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Nomura Daniel K DK Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, 114 Wellman Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-3112, - - 2008
Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, has useful medicinal properties but also undesirable side effects. The brain receptor for THC, CB(1), is also activated by the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG). Augmentation of endocannabinoid signaling by blockade of their metabolism may offer a more selective pharmacological approach compared ...
Gutiérrez A M - - 2008
The objective of this investigation was to examine the relationship between body size, fatty acid composition and sensitivity to lipid peroxidation of mitochondria and microsomes isolated from the brain of different size bird species: manon, quail, pigeon, duck and goose, representing a 372-fold range of body mass. Fatty acids of ...
Vijayalakshmi B - - 2009
AIM: Changes in glycoconjugate metabolism during the development of diabetic complications and their modulation by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric as fiber-rich source. METHOD: This was studied by measuring the contents of total sugar, uronic acid, amino sugar, and sulfate in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. RESULTS: Total sugar content ...
Cole Neal W - - 2008
Injection of L-glucose (9.29 micromol/kg egg) into the air sac of fertile chicken eggs during the first 3 days of embryonic development (E(0-2)) has been reported to cause hyperglycemia and membrane lipid peroxidation in embryonic chick hepatic membranes. These observations have now been extended into embryonic chick brains at 11 ...
Sato M - - 2009
Developmental changes in the levels of the excitatory amino acids L-glutamate (Glu) and L-Aspartate (Asp) and inhibitory amino acids glycine (Gly) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), as well as taurine and its related amino acids L-methionine (Met), L-cysteine (Cys) and L-serine (Ser) in the brain and pectoralis muscle at various ...
Maallem S - - 2008
Sodium-coupled neutral amino-acid transporter member 2 (SNAT2) belongs to the family of neutral amino-acid transporters. SNAT2 is encoded by the gene Slc38a2, whose expression was reported to increase in vitro in fibroblasts, endothelial and renal cells exposed to a hypertonic medium. SNAT2 tonicity-induced expression brings about cellular accumulation of amino-acid, ...
Wheelock Craig E - - 2008
Pyridine is a prototypical inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, an enzyme associated with cellular oxidative stress and membrane damage. To better understand the effect of this treatment on cellular lipids, the influence of pyridine exposure (100 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days) on fatty acids, fatty esters, and fatty alcohol ...
Wang Deng-Shun - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Protein cross-linking and aggregation are important molecular processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) catalyzes protein cross-linking. OBJECTIVES: To measure tTG, tTG enzyme activity and isopeptide, which is the product of tTG, in brain and to relate them to cognitive scores. METHODS: tTG and isopeptide levels were ...
Pernot Pierre - - 2008
d-Serine is an endogenous ligand for N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and alterations in its concentration have been related to several brain disorders, especially schizophrenia. It is therefore an important target neuromodulator for the pharmaceutical industry. To monitor d-serine levels in vivo, we have developed a microbiosensor based on cylindrical platinum microelectrodes, ...
Yu Weiping W Department of Radiology, Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2008
syn- and anti-1-amino-3-[2-iodoethenyl]-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (syn-, anti-IVACBC 16, 17) and their analogue 1-amino-3-iodomethylene-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (gem-IVACBC 18) were synthesized and radioiodoinated with [(123)I] in 34-43% delay-corrected yield. All these amino acids entered 9L gliosarcoma cells primarily via L-type transport in vitro with high uptake of 8-10% ID/1 x 10(6) cells. Biodistribution studies ...
Yanai Joseph - - 2008
There is increasing concern over the widespread use of perfluorinated chemicals, which accumulate in various tissues and penetrate the mammalian fetus. A chick model was established for the rapid evaluation of teratogenicity of these chemicals, an important issue because developmental defects often occur at lower exposures than those required for ...
Cansev Mehmet - - 2008
Although cognitive performance in humans and experimental animals can be improved by administering omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the neurochemical mechanisms underlying this effect remain uncertain. In general, nutrients or drugs that modify brain function or behavior do so by affecting synaptic transmission, usually by changing the quantities of ...
Gonzalez-Muñoz M J - - 2008
Aluminum (Al)-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminum have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to biomolecules. The present study has examined whether silicon consumed in the form of silicic acid or beer could potentially inhibit aluminum toxicity in the brain. Male mice were administered with Al(NO(3))(3) ...
Lee Ho-Joo - - 2007
Bipolar disorder is a major medical, social and economic burden worldwide. However, the biochemical basis of the disorder and the mechanisms of action of effective antibipolar disorder drugs remain elusive. In this paper, we review how combining a kinetic approach to studying the turnover of fatty acids within brain phospholipids ...
Lee Ho-Joo - - 2008
Whereas antibipolar drug administration to rats reduces brain arachidonic acid turnover, excessive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) signaling is thought to contribute to bipolar disorder symptoms and may increase arachidonic acid turnover in rat brain phospholipids. To determine whether chronic NMDA would increase brain arachidonic acid turnover, rats were daily administered NMDA (25 ...
Chen Chuck T - - 2008
The brain cannot synthesize n-6 or n-3 PUFAs de novo and requires their transport from the blood. Two models of brain fatty acid uptake have been proposed. One requires the passive diffusion of unesterified fatty acids through endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier, and the other requires the uptake of ...
Culley Deborah J - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A growing body of evidence from cells, rodents, and sub-human primates suggests that general anesthetics can be neurotoxic to the developing and senescent brain. We review this evidence and put the studies into perspective for the practicing clinician. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies indicate that a variety of general ...
Serdons K - - 2007
We have conjugated S,S'-bis-trityl-N-BOC-N'-acetic acid-1,2-ethylenedicysteamine, a protected bis-amino-bis-thiol (BAT) tetraligand, with 2-(4'-aminophenyl)-1,3-benzothiazole, a derivative of thioflavin-T with known affinity for amyloid. The conjugate was efficiently labelled with (99m)Tc by heating of the protected precursor in diluted hydrochloric acid followed by neutralization and heating in the presence of (99m)Tc-tartrate. It was ...
Degn Matilda - - 2007
The N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are bioactive lipids that can modulate inflammatory responses and protect neurons against glutamatergic excitotoxicity. We have used a model of focal cerebral ischemia in young adult mice to investigate the relationship between focal cerebral ischemia and endogenous NAEs. Over the first 24 h after ...
Qin Jing - - 2007
RGD conjugation liposomes (RGD-liposomes) were evaluated for brain-targeting drug delivery. The flow cytometric in vitro study demonstrated that RGD-liposomes could bind to monocytes and neutrophils effectively. Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic, FA) was loaded into liposomes. Rats were subjected to intrastriatal microinjections of 100 units of human recombinant IL-1beta to produce brain ...
Hamilton James A - - 2007
Transport, synthesis, and utilization of brain fatty acids and other lipids have been topics of investigation for more than a century, yet many fundamental aspects are unresolved and, indeed, subject to controversy. Understanding the mechanisms by which lipids cross the blood brain barrier and how they are utilized by neurons ...
Hamilton James A - - 2007
A key function of fatty acid (FA) transport into the brain is to supply polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are not synthesized in brain cells but are essential signaling molecules and components of the phospholipid membrane. In addition, common dietary FAs such as palmitic acid are also rapidly taken up ...
Humphries P - - 2008
The use of the artificial sweetener, aspartame, has long been contemplated and studied by various researchers, and people are concerned about its negative effects. Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%). Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation, whereas aspartic acid is also thought ...
Angata Kiyohiko - - 2007
Polysialic acid, which is synthesized by two polysialyltransferases, ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV, plays an essential role in brain development by modifying the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). It is currently unclear how polysialic acid functions in different processes of neural development. Here we generated mice doubly mutant in both ST8SiaII and ...
Zhang Meining - - 2007
This study demonstrates a new electrochemical method for in vivo measurements of ascorbic acid (AA) in rat brain with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-modified carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) based on the electrochemical property of MWNTs for facilitating AA oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry results indicate that the prepared MWNT-modified CFMEs possess a marked ...
Cansev M - - 2007
Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant brain membrane phosphatide, requires three circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g. uridine); and a polyunsaturated fatty acid. Supplementing a choline-containing diet with the uridine source uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) or, especially, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial increases ...
Chen Cuiping - - 2007
In the present study we examined the disposition of atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin in acid and lactone forms and pravastatin in acid form in multidrug-resistant gene (mdr1a/b) knockout (KO), and wild-type (WT) mice. Each statin was administered s.c. to mdr1a/b KO and WT mice at 3.0 mg/kg (n > or ...
Assis Caio Rodrigo Dias - - 2007
Dichlorvos is an acutely toxic organophosphorous pesticide that is known as a classical acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) inhibitor. Here, the brain AChE from the important Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) was assayed in the presence of this insecticide and also of deltamethrin, a classical sodium and potassium channel inhibitor (negative ...
Ferreira Gustavo C - - 2007
Glutaric acidemia type I is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a severe deficiency of the mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity leading to accumulation of predominantly glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids in the brain tissue of the affected patients. Considering that a toxic role was recently postulated for quinolinic acid in the ...
Hashimoto Kenji - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Glutamate has been thought to have a role in mental disorders. Because the postmortem interval (PMI) has such a pronounced effect on glutamate and other amino acids, it is important that a study be conducted to examine the effects of PMI on these amino acids in postmortem brains and ...
Blondeau Nicolas - - 2007
Vessel occlusion is the most frequent cause for impairment of local blood flow within the brain resulting in neuronal damage and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid improve brain resistance against cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the present study was ...
Lee Ho-Joo - - 2007
Drugs that are effective in treating the manic phase of bipolar disorder (lithium, carbamazepine, and valproate) upon chronic administration to rats decrease the turnover of arachidonic acid in their brain phospholipids. Lamotrigine may not be effective in the manic phase, but is effective in delaying the depressive phase and for ...
Kim C S - - 2007
Androstenedione, an anabolic steroid used to enhance athletic performance, was administered in corn oil by gastric intubation once daily in the morning to nonpregnant female rats at a dose of 5 or 60 mg/kg/day, beginning two weeks before mating and continuing through gestation day (GD) 19. On GD 20, the ...
Panzenboeck Ute - - 2007
The most serious consequence of sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in humans [cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX)] is the development of cholestanol-containing brain xanthomas. The cholestanol in the brain may be derived from the circulation or from 7alpha-hydroxylated intermediates in bile acid synthesis, present at 50- to 250-fold increased levels in plasma. Here, we ...
Ho Gideon - - 2007
Gliosis is a universal response of the brain to almost all types of neural insults, including neurotoxicity, neurodegeneration, viral infection, and stroke. A hallmark of gliotic reaction is the up-regulation of the astrocytic biomarker GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), which often precedes the anatomically apparent damages in the brain. In ...
Makrides Victoria - - 2007
Amino acids are valuable tracers for brain tumor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). In this study the transport of O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-D-tyrosine (D-FET) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was studied with PET in anesthetized piglets and patients after subtotal resection of brain tumors and compared with O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (L-FET) and 3-O-methyl-6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-DOPA (L-OMFD). ...
Louw Cassandra - - 2007
There is, at present, no definitive pre-mortem diagnostic tool for Alzheimer's disease, (AD) which relates to a poor understanding of its etiology. Brains of AD patients contain large amounts of the toxic plaque-forming beta-amyloid1-42 fragment in addition to elevated concentrations of the amino acid L-arginine. This work proposes that lowering ...
Boado Ruben J - - 2007
A murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the human insulin receptor (HIR) has been engineered for use as a brain drug delivery system for transport across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). The HIRMAb was humanized by complementarity determining region (CDR) grafting on the framework regions (FR) of the human B43 IgG ...
Barcelo-Coblijn G G Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58203, - - 2007
Earlier work from our laboratory provided evidence for myelin abnormalities (decreased quantities of proteins associated with myelin compaction, decreased sheath thickness) in cortex and hippocampus of Aldh5a1(-/-) mice, which have a complete ablation of the succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase protein [E.A. Donarum, D.A. Stephan, K. Larkin, E.J. Murphy, M. Gupta, H. ...
Ma Kaizong - - 2007
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 plays an important role in brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) metabolism, and its expression is upregulated in animal models of neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity. Our hypothesis was that brain lipid composition would be altered in COX-2 knockout (COX-2(-/-)) compared with wild-type (COX-2(+/+)) mice, reflecting the important role of COX-2 in ...
Albrecht Jan - - 2007
Glutamine (Gln) abounds in the central nervous system (CNS), and its interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations are at least one order of magnitude higher than of any other amino acid. Gln transport from blood to the brain is insufficient to meet the demand of the brain tissues for this ...
Bough Kristopher J - - 2007
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broadly effective treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. Despite nearly a century of use, the mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy remain unknown. In this review, we present one intersecting view of how the KD may exert its anticonvulsant activity against the backdrop of several seemingly ...
Sharma Hari Shanker - - 2007
This review is focused on the possible interaction between amino acid neurotransmitters and opioid receptors in hyperthermia-induced brain dysfunction. A balance between excitatory and inhibitory amino acids appears to be necessary for normal brain function. Increased excitotoxicity and a decrease in inhibitory amino acid neurotransmission in hyperthermia are associated with ...
Killian Dennis M - - 2007
We describe a novel strategy to achieve high affinity recognition for the specific, cerebrovascular large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT1) isoform by covalent coupling of small molecules to the amino acid, L-cysteine (L-Cys). L-Cys (as the carrier) was covalently attached via a disulfide bond to either 6-mercaptopurine or 2-methyl-1-propanethiol (IBM) ...
Tanaka Hiroyuki - - 2007
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play critical roles in excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system. NMDARs need D-serine for their channel activities in various brain regions. In mammalian brains, D-serine is produced from L-serine by serine racemase and degraded by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) to 3-hydroxypyruvate. In avian organs, ...
Jolliet Pascale - - 2007
PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to determine the ability of some antiemetic compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thereby to determine possible side effects of compounds for the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: We compared the brain penetration of some antiemetic compounds using an in ...
Ozmen Ismail - - 2007
It is well known that oxidative stress damages biomolecules such as DNA and lipids. No study is available on the morphine-induced oxidative damage and fatty acids changes in brain and spinal tissues. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of morphine on the concentrations and compositions of ...
Schuck Patrícia Fernanda - - 2007
Growing evidence indicates that some metabolites derived from the kynurenine pathway, the major route of L-tryptophan catabolism, are involved in the neurotoxicity associated with several brain disorders, such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (GAI). Considering that the pathophysiology of the ...
Win-Shwe Tin-Tin - - 2007
Toluene, a widely used aromatic organic solvent, has been well characterized as a neurotoxic chemical. Although the neurobehavioral effects of toluene have been studied substantially, the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. Hippocampus, which is one of the limbic areas of brain associated with neuronal plasticity, and learning and memory ...
Gutiérrez Ana María - - 2007
The aim of this study was to examine the fatty acid composition and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation (LP) of mitochondria and microsomes obtained from liver, heart and brain of Lonchura striata. The percentage of total unsaturated fatty acid was approximately 30-60% in the organelles from all tissues studied. Brain mitochondria and ...
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