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Results 201 - 250 of 1479
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Demar James C JC - - 2005
Adult male unanesthetized rats, reared on a diet enriched in both alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were infused intravenously for 5 min with [1-(14)C]alpha-LNA. Timed arterial samples were collected until the animals were killed at 5 min and the brain was removed after microwaving. Plasma and brain lipid ...
Furukawa Satoshi - - 2005
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a natural auxin, induces microencephaly in rats exposed to IAA during gestation days (Days) 12-14, corresponding to the early stage of cerebral cortex development. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 IAA derivatives administration in pregnant rats on neuroepithelial cells in the ...
Golovko Mikhail Y - - 2005
Alpha-synuclein is an abundant protein in the central nervous system that is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Its physiological function is poorly understood, although recently it was proposed to function as a fatty acid binding protein. To better define a role for alpha-synuclein in brain ...
Fernstrom John D - - 2005
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) influence brain function by modifying large, neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport at the blood-brain barrier. Transport is shared by several LNAAs, notably the BCAAs and the aromatic amino acids (ArAAs), and is competitive. Consequently, when plasma BCAA concentrations rise, which can occur in response to food ...
Eckhardt Matthias - - 2005
Hydroxylation is an abundant modification of the ceramides in brain, skin, intestinal tract and kidney. Hydroxylation occurs at the sphingosine base at C-4 or within the amide-linked fatty acid. In myelin, hydroxylation of ceramide is exclusively found at the alpha-C atom of the fatty acid moiety. alpha-Hydroxylated cerebrosides are the ...
Kim Hak Jin - - 2005
PURPOSE: The authors investigated whether fatty acid emulsion affects the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whether disrupted BBB is reversible, and whether the fatty acid emulsion technique may be a model for BBB research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The fat emulsion was made with 0.05 mL of oleic acid or linoleic acid and ...
Langen Karl-Josef - - 2005
Generally, L-amino acids are preferably transported into mammalian cells compared with their D-isomers, and only L-amino acids are incorporated into proteins. Former studies, however, indicated that D-[H]proline is accumulated in the brain of mice after injection, while L-[3H]proline is not. We investigated the differential cerebral uptake of the D- and ...
Alderson Nathan L - - 2005
Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H), encoded by the FA2H gene, is an enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of sphingolipids containing 2-hydroxy fatty acids. 2-Hydroxy sphingolipids are highly abundant in the brain, as major myelin galactolipids (galactosylceramide and sulfatide) contain a uniquely high proportion ( approximately 50%) of 2-hydroxy fatty ...
Murphy Eric J - - 2005
Heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is expressed in neurons, but its role in brain fatty acid incorporation and metabolism is poorly defined. We examined the effect of H-FABP gene ablation on brain incorporation of arachidonic ([1-(14)C]20:4n-6) or palmitic ([1-(14)C]16:0) acid in vivo. Analysis of brain mRNA confirmed gene ablation ...
Wang Hongna - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to characterize nipecotic acid pharmacokinetics in blood and brain after intravenous (i.v.) and nasal administration of nipecotic acid and its n-butyl ester. METHODS: Nipecotic acid and its n-butyl ester were administered to rats i.v. and intranasally (n = 5 rats/drug per route), and ...
Fukuda Masaya - - 2005
It is well accepted that bacterial and virus infections elevate the levels of cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluids. Such high levels of cytokines might alter the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), subsequently affecting brain penetration of drugs. However, few reports have addressed this ...
Pamplona Reinald - - 2005
Diverse oxidative pathways, such as direct oxidation of amino acids, glycoxidation, and lipoxidation could contribute to Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. A global survey for the amount of structurally characterized probes for these reactions is lacking and could overcome the lack of specificity derived from measurement of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reactive carbonyls. Consequently we ...
Kim Nam-Ho - - 2005
The PMCA (protein misfolding cyclic amplification) technique has been shown to drive the amplification of misfolded prion protein by PrP(Sc) seeds during several cycles of incubation-sonication. Here, we report that cyclic amplification of normal hamster brain homogenates treated with a number of transition metals (manganese [Mn], copper [Cu], and iron ...
Scarnà A - - 2005
RATIONALE: We have previously shown that a 60-g mixture of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) lowers the plasma availability of the catecholamine precursors tyrosine (TYR) and phenylalanine (PHE) and produces biochemical and neuropsychological changes consistent with impaired dopamine neurotransmission. However, the BCAA mixture also lowers the ratio of tryptophan (TRP) ...
Van Dam Debby - - 2005
Two transgenic mouse models expressing mutated human amyloid precursor protein and previously found to display cognitive and behavioural alterations, reminiscent of Alzheimer patients' symptomatology, were scrutinised for putative brain region-specific changes in neurochemical parameters. Brains of NSE-hAPP751m-57, APP23 and wild-type mice were microdissected to perform brain region-specific neurochemical analyses. Impairment ...
Liu Changjin - - 2005
L-homocysteic acid (HCA) and other amino acids were conjugated to rat brain material (extracted rat brain protein) with glutaraldehyde to form HCA- and amino acids-brain material conjugates. The specificity of monoclonal antibody (McAb) was tested on serial dilution test and absorption test on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using these conjugates ...
Plecko B - - 2005
Elevated concentrations of pipecolic acid have been reported in plasma and CSF of patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, but its molecular background is unclear. To investigate any further association of pyridoxine and pipecolic acid metabolism, we have performed an animal trial and have measured the concentration of pipecolic acid in brain ...
Fewlass Darius C - - 2004
Abeta peptide is the major proteinateous component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and is regarded by many as the culprit of the disorder. It is well documented that brain lipids are intricately involved in Abeta-related pathogenic pathways. An important modulator of lipid ...
Ishii Kazuhiro - - 2004
We noted a new clinical syndrome with prominent cerebellar symptoms in apartment building residents in Kamisu, Japan. The well that provided drinking water contained diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, which were developed for use as chemical weapons, inducing severe vomiting and sneezing. Characteristics of diphenylarsinic acid ...
NaƂecz Katarzyna A - - 2004
Carnitine (4-N-trimethylammonium-3-hydroxybutyric acid), a compound necessary for a transfer of fatty acids for their oxidation within the cell, accumulates in brain although beta-oxidation of fatty acids is very low in neurons. Carnitine accumulates to lower extent in the brain than in peripheral tissues and the mechanism of its transport through ...
Brust Peter - - 2004
Pigs of three different age groups (newborns, 1 week old, 6 weeks old) were used to study the transport of the large neutral amino acids 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]FDOPA) and 3-O-methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]OMFD) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental modeling of PET data was used to calculate the ...
van der Heijden F M M A - - 2005
Amino acids play a role in neurotransmitter availability in the central nervous system, in that e.g. the synthesis of brain serotonin depends on the concentration of its precursor tryptophan. Disturbances in amino acid metabolism have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.In the present study the effect of a 14 ...
Prell George D GD Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA. - - 2004
We identified the previously unknown structures of ribosylated imidazoleacetic acids in rat, bovine, and human tissues to be imidazole-4-acetic acid-ribotide (IAA-RP) and its metabolite, imidazole-4-acetic acid-riboside. We also found that IAA-RP has physicochemical properties similar to those of an unidentified substance(s) extracted from mammalian tissues that interacts with imidazol(in)e receptors ...
Szeberenyi Jozsef - - 2004
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: hemoglobins, erythrocytes, reticulocytes, amino acids, α and β globin chains, electrophoresis, isoelectric point, sickle cell anemia.
Alderson Nathan L - - 2004
2-Hydroxysphingolipids are a subset of sphingolipids containing 2-hydroxy fatty acids. The 2-hydroxylation occurs during de novo ceramide synthesis and is catalyzed by fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (also known as fatty acid alpha-hydroxylase). In mammals, 2-hydroxysphingolipids are present abundantly in brain because the major myelin lipids galactosylceramides and sulfatides contain 2-hydroxy fatty ...
Murch Susan J - - 2004
As root symbionts of cycad trees, cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc produce beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid. The biomagnification of BMAA through the Guam ecosystem fits a classic triangle of increasing concentrations of toxic compounds up the food chain. However, because BMAA is polar and nonlipophilic, a mechanism ...
Molchanova Svetlana - - 2004
The early detection and appropriate treatment of brain ischemia is of paramount importance. The interstitial concentrations of neurotransmitter amino acids are often used as an index of neuronal injury. However, monitoring of non-neurotransmitter amino acids may be equally important. We have studied the behavior of 10 amino acids during K(+)-induced ...
Berrettini Marco - - 2004
Chronic ethanol intake affects various organ systems of the body. The present study evaluated modifications of fatty acid concentrations both in brain and striated skeletal muscles of rats genetically selected for voluntary high ethanol intake. Three groups of rats were tracked for 10 weeks of access to ethanol only as ...
Biedermann Wolfgang - - 2004
Identification of bovine and ovine tissue from the central nervous system (CNS: brain and spinal cord) in meat products is possible by using certain CNS fatty acids as biomarkers in GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, the relationship between the isomers of the tetracosenic acid (C24:1) is important for differentiation of the species ...
Schmidt P - - 2004
The present postmortem study examines whether specific amino acid abnormalities associated with renal diseases or diabetes mellitus in animal experiments and on clinical examination may also be found in human brain samples obtained at clinical autopsies. The material includes 12 deceased with renal insufficiency, 23 deceased with diabetes mellitus and ...
Stoknes Iren S - - 2004
The fatty acid and lipid class composition of the eyes and brain were determined for the following species: Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), redfish (Sebastes marinus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis), black dogfish (Centroscyllium fabricii), and leafscale gulper shark (Centrophorus squamosus). ...
Riga D - - 2004
Repetitive and cumulative distress (acute and/or chronic, psychic and/or biologic) and aging processes (impairment phenomena, agglomerated, and accumulated with the passing of life and senescence periods), as well as distress <==> aging reciprocal amplification-accelerating-aggravation relationships require strong and rational (etiopathogenic) therapeutic interventions. Therefore, the drug, Antagonic-Stress (AS)--a new integrative therapy, ...
Grobben Adrianus H - - 2004
A validation study was carried out to determine the capacity of the traditional acid and alkaline processes used in the manufacture of bovine bone gelatine to remove and/or inactivate the transmissible agent that causes BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy). Using an accurately scaled down laboratory process that precisely mimicked the minimum ...
Cooper Arthur J L - - 2004
Glutamine transaminase K (GTK), which is a freely reversible glutamine (methionine) aromatic amino acid aminotransferase, is present in most mammalian tissues, including brain. Quantitatively, the most important amine donor in vivo is glutamine. The product of glutamine transamination (i.e., alpha-ketoglutaramate; alphaKGM) is rapidly removed by cyclization and/or conversion to alpha-ketoglutarate. ...
Mano Nariyasu - - 2004
We have previously demonstrated that the rat brain contains three unconjugated bile acids, and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is the most abundantly present in a tight protein binding form. The ratio of CDCA to the other acids in rat brain tissue was significantly higher than the ratio in the peripheral blood, ...
Popova N K - - 2004
Experiments were performed on knockout Tg8 mice lacking monoamine oxidase A gene that plays a major role in dopamine catabolism. The study by the method of high-performance liquid chromatography revealed considerable regional differences in the contents of dopamine and its metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in brain structures of these animals. Tg8 ...
Rosenberger Thad A - - 2004
In a rat model of acute neuroinflammation, produced by a 6-day intracerebral ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we measured brain activities and protein levels of three phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and -2, and quantified other aspects of brain phospholipid and fatty acid metabolism. The 6-day intracerebral ventricular ...
Nathan Pradeep J - - 2004
Brain monoamines are important regulators of affective and cognitive processes and are involved in the aetiology of a number of psychiatric disorders. While methods to probe serotonin and catecholamine function are established, limited methods are available to probe monoamine function as a whole in humans. In the current study, we ...
Musiek Erik S - - 2004
Lipid peroxidation has been implicated in the pathophysiological sequelae of human neurodegenerative disorders. It is recognized that quantification of lipid peroxidation is best assessed in vivo by measuring a series of prostaglandin (PG) F2-like compounds termed F2-isoprostanes (IsoPs) in tissues in which arachidonic acid is abundant. Unlike other organs, the ...
Kölker S - - 2004
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited organic acid disorder with predominantly neurological presentation. The biochemical hallmark of this disease is an accumulation and enhanced urinary excretion of two key organic acids, glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid. If untreated, acute striatal damage is often precipitated by febrile illnesses during a vulnerable ...
Tsunoda Masashi - - 2004
Tributyltin (TBT) compounds have been detected in fish and shellfish. One of the targets of TBT compounds is the central nervous system. Alterations in the levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, and ratios of the levels of neurotransmitters to those of their metabolites have been used as indexes of neurotoxicity. ...
Wajner M - - 2004
Organic acidurias represent a group of inherited disorders resulting from deficient activity of specific enzymes of the catabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates or lipids, leading to tissue accumulation of one or more carboxylic (organic) acids. Patients affected by organic acidurias predominantly present neurological symptoms and structural brain abnormalities, of which ...
Bourre J M - - 2004
Among various organs, in the brain, the fatty acids most extensively studied are omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. Even though the brain is materially an organ ...
Massieu Lourdes - - 2004
Hyponatremia is a highly morbid condition, present in a wide range of human pathologies, that exposes patients to encephalopathic complication and the risk of permanent brain damage and death. Treating hyponatremia has proved to be difficult and still awaits safe management, avoiding the morbid sequelae of demyelinizing and necrotic lesions ...
Brguljan Pika Mesko - - 2003
Highly purified human brain cathepsin H (EC 3.4.22.16) was used to study its involvement in degradation of different brain peptides. Its action was determined to be selective. On Leu-enkephalin, dynorphin (1-6), dynorphin (1-13), alpha-neoendorphin, and Lys-bradykinin, it showed a preferential aminopeptidase activity by cleaving off hydrophobic or basic amino acids. ...
Mano Nariyasu - - 2004
Using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have found three unconjugated bile acids [cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and deoxycholic acid (DCA)] in the rat brain cytoplasmic fraction. CDCA was detected only upon extraction with high concentrations of guanidine, indicating that it is bound noncovalently to protein in the ...
Miller Robert R - - 2003
In adult systems, high homocysteine (HoCys) levels inhibit methylation reactions and can induce apoptosis in the central nervous system. In embryos, exogenous HoCys is teratogenic and is associated with neural tube defects. Because, methylation inhibitors and inducers of apoptosis can influence membrane composition, we have studied whether or not embryonic ...
Guidetti Paolo - - 2003
alpha-Aminoadipic acid (alphaAA) is a structural homolog of the excitatory amino acid glutamate and a natural product of lysine metabolism in mammalian cells. Under experimental conditions, alphaAA can influence various elements of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Moreover, as a selective inhibitor of kynurenine aminotransferase II, alphaAA is capable of decreasing the levels ...
Polli Joseph W - - 2003
Recent in vitro studies have suggested that P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and passive membrane permeability may influence the brain concentrations of non-sedating (second-generation) antihistamines. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of Pgp-mediated efflux on the in vivo brain distribution of the non-sedating antihistamine cetirizine (Zyrtec), and the structurally ...
Alici Haci Ahmet - - 2003
Tramadol is an important spinal drug which produces analgesia following intrathecal injection. It is well known that fatty acids (FAs) play an important role in membrane fluidity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) tissue, which blocks and/or controls the transportation of toxic substances into the brain. The aim of this study ...
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