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Results 301 - 350 of 1471
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Qi Kemin - - 2002
Brain is highly enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which play important roles in brain structural and biologic functions. Plasma transport, in the form of free fatty acids or esterified FAs in lysophosphatidylcholine and lipoproteins, and de-novo synthesis contribute to brain accretion of ...
Toda Shizuo - - 2002
We present the results of an in vitro investigation of the inhibitory effects of phenylpropanoid metabolites on copper-induced protein oxidative modification of mice brain homogenate. The effects of caffeic acid, 3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine, esculetin, ferulic acid, and scopoletin were stronger than that of mannitol as a free-radical scavenger, whereas the effects ...
Wainwright Patricia E - - 2002
Brain development is a complex interactive process in which early disruptive events can have long-lasting effects on later functional adaptation. It is a process that is dependent on the timely orchestration of external and internal inputs through sophisticated intra- and intercellular signalling pathways. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), specifically arachidonic ...
Blüml S - - 2002
In the brain, acetate is exclusively oxidized by glia. To determine the contribution of glial metabolism to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), 1-(13)C-acetate was infused in six studies in three normal adult subjects and -one epileptic receiving valproic acid for seizure control. Ten grams of 99% 1-(13)C labeled acetate were ...
Mayas María Dolores - - 2002
Aminopeptidase A activity (aspartyl aminopeptidase (AspAP) and glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP) exerts angiotensinase activity due to its relation to the metabolism of angiotensins in the regional brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This activity may also modify the free amino acid pool through the release of N-terminal acidic amino acids. Ethanol (EtOH) exerts ...
Haugaard Niels - - 2002
In a previous article we present results that demonstrated that the enzyme, choline acetyl transferase, was strongly activated by dihydrolipoic acid and that the oxidized form of this substance, lipoic acid itself, was an inhibitor of the enzyme and overcame the stimulatory effects of reduced lipoic acid. The experiments presented ...
Hornykiewicz O - - 2002
The article traces the development of research on the naturally occurring amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa), from the first synthesis of its D,L racemate in 1911, and the isolation of its L-isomer from seedling of Vicia faba beans to the amino acid's successful application, from 1961 onward, as the most efficacious ...
Hamase K - - 2001
A new procedure to accurately measure a trace amount of d-proline in biological samples has been developed. This D-amino acid was derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole and was determined by a column-switching HPLC system, a combination of a micro-ODS column and a chiral column. The detection limit for D-proline spiked in a ...
Tabernero A - - 2001
Unlike in the adult brain, the newborn brain specifically takes up serum albumin during the postnatal period, coinciding with the stage of maximal brain development. Here we report that albumin stimulates oleic acid synthesis by astrocytes from the main metabolic substrates available during brain development. Oleic acid released by astrocytes ...
Yamamoto N - - 2001
We have demonstrated that the crude synaptosome P2 fraction prepared from the rat brain is able to accumulate [(3)H]D-serine in a saturable, temperature-dependent and partially sodium- and potassium-dependent manner with an affinity of a hundred micromolar range. The inhibition profile of D-serine accumulation by various amino acids is different from ...
Yudkoff M - - 2001
The relationship between ketosis and brain amino acid metabolism was studied in mice that consumed a ketogenic diet (>90% of calories as lipid). After 3 days on the diet the blood concentration of 3-OH-butyrate was approximately 5 mmol/l (control = 0.06-0.1 mmol/l). In forebrain and cerebellum the concentration of 3-OH-butyrate ...
Goux Warren J. - - 2001
Protease resistant paired helical filaments (prcPHF) can be isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's diseased patients. A second type of PHF, A68 PHF, may be extracted in soluble form from brain homogenate and induced to form filaments in vitro. Here we use a variety of analytical techniques to assess the ...
Nicholls T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The effect of maternal tryptophan loading on fetal plasma and brain, kynurenic acid, and quinolinic acid concentrations was compared in late gestation fetal sheep with either chronically embolized or nonembolized placentas. STUDY DESIGN: The placentas of 4 ewes were embolized by daily injection of mucopolysaccharide microspheres into the umbilical ...
Varghese S - - 2001
The effects of feeding of 6-propylthiouracil (6-PTU) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) independently and in combination and administration (ip) of a single dose of triiodothyronine (T3) (2.5 microg/100 g body wt) along with feeding of 6-PTU and PUFA were studied in rat brain. Dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxy ...
Kalsner L R - - 2001
Tyrosine supplementation has not consistently been found to improve neuropsychologic function in phenylketonuria (PKU), possibly because of failure to achieve adequate levels of tyrosine in the brain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate blood levels achieved after tyrosine supplementation in treated PKU and calculate brain influxes of tyrosine and other large neutral amino ...
Wood S L - - 2001
Three litters of Shetland Sheepdog pups born to the same bitch and 2 different sires were studied because of uncontrollable seizures or progressive neurologic dysfunction. Four pups from the 1st litter, 1 from the 2nd litter, and 4 from the 3rd litter had severe diffuse spongy degeneration of the white ...
Ero─člu H - - 2001
Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) is a widely used corticosteroid in the treatment of brain oedema associated with brain tumours. DSP has many side effects that limit its usage at an effective concentration. The objective of this study was to minimize these side effects by encapsulating DSP using biodegradable synthetic polymers, ...
Huang S M - - 2001
In mammals, specific lipids and amino acids serve as crucial signaling molecules. In bacteria, conjugates of lipids and amino acids (referred to as lipoamino acids) have been identified and found to possess biological activity. Here, we report that mammals also produce lipoamino acids, specifically the arachidonyl amino acids. We show ...
Baran H - - 2001
In the brain, L-kynurenine is an intermediate for the formation of kynurenic acid, a metabolite with neuroprotective activities, and a substrate for the synthesis of 3-hydroxy-kynurenine, a metabolite with neurotoxic properties. In the present study, alterations of L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxy-kynurenine and kynurenic acid levels were examined in the brain of neonatal ...
Häusler M G - - 2001
Clinical experience with the treatment of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency, a rare inherited disorder of serine synthesis, is scarce. We report on two sisters with phenotypic heterogeneity and a favourable response to combined serine and glycine supplementation. The elder sibling was found to be normocephalic at birth and showed moderate delay ...
Ahlskog J E - - 2001
It has been over three decades since the introduction of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine or levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The early levodopa trials were driven by recognition of a profound cerebral dopamine deficiency state in this disorder. Whereas dopamine fails to cross the blood brain barrier and hence is ineffective as ...
Tanay V A - - 2001
1. Phenelzine (PLZ) is an antidepressant with anxiolytic properties. Acute and chronic PLZ administration increase brain GABA levels, an effect due, at least in part, to an inhibition of the activity of the GABA metabolizing enzyme, GABA transaminase (GABA-T). 2. Previous preliminary reports have indicated that acute PLZ treatment also ...
Shimizu K - - 2001
Due to the structural similarity to N-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)), paraquat might induce dopaminergic toxicity in the brain. However, its blood--brain barrier (BBB) penetration has not been well documented. We studied the manner of BBB penetration and neural cell uptake of paraquat using a brain microdialysis technique with HPLC/UV detection in ...
Thrasher J D - - 2001
C-14 formaldehyde crosses the placenta and enters fetal tissues. The incorporated radioactivity is higher in fetal organs (i.e., brain and liver) than in maternal tissues. The incorporation mechanism has not been studied fully, but formaldehyde enters the single-carbon cycle and is incorporated as a methyl group into nucleic acids and ...
Killian D M - - 2001
In this study, we identify the predominant functional expression of the large, neutral amino acid transporter (LAT1) isoform at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). An in situ rat brain perfusion technique allowed perfusion of the radiotracer [(14)C]-L-Leu (a ligand for both LAT1 and LAT2) alone or competed with excess concentration of ...
Bernoud-Hubac N - - 2001
Neuroprostanes are prostaglandin-like compounds produced by free radical-induced peroxidation of docosahexaenoic acid, which is highly enriched in the brain. We previously described the formation of highly reactive gamma-ketoaldehydes (isoketals) as products of the isoprostane pathway of free radical-induced peroxidation of arachidonic acid. We therefore explored whether isoketal-like compounds (neuroketals) are ...
Zakharova I O. - - 2001
The effect of cold stress on the ganglioside fatty acid composition and sialic acid content of brain subcellular fractions and homogenate of rats was studied, the animals were kept in a cold room with 12h light-dark cycles at 3 and 10 degrees C for 2 weeks. (1) The rat brain ...
Bothwell J H - - 2001
A decrease in the intracellular levels of osmotically active species has invariably been seen after swelling of mammalian brain tissue preparations. The exact identity of the species, and the manner of their decrease, remain to be described. We investigated the swelling-activated decrease of organic osmolytes in rat cortical brain slices ...
Quistad G B - - 2001
Organophosphorus (OP) compound-induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase explains the rapid onset and delayed neurotoxic effects, respectively, for OP insecticides and related compounds but apparently not a third or intermediate syndrome with delayed onset and reduced limb mobility. This investigation tests the hypothesis that fatty acid amide ...
Marx M - - 2001
In hypoxic or ischemic states the release of fatty acids is proposed to have several harmful effects on brain structure and function. We therefore decided to study brain FFA in a simple, clinically related animal model resembling intrauterine perinatal asphyxia (PA). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain fatty acids (C14:0, C16:1, ...
Cannazza G - - 2001
Kynurenic, anthranilic, and quinolinic acid, brain tissue concentrations and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase [EC 1 13.11.17] activity were determined in rat brain, during pre- and postnatal development. Quinolinic acid brain tissue concentration was significantly increased at birth as compared with the prenatal level, then it declined rapidly in the postnatal period. By ...
Rapoport S I - - 2001
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical to nervous system function and structure, but their rates of incorporation from plasma into brain have not been evaluated. In the adult rat, calculations based on our model show that at least 3;-5% of esterified brain arachidonic acid (AA) and 2;-8% of esterified brain ...
Chang M C - - 2001
Both (Li(+)) and valproic acid (VPA) are effective in treating bipolar disorder, but the pathway by which either works, and whether it is common to both drugs, is not agreed upon. We recently reported, using an in vivo fatty acid model, that Li(+) reduces the turnover rate of the second ...
Araújo P - - 2001
Neurological dysfunction is common in patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disorder are poorly known. In the present study we investigated the effect of acute hyperleucinemia on plasma and brain concentrations of amino acids. Fifteen-day-old rats were injected subcutaneously with 6 ...
Heyes M P - - 2001
Neuronal injury, dendritic loss and brain atrophy are frequent complications of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. Activated brain macrophages and microglia can release quinolinic acid, a neurotoxin and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor agonist, which we hypothesize contributes to neuronal injury and cerebral volume loss. In the present cross-sectional ...
Chen Z - - 2001
A procedure is described to derivatize 16 primary-amine-containing biogenic amines and amino acids in brain mixtures with the fluorogenic reagent 5-furoylquinoline-3-carboxaldehyde (FQ). These FQ-tagged compounds in the brain sample were resolved in less than 16 min based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography and laser-induced fluorescence. There was a linear relationship between ...
Deng W - - 2001
Lead poisoning is known to cause myelin defects. Galactolipids are the major lipid components of myelin and myelin-competent oligodendrocytes. The present study examines the cellular activity of enzymes involved in the galactolipid pathway, tissue concentrations of galactolipids, and the cellular activity of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNPase) in rat pups exposed ...
Watkins P A - - 2001
The brain is rich in diverse fatty acids saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths ranging from less than 16 to more than 24 carbons that make up the complex lipids present in this organ. While some fatty acids are derived from endogenous synthesis, others must come from ...
Katz R - - 2001
A primary goal of the international workshop "Brain Uptake and Utilization of Fatty Acids" was to identify research areas that would benefit from further investigation. The major themes for future research are presented below: (1) Elucidating the role of the developing and mature cerebrovascular endothelium (CVE) in the uptake of ...
Lagarde M - - 2001
The metabolic fate of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was evaluated from its intake as a nutrient in triglycerides and phosphatidylcholines to its uptake by target tissues, especially the brain. Several approaches were used including the kinetics and tissue distribution of ingested 13C-labeled DHA, the incorporation of radiolabeled DHA injected as its ...
Kido Y - - 2001
We present here the evidence of molecular and functional expression of LAT1 and LAT2, subunits of the large neutral amino acid transporter system L, in cultured brain capillary endothelial cells of the rat. By means of the RT-PCR method, transcripts of LAT1, LAT2 and heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (4F2hc) ...
Edmond J - - 2001
Several areas of research have contributed to the establishment of a paradigm that meets the requirements for the selective uptake of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFA) into brain. First, discrete studies have demonstrated that cholesterol and the nonessential fatty acids, (palmitic, oleic, stearic) do not enter the brain parenchyma. These ...
Rapoport S I - - 2001
A method, model, and "operational equations" are described to quantify in vivo turnover rates and half-lives of fatty acids within brain phospholipids, as well as rates of incorporation of these fatty acids into brain from plasma. In awake rats, recycling of fatty acids within brain phospholipids, due to deesterification and ...
Kessler R - - 2001
In human brain we were able to demonstrate sequence diversity of the ubiquitous 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase-2). Six different isoforms of PFK-2/FBPase-2, two of which are identical with the ubiquitous PFK-2/FBPase-2 and the inducible PFK-2, respectively, could be identified. The heterogeneity of human brain PFK-2/FBPase-2 isoforms is generated by alternative splicing. Three ...
Killian D M - - 2001
By derivatization at the N-terminus of amino acid-based anticancer agents (e.g. melphalan and acivicin) to form a drug delivery system (TDDS), we demonstrate a change in the mechanism of brain uptake from the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) pathway to passive. An in situ rat brain perfusion technique was ...
Zancanaro C - - 2001
The developmental patterns of the rat brain at several postnatal time points were investigated in Folch (chloroform-methanol) extracts. The chloroform- (lipid-containing) and water-soluble (cytosolic) fractions of whole-tissue extracts and the phospholipid fraction separated from the organic fraction by chromatography were analysed by means of high-resolution (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic ...
Sakaeda T - - 2001
In vitro studies have shown that conjugation of a model compound [p-di(hydroxyethyl)-amino-D-phenylalanine (D-MOD)] with L-Glu can improve D-MOD permeation through the bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers (Sakaeda et al., 2000). The transport of this D-MOD-L-Glu conjugate is facilitated by the L-Glu transport system. In this paper, we evaluate the ...
Nicholls T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effects of chronic embolization of the umbilical circulation during late gestation on regional concentrations of quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid (neuroactive products of tryptophan catabolism) and of the astrocyte-associated glial fibrillary acidic protein in the fetal brain. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant ewes bearing ...
Paterson P G - - 2001
Dietary sulfur amino acid content is a major determinant of glutathione concentration in some tissues. We examined whether brain glutathione (GSH), a key component of antioxidant defense important for minimizing ischemic injury, was also responsive to short-term sulfur amino acid deficiency. Female Long-Evans adult rats were fed a sulfur-deficient L-amino ...
Parent M - - 2001
In vivo microdialysis, using dialysis probes inserted into discrete brain areas and subsequent analysis of neurotransmitters and related substances in the dialysates (usually with HPLC), has yielded a great deal of important information about the actions of psychotropic drugs and endogenous neurotransmitter systems and about the functional interactions between various ...
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