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Alderson Nathan L - - 2006
2-Hydroxy fatty acids are relatively minor species of membrane lipids found almost exclusively as N-acyl chains of sphingolipids. In mammals, 2-hydroxy sphingolipids are uniquely abundant in myelin galactosylceramide and sulfatide. Despite the well-documented abundance of 2-hydroxy galactolipids in the nervous system, the enzymatic process of the 2-hydroxylation is not fully ...
Erikson Keith M KM Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA. - - 2007
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal found in all tissues, and it is required for normal amino acid, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. While Mn deficiency is extremely rare in humans, toxicity due to overexposure of Mn is more prevalent. The brain appears to be especially vulnerable. Mn neurotoxicity ...
Matalon R - - 2006
Large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) have been used on a limited number of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) with the purpose of decreasing the influx of phenylalanine (Phe) to the brain. In earlier studies on mice with PKU (ENU(2)/ENU(2)), LNAAs were given and a surprising decline in blood Phe concentrations was ...
Vahidy Wajiha H WH Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, National University of Singapore, - - 2006
The present study was carried out to determine the effects of central nervous free fatty acids, lysophospholipids, or platelet activating factor (PAF), in a mouse facial carrageenan injection model of orofacial pain. Mice that received intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) injection of arachidonic acid or oleic acid showed significantly reduced allodynia and behavioral ...
Jantzie Lauren L - - 2006
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major contributor to many neurological, psychiatric and behavioral disorders. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a one-time dose of doxycycline (DOXY), even when given 3h after HI insult, was neuroprotective and significantly reduced microglial activation and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression in the immature ...
Ohyagi Yasumasa - - 2007
Amyloid beta-protein ending at 42 (Abeta42) is the major peptide deposited in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. In immunocytochemical studies, formic acid treatment is used to dramatically enhance Abeta immunoreactivity. Recently, Abeta42 has been reported to accumulate in AD neurons. Since heating is known to enhance intracellular protein immunoreactivity, we used ...
DeMar James C JC - - 2006
The extent to which the adult brain can derive some of its arachidonic acid (AA) through internalized synthesis from linoleic acid (LA) is uncertain. Thus, we determined for plasma-derived LA in vivo rates for brain incorporation, beta-oxidation, and conversion to AA. Adult male unanesthetized rats, reared on a diet enriched ...
Hahnen Eric - - 2006
Among a panel of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors investigated, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) evolved as a potent and non-toxic candidate drug for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an alpha-motoneurone disorder caused by insufficient survival motor neuron (SMN) protein levels. SAHA increased SMN levels at low micromolar concentrations in ...
Raje Sangeeta - - 2006
PURPOSE: AHN 1-055, a benztropine (BZT) analog, binds with high affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT), possesses behavioral, pharmacokinetic (PK) and brain microdialysate dopamine (DA) profiles distinct from cocaine. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and dopamine release of AHN 1-055, in the presence of ...
Morikawa A - - 2007
To mutant ddY/DAO(-) mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity and normal ddY/DAO(+) mice, five D-amino acids (D-Asp, D-Ser, D-Ala, D-Leu and D-Pro) were orally administered for two weeks, and the D-amino acid levels were examined in seven brain regions. The levels of D-Asp markedly increased in the pituitary and pineal glands ...
D'Aniello S - - 2007
The lancelet (amphioxus), a cephalochordate, is the closest invertebrate relative to vertebrates, with a simple vertebrate-like body plan and a prototypical genome. We have determined D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) and major free L-amino acids (L-AAs) content in the nervous system (neural tube) of the European amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum, and have compared ...
Hancock Minna L - - 2006
Ethanol (EtOH) exposure promotes increased levels of reactive oxygen species that degrade unsaturated long-chain membrane fatty acids within embryonic chick brains and is associated with apoptosis and reduced embryo viability. In vitro studies have demonstrated that resveratrol, a known antioxidant, attenuated EtOH-induced damage. In order to test whether or not ...
Zhang Li-rong - - 2006
We sought to determine the changes in brain interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) following the coadministration of norfloxacin (25 mg/kg, i.p.) with biphenylacetic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats. Norfloxacin provoked clonic convulsions in rats treated concomitantly with biphenylacetic acid, a major metabolite of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug fenbufen. Seizure activity was analyzed ...
Weber Claudia-Carolin - - 2006
Boswellic acids, the main active ingredients of Boswellia serrata, are gaining more and more importance in the treatment of peritumoural oedema and chronic inflammatory diseases. They may be even considered as alternative drugs to corticosteroids in reducing cerebral peritumoural oedema. An important focus for drugs acting in the central nervous ...
Sharma H S - - 2006
Role of excitatory amino acids, glutamate, aspartate, and inhibitory amino acids, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine in brain damage caused by heat stress was examined in a rat model. Subjection of rats to 4 h heat stress at 38 degrees C in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator resulted ...
Kolko Miriam - - 2006
Secretory phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)) form a diverse family of enzymes involved in a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes. Common among all sPLA(2) is the ability to cleave the second position of phospholipids, thereby releasing fatty acid and a lysophospholipid. Several sPLA(2) have been cloned and characterized in various tissues ...
Sauer Sven W - - 2006
Glutaric acid (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids (3-OH-GA) are key metabolites in glutaryl co-enzyme A dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency and are both considered to be potential neurotoxins. As cerebral concentrations of GA and 3-OH-GA have not yet been studied systematically, we investigated the tissue-specific distribution of these organic acids and glutarylcarnitine in ...
Golovko Mikhail Y - - 2006
We examined the ability of erucic acid (22:1n-9) to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by infusing [14-14C]22:1n-9 (170 microCi/kg, iv and icv) into awake, male rats. [1-14C]arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) [intravenous (i.v.)] was the positive control. After i.v. infusion, 0.011% of the plasma [14-14C]22:1n-9 was extracted by the brain, compared with ...
Kabalka George W - - 2006
The treatment of cancer remains one of the most challenging problems for humanity. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary approach for cancer treatment that is particularly attractive in treating high-grade gliomas and metastatic brain tumors. Among types of boron-containing molecules used as BNCT agents, boronated amino acids have ...
Wang Ze-jian - - 2006
AIM: To observe the effects of stearic acid, a long-chain saturated fatty acid consisting of 18 carbon atoms, on brain (cortical or hippocampal) slices insulted by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), glutamate or sodium azide (NaN3) in vitro. METHODS: The activities of hippocampal slices were monitored by population spikes recorded in the ...
Le Masurier Marisa - - 2006
Central dopamine function is reduced by decreasing the availability of the catecholamine precursor, tyrosine, using a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture containing multiple large neutral as well as branched chain amino-acids, which compete with tyrosine for uptake into the brain. Current mixtures are cumbersome to make and administer, and unpalatable to ...
Julien Carl - - 2006
Fatty acids play a critical role in brain function but their specific role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease (PD) and levodopa-induced motor complications is still unknown. From a therapeutic standpoint, it is important to determine the relation between brain fatty acids and PD because the brain fatty acid content ...
Bao Xuexiang - - 2006
Rabbit anti-serotonin and mouse monoclonal anti-tryptophan hydroxylase antisera were applied on the brain sections of the beetle Harmonia axyridis, butterfly Childrena zenobia, moth Antheraea pernyi and ant Camponotus japonicus, using the Streptavidin-Peroxidase immunohistochemical method and Colophony-Paraffin embedded section technique. Results revealed that all the experimental insects showed notable serotonin-like immunoreactivity ...
Wood Paul L - - 2006
The GC-MS quantitation of a large number of neurochemicals utilizing a single derivatization step is not common but is provided by the reagent N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluro-acetamide (MTBSTFA). Previous workers have utilized this derivative for GC-MS analyses of amino acids, carboxylic acids and urea with electron impact (EI) and with positive chemical ionization ...
Hawkins Richard A - - 2006
Brain capillary endothelial cells form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). They are connected by extensive tight junctions, and are polarized into luminal (blood-facing) and abluminal (brain-facing) plasma membrane domains. The polar distribution of transport proteins mediates amino acid (AA) homeostasis in the brain. The existence of two facilitative transporters for neutral ...
Crawford Michael A - - 2006
Docosahexaenoic acid has been conserved in neural signalling systems in the cephalopods, fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, mammals, primates and humans. This extreme conservation, despite wide genomic changes over 500 million years, testifies to a uniqueness of this molecule in the brain. The brain selectively incorporates docosahexaenoic acid and its rate ...
Mackay G M - - 2006
The kynurenine pathway generates the excitotoxic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist, quinolinic acid and the glutamate antagonist, kynurenic acid, as well as free-radical generators. We investigated the status of the pathway following severe brain injury sustained at least 1 year previously in 15 patients compared with controls. At baseline, patients with brain ...
Ruddick Jon P - - 2006
The metabolism of the amino acid L-tryptophan is a highly regulated physiological process leading to the generation of several neuroactive compounds within the central nervous system. These include the aminergic neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), products of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism (including 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, quinolinic acid and kynurenic ...
Ziylan Y Ziya - - 2006
Although ascorbic acid (AA) crosses the choroid plexus and may enter the brain at an appreciable rate, it is not clearly established that there exist transport system(s) carrying this vitamin from blood into the brain cells across the brain capillaries. Thus the rate of its uptake by choroid plexus and ...
Peretz David - - 2006
Prompted by the discovery that prions become protease-sensitive after exposure to branched polyamine dendrimers in acetic acid (AcOH) (S. Supattapone, H. Wille, L. Uyechi, J. Safar, P. Tremblay, F. C. Szoka, F. E. Cohen, S. B. Prusiner, and M. R. Scott, J. Virol. 75:3453-3461, 2001), we investigated the inactivation of ...
Boveri M - - 2006
The co-culture of bovine brain capillary endothelial cells and rat primary glial cells was established as an in vitro blood-brain barrier model to investigate the mechanisms by which the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall components lipoteichoic acid and muramyl dipeptide induced injury of blood-brain barrier structure and function. We found that ...
Kidd Parris M - - 2005
Degenerative brain disorders (neurodegeneration) can be frustrating for both conventional and alternative practitioners. A more comprehensive, integrative approach is urgently needed. One emerging focus for intervention is brain energetics. Specifically, mitochondrial insufficiency contributes to the etiopathology of many such disorders. Electron leakages inherent to mitochondrial energetics generate reactive oxygen free ...
da C Ferreira Gustavo - - 2005
Glutaric acidemia type I is an inherited metabolic disorder biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of predominantly glutaric acid (GA). Affected patients present frontotemporal hypotrophy, as well as caudate and putamen injury following acute encephalopathic crises. Considering that the underlying mechanisms of basal ganglia damage in this disorder are poorly known, ...
Alger Bradley E - - 2005
Endocannabinoids are a class of fatty acid derivatives defined by their ability to interact with the specific cannabinoid receptors that were originally identified as the targets of Delta9-tetrahydocannabinol (Delta9-THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis. Endocannabinoids have been implicated in a growing number of important physiological and behavioral events. A full ...
D'Aniello Antimo - - 2005
The present study was conducted to determine the concentration of amino acids in the cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) and the activities of two tramsaminases: glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in human Alzheimer disease (AD) and normal brain. L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine and L-alanine are the most abundant ...
Kieffer Davy M - - 2006
A new tropane derivative was synthesized by combining a tridentate ligand, N-(2-picolylamine)-N-acetic acid (2-PAA), and a phenyltropane derivative. It was labelled with a [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)](+) moiety, resulting in the formation of two stable and neutral lipophilic isomers. Their identity was confirmed using radio-LC-MS. In normal mice, no brain uptake was observed ...
Klivenyi Peter - - 2005
In the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease excitotoxicity may play an important role. The common toxin model for Parkinson's disease is MPTP, while for Huntington's disease it is 3-NP. These toxins inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in an energy deficit. In the central nervous system, the amino ...
Hoffner Guylaine - - 2005
Huntington's disease resulting from huntingtin containing an expanded polyglutamine is associated with aggregates largely confined to neuronal inclusions, and with neuronal death. Inclusions are thought to originate from discrete N-terminal fragments of expanded huntingtin produced by specific endopeptidases. We have now purified the neuronal inclusions of Huntington's disease brain. When ...
Verreault Jonathan - - 2005
Recent environmental surveys have ascertained the widespread occurrence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in tissues of wildlife from the Arctic. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of a suite of PFAS in plasma, liver, brain, and egg samples from adult glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), an apex scavenger-predator seabird ...
Scallet Andrew C - - 2005
Domoic acid and its potent excitotoxic analogues glutamic acid and kainic acid, are synthesized by marine algae such as seaweed and phytoplankton. During an algal bloom, domoic acid may enter the food web through its consumption by a variety of marine organisms held in high regard as seafoods by both ...
Colman J R - - 2005
Domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin and glutamate analog produced by certain species of the marine diatom Pseudonitzschia, is responsible for several human and wildlife intoxication events. The toxin characteristically damages the hippocampus in exposed humans, rodents, and marine mammals. Histochemical studies have identified this, and other regions of neurodegeneration, though ...
Collins Xixuan H - - 2005
20-Carboxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-COOH-AA) is a bioactive metabolite of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), an eicosanoid that produces vasoconstriction in the cerebral circulation. We found that smooth muscle (MSMC) and endothelial (MEC) cultures obtained from mouse brain microvessels convert [3H]20-HETE to 20-COOH-AA, indicating that the cerebral vasculature can produce this metabolite. The [3H]20-COOH-AA ...
Demar James C JC - - 2005
Adult male unanesthetized rats, reared on a diet enriched in both alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were infused intravenously for 5 min with [1-(14)C]alpha-LNA. Timed arterial samples were collected until the animals were killed at 5 min and the brain was removed after microwaving. Plasma and brain lipid ...
Furukawa Satoshi - - 2005
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a natural auxin, induces microencephaly in rats exposed to IAA during gestation days (Days) 12-14, corresponding to the early stage of cerebral cortex development. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 IAA derivatives administration in pregnant rats on neuroepithelial cells in the ...
Golovko Mikhail Y - - 2005
Alpha-synuclein is an abundant protein in the central nervous system that is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Its physiological function is poorly understood, although recently it was proposed to function as a fatty acid binding protein. To better define a role for alpha-synuclein in brain ...
Fernstrom John D - - 2005
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) influence brain function by modifying large, neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport at the blood-brain barrier. Transport is shared by several LNAAs, notably the BCAAs and the aromatic amino acids (ArAAs), and is competitive. Consequently, when plasma BCAA concentrations rise, which can occur in response to food ...
Eckhardt Matthias - - 2005
Hydroxylation is an abundant modification of the ceramides in brain, skin, intestinal tract and kidney. Hydroxylation occurs at the sphingosine base at C-4 or within the amide-linked fatty acid. In myelin, hydroxylation of ceramide is exclusively found at the alpha-C atom of the fatty acid moiety. alpha-Hydroxylated cerebrosides are the ...
Kim Hak Jin - - 2005
PURPOSE: The authors investigated whether fatty acid emulsion affects the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whether disrupted BBB is reversible, and whether the fatty acid emulsion technique may be a model for BBB research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The fat emulsion was made with 0.05 mL of oleic acid or linoleic acid and ...
Langen Karl-Josef - - 2005
Generally, L-amino acids are preferably transported into mammalian cells compared with their D-isomers, and only L-amino acids are incorporated into proteins. Former studies, however, indicated that D-[H]proline is accumulated in the brain of mice after injection, while L-[3H]proline is not. We investigated the differential cerebral uptake of the D- and ...
Alderson Nathan L - - 2005
Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H), encoded by the FA2H gene, is an enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of sphingolipids containing 2-hydroxy fatty acids. 2-Hydroxy sphingolipids are highly abundant in the brain, as major myelin galactolipids (galactosylceramide and sulfatide) contain a uniquely high proportion ( approximately 50%) of 2-hydroxy fatty ...
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