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Chang Chia-Yu - - 2009
The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body ...
Lee Hyun-Sun - - 2009
In the present study, the anti-stress effects of yeast hydrolysate (YH) were investigated. The YH consisted of crude carbohydrate (23.6%) and crude protein (68.3%) with low contents of crude ash (3.1%) and crude fat (0.3%). Also, acidic amino acids (glutamic acid + aspartic acid) were present in large quantities (14.2 ...
Maren Stephen S Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043, USA. - - 2009
The amygdala is a brain region that coordinates fear responses to a variety of threats. Ziemann et al. (2009) now show that acid-sensing channels in the amygdala mediate fear responses that accompany inhalation of carbon dioxide, suggesting that aberrant chemosensation may underlie anxiety disorders associated with a fear of suffocation.
Zain Zainiharyati M - - 2010
D-serine has been implicated as a brain messenger, promoting not only neuronal signalling but also synaptic plasticity. Thus, a sensitive tool for D-serine monitoring in brain is required to understand the mechanisms of D-serine release from glia cells. A biosensor for direct fixed potential amperometric monitoring of D-serine incorporating mammalian ...
Ruge John R - - 2009
5-Aminolevulinic acid has been used successfully to facilitate resection of adult malignant gliomas. The authors report their experience in the treatment of a 9-year-old girl who underwent fluorescence-guided resection of a right temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma using 5-aminolevulinic acid. Intraoperatively, the residual tumor fluoresced, allowing for better visualization. No serious ...
Jantzie Lauren L - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a common clinical occurrence. Recently, much evidence has been gathered to suggest that oxygen free radicals are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-reoxygenation injury through the initiation and propagation of toxic cascades including glutamate excitotoxicity and the manifestation of post-HI neurologic disorders. Following HI, excessive ...
Skvorak Kristen J KJ Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA; Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, - - 2009
Skvorak et al. [1] demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of HTx in a murine model of iMSUD, confirming significant metabolic improvement and survival. To determine the effect of HTx on extrahepatic organs, we examined the metabolic effects of HTx in brain from iMSUD animals. Amino acid analysis revealed that HTx corrected ...
Krishnamurthy Rajanikant G RG Division of Cerebrovascular Diseases and Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, - - 2009
Asiatic acid, a triterpenoid derivative from Centella asiatica, has shown biological effects such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and protection against glutamate- or beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity. We investigated the neuroprotective effect of asiatic acid in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischemia. Various doses of asiatic acid (30, 75, or 165 mg/kg) were ...
Desino Kelly E - - 2009
A variety of approaches have been taken to improve the brain penetration of pharmaceutical agents. The amphipathic character of a compound can improve its interaction with the lipid bilayer within cell membranes, and as a result improve permeability. Fatty acid chains or lipoamino acids of various lengths were attached to ...
Higashino Hideaki - - 2009
Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) used as a model of essential hypertension cause a high incidence of brain stroke on the course of hypertension. Incidences and sizes of brain lesions are known to relate to the astrocyte activities. Therefore, relation between brain damage and the expression profile of the astrocytes ...
Spector Reynold - - 2009
In the last 40 years, especially with the application of new neurochemical and molecular biologic techniques, there has been an explosive progress in understanding how nutrients are transported across the blood-brain barrier and choroid plexus into brain and CSF, and how nutrient homeostasis in brain is achieved. In most cases, ...
Glaser S T ST Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5230, USA. - - 2009
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity is known to mediate the tone of endogenous fatty acid amides including the endocannabinoid anandamide. FAAH is a potential therapeutic target because genetic or pharmacological ablation of FAAH promotes analgesia and anxiolytic effects without disrupting motor coordination. Little is known about the endogenous temporal ...
Sreekala S - - 2009
The effect of two different doses (1 microg and 50 microg Se/100 g body wt) of selenium on quinolinic acid toxicity was investigated in rat's brain. Male albino rats were maintained for 60 days as follows: (1) control group (normal diet), (2) Quinolinic acid group (55 microg/100 g body wt)/day, ...
Okayama Satoshi - - 2009
The CRNP5 variant of Borna disease virus (BDV) has stronger pathogenesis than the CRP3 variant in which only 4 nucleotides in the whole genome are different. The CRP3 is produced by 3 passages in rat brains of BDV, whereas the CRNP5 is produced by 5 passages in mouse brains after ...
Oja Simo S - - 2009
The release of neurotransmitters and modulators has been studied mostly using labeled preloaded compounds. For several reasons, however, the estimated release may not reliably reflect the release of endogenous compounds. The basal and K(+)-evoked release of the neuroactive endogenous amino acids GABA, glycine, taurine, L-glutamate and L-aspartate was now studied ...
Green Pnina - - 2009
The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat is a genetic animal model of depression. Following recent findings that the brain fatty acid composition of FSL is characterised by increased arachidonic acid (AA), we used electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and (1)H-NMR to examine lipid species in different brain areas. Cholesterol and sphingolipids ...
Dirix C E H - - 2009
To study the potential associations between fetal brain functions and the early essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (ePUFA) status, fetal learning and memory were assessed by repeated habituation rate measurements (HR) in fetuses of 30, 32, 34 or 36 weeks gestational age (GA). HR tests were repeated 10 min later. Both ...
Fetissov Sergueï O - - 2009
Patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS1) often display high titers of autoantibodies (autoAbs) directed against aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Neurological symptoms, including stiff-man syndrome and cerebellar ataxia, can occur in subjects with high levels of GAD ...
Rumschik Sean M - - 2009
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an important polyanion needed for ATP synthesis and bone formation. As it is found at millimolar levels in plasma, it is usually incorporated as a constituent of artificial CSF formulations for maintaining brain slices. In this paper, we show that Pi limits the extracellular zinc concentration ...
van Spronsen F J - - 2009
In phenylketonuria, mental retardation is prevented by a diet that severely restricts natural protein and is supplemented with a phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture. The result is an almost normal outcome, although some neuropsychological disturbances remain. The pathology underlying cognitive dysfunction in phenylketonuria is unknown, although it is clear that the ...
Tan Bo - - 2009
Great effort has been devoted to characterize signaling lipids in central nervous system. This has led to a search for novel strategies to characterize hitherto unknown lipid compositions. Here we developed two methods, one for identification and one for quantification, for N-acyl amino acids, a novel lipid family. The identification ...
Agale Sonali - - 2010
There is increasing interest in the role of developmental programming; however, the impact on fetal oxidative stress and brain fatty acid levels has been relatively unexplored. Recent reports have shown that caloric restriction regimens in adult animals reduce the occurrence of chronic diseases by reducing the oxidative stress and altering ...
Wang Bing - - 2009
The rapid growth of infant brains places an exceptionally high demand on the supply of nutrients from the diet, particularly for preterm infants. Sialic acid (Sia) is an essential component of brain gangliosides and the polysialic acid (polySia) chains that modify neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM). Sia levels are high ...
Yao Li-Yun - - 2009
A series of lipoamino acids were synthesized and their neuroprotective effect against brain ischemia induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on rat cerebral slices was evaluated. Among these compounds, N-stearoyl-L-tyrosine (4), N-stearoyl-L-serine (5) and N-stearoyl-L-threonine (6) exhibited good neuroprotective activity. We found that the neuroprotective activity of lipoamino acids depended on ...
Fisher Hans - - 2009
Given the very difficult odyssey of my early years, who could have imagined the incredible and successful journey that constituted my life path after age 13? I was born into a Jewish family in Breslau, Germany, right before the rise of Nazism and Hitler's election. After Kristallnacht, when my father ...
Wennekes Tom - - 2009
The discovery of the glycosphingolipids is generally attributed to Johan L. W. Thudichum, who in 1884 published on the chemical composition of the brain. In his studies he isolated several compounds from ethanolic brain extracts which he coined cerebrosides. He subjected one of these, phrenosin (now known as galactosylceramide), to ...
Napolitano Carmela - - 2009
As a novel example of improved entry of poorly delivered drugs into the brain by means of nutrient conjugates, L-carnitine was conjugated to nipecotic acid and the capacity to antagonize PTZ-induced convulsions of this novel entity was evaluated.
Roser Martin - - 2009
Time- and dose-dependent measurements of metabolites of galactose (with glucose as control) in various organs of rats are discussed. Not only the liver but especially the brain and to a lesser extent the muscles also have the capacity to take up and metabolize galactose. Primarily, the concentrations of UDP-galactose, a ...
Gama Clarissa Severino - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The neurotrophins, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative markers have reciprocal interactions. This report verified in chronically stable medicated schizophrenic patients whether there are correlations between the serum levels of superoxide dismutase, a key enzyme in the antioxidant defense, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a direct index of lipid peroxidation, and brain-derived ...
Samanta S K - - 2008
The present study was carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the tissue extract of a marine snail Telescopium telescopium, collected from the coastal regions of West Bengal India. On extensive pharmacological screening, it was found that the biological extract of T. telescopium (TTE) produced significant central nervous system ...
Wyffels Leonie - - 2009
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is one of the main enzymes responsible for terminating the signaling of endocannabinoids, including anandamide. This paper is the first report of the synthesis, [123I]-labeling and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of anandamide analogues as potential metabolic trapping radioligands for in vivo evaluation of ...
Baran Halina - - 2009
The therapeutic effect of Cerebrolysin in the treatment of dementia and brain injury has been proposed because of neurotrophic properties of this compound. Since an increased kynurenine metabolism has been documented in several brain pathologies including dementia the aim of the present study was to investigate the biochemical properties of ...
Saitoh Makiko - - 2009
To elucidate the neuropathological mechanism of Zellweger syndrome (ZS), we studied changes in the molecular species of glycerophospholipids in the cerebral tissue by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS). First, we estimated the amount of plasmalogens by TLC. Plasmalogen-type phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) accounted for 30% of ...
Gliddon Catherine M - - 2009
ASCT2 is an ASC (alanine-, serine-, cysteine-preferring) neutral amino acid exchanger that may regulate CNS function by transporting amino acid substrates including L-serine, L-cysteine, L-glutamine, L-glutamate and D-serine. Despite the potentially important role of ASCT2 in influencing metabolic and signaling functions of these amino acids in brain, there has been ...
Pifferi Fabien - - 2008
Changes in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), both in children on the high fat ketogenic diet (KD) for seizure control and in rats on a KD enriched in PUFA, raise the possibility that increased brain arachidonic acid (ARA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may contribute to better seizure control. ...
Malek A - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Magnesium aspartate hydrochloride (Magnesiocard, Mg-Asp-HCl) is proposed as a substitute of magnesium sulfate for the treatment of preeclampsia and premature labor. After an i.v. administration of a dose equivalent to that used in the treatment of preeclampsia to nonpregnant volunteers, a 10-fold increase of aspartic acid (Asp) over the ...
Lee Eun-Sook ES Department of Neurology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, United States. - - 2008
Excessive methylation may be a precipitating factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) since S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the endogenous methyl donor, induces PD-like changes when injected into the rat brain. The hydrolysis of the methyl ester bond of the methylated proteins produces methanol. Since methanol is oxidized into formaldehyde, and formaldehyde into formic ...
Giannola L I - - 2008
Dopamine delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) undergoes the permeability limitations of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which is a selective interface that excludes most water-soluble molecules from entering the brain. Neutral amino acids permeate the BBB by specific transport systems. Condensation of dopamine with neutral amino acids could afford potential ...
Czeredys Magdalena - - 2008
Brain capillary endothelial cells control the uptake and efflux from the brain of many hydrophilic compounds due to highly specialized transporters often localized in a polarized way. Localization of Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent amino acid and carnitine transporter B(0,+) (ATB(0,+)) was studied in a co-culture of bovine brain capillary endothelial cells ...
Chen Chuck T - - 2008
The brain is particularly enriched in glycerophospholipids with either arachidonic or docosahexaenoic acid esterified in the stereospecifically numbered-2 position. In this paper, we review how combining a kinetic approach to study the uptake and turnover of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids within brain phospholipids of unanesthetized rats, along with chronic administration ...
Gambarota Giulio - - 2008
Glycine is an amino acid present in mammalian brain, where it acts as an inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter. The two detectable protons of glycine give rise to a singlet at 3.55 ppm that overlaps with the more intense myo-inositol resonances, and its measurement has traditionally required specific editing efforts. The ...
Müller Adrienne C - - 2008
Viral diseases of the brain may induce changes in neurotransmitter synthesis and metabolism. In experimental herpes simplex encephalitis, brain serotonin is reduced, whilst it's major metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and turnover is increased. It is well established that reduced levels of brain monoamines, serotonin and norepinephrine may contribute to the ...
Hirooka Yoshitaka - - 2008
The involvement of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The brain contains a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in its cell membranes. These fatty acids are targets of oxygen-derived free radicals. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an indirect marker of oxidative stress, are ...
Yoshimura Tohru - - 2008
D-serine serves as a co-agonist of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor in mammalian brains, and its behavior is probably related to neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. D-Serine is synthesized by a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent serine racemase. In this minireview, we provide a detailed discussion on ...
Sutherland Garnette R - - 2008
There is a misconception that hypoglycemic nerve cell death occurs easily, and can happen in the absence of coma. In fact, coma is the prerequisite for neuronal death, which occurs via metabolic excitatory amino acid release. The focus on nerve cell death does not explain how most brain neurons and ...
Khan Mushfiquddin M Department of Pediatrics, Darby Children Research Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. - - 2008
In cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD), an accumulation of very long chain fatty acids stems from a defect of the peroxisomal ALD protein (ALDP) and results in the loss of myelin/oligodendrocytes, induction of inflammatory disease and mental deterioration. In brain white matter of cALD patients, we observed not only increased levels of ...
Hall Adrian - - 2008
We describe the discovery of a series of pyrazole amide EP(1) receptor antagonists with good aqueous solubility and CNS penetration. In order to achieve solubility we investigated the incorporation of a basic group in the region of the molecule previously occupied by a carboxylic acid, which was known to be ...
Eichler Florian S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) protein cause accumulation of unbranched saturated very-long-chain fatty acids, particularly in brain and adrenal cortex. In humans, the genetic defect causes progressive inflammatory demyelination in the brain, where very-long-chain fatty acids accumulate within phospholipid fractions such as lysophosphatidylcholine. METHODS: To address mechanisms of ...
Loftspring M C MC Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0521, - - 2008
We report a novel staining technique for human brain slices that distinguishes clearly gray from white matter. Previously described techniques using either Prussian blue (Berlin blue) or phthalocyanine dyes usually have included a hot phenol pretreatment to prevent white matter staining. The technique we describe here does not require hot ...
Titsworth W Lee WL Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, - - 2008
Secretory phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes which hydrolyze the acyl bond at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids to produce free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. These products are precursors of bioactive eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor (PAF). The hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by PLA(2) is a rate-limiting step ...
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