extracts. The chloroform- (lipid-containing) and water-soluble (cytosolic) fractions of whole-tissue extracts and the phospholipid fraction separated from the organic fraction by chromatography were analysed by means of high-resolution (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic ...
Sakaeda T - - 2001
In vitro studies have shown that conjugation of a model compound [p-di(hydroxyethyl)-amino-D-phenylalanine (D-MOD)] with L-Glu can improve D-MOD permeation through the bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers (Sakaeda et al., 2000). The transport of this D-MOD-L-Glu conjugate is facilitated by the L-Glu transport system. In this paper, we evaluate the ...
Nicholls T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effects of chronic embolization of the umbilical circulation during late gestation on regional concentrations of quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid (neuroactive products of tryptophan catabolism) and of the astrocyte-associated glial fibrillary acidic protein in the fetal brain. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant ewes bearing ...
Paterson P G - - 2001
Dietary sulfur amino acid content is a major determinant of glutathione concentration in some tissues. We examined whether brain glutathione (GSH), a key component of antioxidant defense important for minimizing ischemic injury, was also responsive to short-term sulfur amino acid deficiency. Female Long-Evans adult rats were fed a sulfur-deficient L-amino ...
Parent M - - 2001
In vivo microdialysis, using dialysis probes inserted into discrete brain areas and subsequent analysis of neurotransmitters and related substances in the dialysates (usually with HPLC), has yielded a great deal of important information about the actions of psychotropic drugs and endogenous neurotransmitter systems and about the functional interactions between various ...
Aguilera A - - 2000
Anorexia is a frequent part of uremic syndrome, contributing to malnutrition in dialysis patients. Many factors have been suggested as responsible for uremic anorexia. In this paper we formulate a new hypothesis to explain the appetite disorders in dialysis patients: "the tryptophan/serotonin disorder hypothesis." We review current knowledge of normal ...
Yamashita T - - 2000
We isolated mouse cDNA encoding a novel FGF (251 amino acids). As this is the 23rd documented FGF, we termed it FGF-23. FGF-23 has a hydrophobic amino terminus ( approximately 24 amino acids), which is a typical signal sequence. As expected, recombinant mouse FGF-23 was efficiently secreted by High Five ...
Roda J M - - 2000
We describe a multivariate analysis procedure to classify human cerebral tumors nonhistologically in vitro, combining the use of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with automatic amino acid analysis of biopsy extracts. Eighty-one biopsies were obtained surgically and classified histologically in eight classes: high-grade astrocytomas (class 1, n = 19), low-grade ...
Nakata R - - 2000
A method for the sensitive and specific determination of folate derivatives was developed. The method involves hydrolysis by gamma-glutamyl hydrolase and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The method was applied to measure the change in the level of folate derivatives in the liver, kidney, spleen and brain of rats ...
Surtees R - - 2000
The mechanisms by which deficiency of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase causes central nervous system disease are reviewed. The neurological disease appears to be secondary to increased concentrations of phenylalanine and a decrease in the concentrations of other large neutral amino acids, especially methionine and tyrosine, within the central nervous system. This ...
Dale W E - - 2000
Metabolism of tryptophan (TRP) through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway in brain, liver, and kidney produces intermediates including the neuroactive agonist quinolinic acid (QA) and the antagonists kynurenic acid (KA) and anthranilic acid (AA) for N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that elevated concentrations of QA, ...
Ban Y - - 2000
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an epithelial region of the blood-brain barrier. During embryogenesis, permeability of the barrier gradually decreases. A culture model of RPE development revealed differences in how tight junctions regulate the paracellular diffusion of ionic and nonionic solutes (Ban Y and Rizzolo LJ. Mol Vis 3: ...
Cartier N - - 2000
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a genetic demyelinating disorder characterized by accumulation of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) in tissues. Lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, normalizes VLCFA in fibroblasts and plasma from ALD patients. We dietary treated ALD mice with simvastatin, an analog of lovastatin with similar ...
Hamilton L - - 2000
We have previously shown that the docosahexaenoate (22:6n-3) status in membrane phospholipids influences the biosynthesis and accumulation of phosphatidylserine (PS) in brain microsomes and C6 glioma cells. In the present study, we investigated whether the observed effect of membrane docosahexaenoic acid status on PS accumulation is universal or occurs specifically ...
Miller R R RR - - 2000
BACKGROUND: This project investigated whether or not EtOH-induced reductions in the levels of long-chain polyunsaturated membrane fatty acids could be attenuated by exogenous exposure to either alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, or diallyl sulfide (DAS). METHODS: At 0 days of development, fertile chicken eggs were injected with a single dose of either saline ...
Fernstrom J D - - 2000
Over the past 40 y, several lines of investigation have shown that the chemistry and function of both the developing and the mature brain are influenced by diet. Examples are the effect of folate deficiency on neural tube development during early gestation, the influence of essential fatty acid deficiency during ...
Silva C G - - 2000
The present study investigated the effects of glutaric acid (GA), which predominantly accumulates in glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I), on some in vitro parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of rats. We first evaluated CO2 production from [U-14C] acetate, as well as ATP levels in brain of young Wistar ...
Parent M B - - 2000
Phenelzine (PLZ) is a non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor commonly used to treat depression and panic disorder. Acute administration of PLZ produces several neurochemical changes, including an increase in brain levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and of the amino acids alanine and gamma-aminobutyric ...
Sarkissian C N - - 2000
Phenylketonuria (PKU) (OMIM 261600) is the first Mendelian disease to have an identified chemical cause of impaired cognitive development. The disease is accompanied by hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) and elevated levels of phenylalanine metabolites (phenylacetate (PAA), phenyllactate (PLA), and phenylpyruvate (PPA)) in body fluids. Here we describe a method to determine the ...
Uvarov A V - - 2000
The effect of cyclic GABA derivative TZ-146 on the content of catecholamines, serotonin, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in rat hypothalamus and brain stem was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Opposite changes in the content of homovanillic acid, aspartate, glutamate, and glycine in the examined structures ...
Lesage F - - 2000
The two P domain hTRAAK K(+) channel has been cloned from human brain. hTRAAK cDNA encodes a 393 amino acid polypeptide with 88% of homology with its mouse counterpart. The hTRAAK gene has been mapped to chromosome 11q13 and the study of its organization indicates that the hTRAAK open reading ...
Smith Q R - - 2000
In most regions of the brain, the uptake of glutamate and other anionic excitatory amino acids from the circulation is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In most animals, the BBB is formed by the brain vascular endothelium, which contains cells that are joined by multiple bands of tight junctions. ...
Messier A M - - 2000
Myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) is modified after translation by the attachment of long-chain fatty acids to several cysteine residues. In this study, the amount and pattern of fatty acids covalently bound to rat PLP were determined during brain development and in myelin subfractions. For this purpose, PLP was isolated by ...
Yao J K - - 2000
Previous studies in schizophrenia have shown alterations in membrane phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, these studies have primarily examined peripheral (non-neuronal) cell types. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the membrane deficits seen in peripheral tissues are also observed in the brain. The caudate was ...
Reich E E - - 2000
Free radical-mediated oxidant injury and lipid peroxidation have been implicated in a number of neural disorders. We have reported that bioactive prostaglandin D2/E2-like compounds, termed D2/E2-isoprostanes, are produced in vivo by the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Docosahexaenoic acid, in contrast to arachidonic acid, is the most abundant unsaturated ...
Dahchour A - - 2000
Ethanol induces alterations in the central nervous system by differentially interfering with a number of neurotransmitter systems, although the mechanisms by which such effects are executed are not well understood. The present review therefore, is designed to ascertain the effect of ethanol on both excitatory and inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters, ...
Aquilani R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Acute severe brain injury causes an increased mobilization of amino acids from tissue. The plasma amino acid profile of patients undergoing rehabilitation after brain injury is unknown. This study was aimed at delineating the plasma amino acid profile of rehabilitation patients with brain injury. DESIGN: Peripheral plasma aminogram, lactate, ...
Bara H - - 2000
Patients who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) frequently present with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an intermediate metabolite of L-kynurenine (L-KYN), is a neuroprotectant and a broad-spectrum antagonist at excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. The present study examines the biosynthetic machinery of KYNA in ...
Al Banchaabouchi M - - 2000
Amino acid and biogenic amine changes were investigated in nephrectomized mice ten days postsurgery. Uremic mice exhibited changes in amino acid concentrations in plasma, urine and brain. Particularly plasma methionine, citrulline and arginine levels were significantly enhanced in nephrectomized mice compared to controls whereas serine was decreased. Urinary excretion of ...
Pasantes-Morales H - - 2000
Brain adaptation to hyposmolarity is accomplished by loss of both electrolytes and organic osmolytes, including amino acids, polyalcohols and methylamines. In brain in vivo, the organic osmolytes account for about 35% of the total solute loss. This review focus on the role of amino acids in cell volume regulation, in ...
Carlson S E - - 2000
Domains of behavior may be broadly categorized as sensory, motor, motivational and arousal, cognitive, and social. Differences in these domains occur because of changes in brain structure and function. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6-23) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4-26) are major structural components of the brain that decrease when diets deficient ...
Ma D - - 1999
The measurement of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), N-acetylglutamic acid (NAG), and N-acetylaspartylglutamic acid (NAAG) in the whole brain of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA)-treated rats has been developed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure ionization interface system. The recoveries of these compounds were 90.85 +/- 3.43% for NAA, 91.62 +/- 5.47% ...
Shah A J - - 1999
An automated precolumn derivatisation method has been developed for the measurement of fourteen amino acids in brain tissue and microdialysate samples. The method involves labelling amino acids with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) in the presence of cyanide (CN-). The resulting highly stable N-substituted 1-cyanobenz[f]isoindole (CBI) derivatives were separated using a binary gradient ...
Grand S - - 1999
PURPOSE: To assess the usefulness of the 0.9-ppm peak from amino acids (-CH3 moieties from valine, leucine, and isoleucine) for the differentiation of brain abscesses and tumors at in vivo hydrogen 1 magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Amino acid concentrations were determined in vitro in 13 purulent samples ...
Wolosker H - - 1999
Although D amino acids are prominent in bacteria, they generally are thought not to occur in mammals. Recently, high levels of D-serine have been found in mammalian brain where it activates glutamate/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by interacting with the "glycine site" of the receptor. Because amino acid racemases are thought to be ...
Van Everbroeck B - - 1999
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases occurring in both humans and animals and are most likely caused by prions. Neuropathological confirmation of the clinical diagnosis has been a problem because of the difficulty in epitope retrieval from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain specimens. Many different protocols for the detection ...
Rapoport S I - - 1999
A method and model are described to quantify in vivo turnover rates and half-lives of fatty acids within brain phospholipids. These "kinetic" parameters can be calculated by operational equations from measured rates of incorporation of intravenously injected fatty acid radiotracers into brain phospholipids. To do this, it is necessary to ...
Morissette M - - 1999
The effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) as well as its sulfate and fatty acid ester derivatives on rat brain membrane fluidity was investigated by fluorescence depolarization of a lipid probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and compared to its effect on phospholipid conformation investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In rat brain, membrane fluidity varied ...
Boado R J - - 1999
Amino acid supply in brain is regulated by the activity of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) at the brain capillary endothelial cell, which forms the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. Bovine BBB poly(A)(+) RNA was isolated from 2.0 kg of fresh bovine brain and size fractionated on a ...
Pouremad R - - 1999
Metabolism of trifluorothymidine (TFT) and its transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been measured quantitatively in rats by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19)F NMR). It is demonstrated that TFT crosses the BBB in micromolar quantities and is metabolized in brain tissue primarily to its free base trifluoromethyluracil (TFMU) ...
Hosoya K - - 1999
The brain efflux index method has been used to clarify the mechanism of efflux transport of acidic amino acids such as L-aspartic acid (L-Asp), L-glutamic acid (L-Glu), and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). About 85% of L-[3H]Asp and 40% of L-[3H]Glu was eliminated from the ipsilateral cerebrum ...
Hajós F - - 1999
The interpeduncular nucleus of adult male rats was investigated for glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity. In intact animals the nucleus had an outstandingly intense immunostaining, particularly at its periphery, including the rostral, lateral, dorsomedial and dorsolateral subnuclei where, in addition to neuropil astrocytes, a substantial amount of perivascualr glia was ...
Plantier M - - 1999
Acidic calponin, an F-actin-binding protein, is particularly enriched in brain, where calponin protein and mRNA are mainly expressed by neurons. The presence of calponin immunoreactivity in cultured astroglial cells has been reported, but the presence of acidic calponin in astrocytes in vivo appears equivocal. For the present study, we raised ...
Nutt D - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse, as well as being a major form of psychiatric morbidity, is also commonly associated with other psychiatric disorders. A greater understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of alcohol is now possible, thanks to significant research advances made over the past decade. AIMS: To elucidate ...
Koennecke L A - - 1999
Quinolinic acid is a neurotoxic tryptophan metabolite produced locally during immune activation. The present study tested the hypothesis that macrophages are an important source. In normal gerbils, the macrophage toxin liposome-encapsulated clodronate depleted blood monocytes and decreased quinolinic acid levels in liver (85%), duodenum (33%), and spleen (51%) but not ...
Reynolds N C NC - - 1999
Microdialysis probes, stereotactically placed in rat brain nuclei, allow detailed kinetic comparisons of neurotransmitter release from in situ chemical lesioning over a continuum from acute early changes (minutes) to chronic late changes (days). This technique insures a localized mechanism of action independent of systemic effects apparent with other routes of ...
Sandikci K S - - 1999
Carnitine has two main functions, i.e., transporting long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for beta-oxidation to provide cellular energy and modulating the rise in intramitochondrial acyl-CoA/CoA ratio, which relieves the inhibition of many intramitochondrial enzymes involving glucose and amino acid catabolism. The present study examined the acid soluble carnitine ...
Wahren J - - 1999
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our study was undertaken to examine directly the utilisation of glucose and alternative substrates, in particular amino acids, during hypoglycaemia. METHODS: Catheters were positioned in the jugular venous bulb and an artery in six healthy subjects in the overnight fasted state. Arterio-venous differences for glucose, amino acids, lactate and ...
Dhillon H S - - 1999
This study examined the effects of the administration of kynurenate, a non-specific excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor subtype antagonist, on the regional accumulation of diacylglycerol (DG) and free fatty acids (FFAs) after lateral fluid percussion (FP) brain injury in the rat. After brain injury of moderate severity (2.0 atm), rats ...
Lang L - - 1999
We have synthesized five fluorinated derivatives of WAY 100635, N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazino]ethyl}-N-(2-pyridyl)cyclohe xaneca rboxamide (4a), using various acids in place of the cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (CHCA, 2a) in the reaction scheme. The five acids are 4-fluorobenzoic acid (FB, 2b), 4-fluoro-3-methylbenzoic acid (MeFB, 2c), trans-4-fluorocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (FC, 2d), 4-(fluoromethyl)benzoic acid (FMeB, 2e), and 3-nitro-4-(fluoromethyl)benzoic ...
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