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Angelcheva Liudmila L Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-90187, Umeå, - - 2014
Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) is one of several boreal conifer species that can survive at extremely low temperatures (ELTs). When fully acclimated, its tissues can survive immersion in liquid nitrogen. Relatively little is known about the biochemical and biophysical strategies of ELT survival. We profiled needle metabolites using gas chromatography ...
Zeng Wei-Cai WC College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, PR - - 2014
A novel antioxidant polysaccharide (APC) was isolated and characterized from pine needles of Cedrus deodara with the evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity. According to gel filtration chromatography, high performance size exclusion chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, partial acid hydrolysis, periodic acid oxidation, Smith degradation and methylation analysis, APC was ...
Shpatov Alexander V AV Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Lavrentyev Ave. 9, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia. - - 2013
Despite a long history of the use of Pinus thunbergii for technical, medicinal, agricultural, and other purposes, the composition of low-volatile metabolites in the used parts of the plant has been poorly investigated. We report here on the distribution of lipophilic extractive compounds in different parts of the shoot system ...
Wajs-Bonikowska Anna - - 2013
Extracts and essential oils from seeds as well as essential oils from cone scales and needles with twigs of the Abies koreana population were studied. An analysis of Korean fir essential oils allowed us to determine 147 volatile compounds. The identified compounds constituted 97-99% of the seed, cone and needle ...
Shpatov Alexander V - - 2013
Hexane extracts of needles and defoliated twigs of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel from two distant populations, located in the southwest and the east (i.e., Lake Baikal region and Sakhalin Island) of the species distribution range were studied by GC/MS analysis. Composition and retention indices of major components were determined. A ...
Hodson L - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adipose tissue (AT) fatty acid (FA) composition is considered to be the gold standard long-term biomarker of dietary fatty acid intake. Typically this measurement is made directly from samples collected via large-needle-biopsy or incision. However, with growing interest in the role of AT in relation to health, ...
Qidwai Tabish - - 2012
Plasmodium falciparum a causitive agent of malaria is the third most prevalent factor for mortility in the world. Falciparum malaria is an example of evolutionary and balancing selection. Because of mutation and natural selection, the parasite have developed resistance to most of the existing drugs. Under such circumstances, there is ...
Fontanilla C V - - 2011
There is currently very limited effective pharmacological treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recent evidence suggests that caffeic acid phenethyl ester has strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-neuronal death properties; thus, the present study tested the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in mice expressing a mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD1(G93A)) linked to ...
Tokunaga Satoshi - - 2011
Cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (CD-RAP)/Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), which appears abundantly in hypertrophic cartilage at the stage of endochondral ossification, is also detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following spinal cord injury. In this study, the localization of the CD-RAP/MIA molecule in the normal tissues of the spine and brain obtained ...
Nasir M N - - 2011
The asiatic acid, a triterpenoids isolated from Centella asiatica was used to delineate its inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) properties, excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) and locomotor activity. This study is consistent with asiatic acid having an effect on AChE, a selective GABA(B) receptor agonist and no sedative effect on ...
Schlüter Agatha - - 2012
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disorder characterized by axonopathy and demyelination in the central nervous system and adrenal insufficiency. Main X-ALD phenotypes are: (i) an adult adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) with axonopathy in spinal cords, (ii) cerebral AMN with brain demyelination (cAMN) and (iii) a childhood variant, cALD, characterized by severe ...
Friedrich Timo - - 2012
Analysis of zebrafish mutants that demonstrate abnormal locomotive behavior can elucidate the molecular requirements for neural network function and provide new models of human disease. Here, we show that zebrafish quetschkommode (que) mutant larvae exhibit a progressive locomotor defect that culminates in unusual nose-to-tail compressions and an inability to swim. ...
Amaya Kensey R - - 2011
Fatty acids are central to brain metabolism and signaling, but their distributions within complex brain circuits have been difficult to study. Here we applied an emerging technique, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), to image specific fatty acids in a favorable model system for chemical analyses of brain circuits, the ...
Zinnanti William J - - 2011
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was first recognized as an inherited lethal encephalopathy beginning in the first week of life and associated with an unusual odor in the urine of affected children. It was later confirmed as a deficiency of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), which is the second step ...
De Franceschi Giorgia - - 2011
The interaction of brain lipids with α-synuclein may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an abundant fatty acid of neuronal membranes, and it is presents at high levels in brain areas with α-synuclein inclusions of patients with PD. In animal models, ...
Tian Ye - - 2011
To examine the changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the hippocampus after whole brain irradiation of adult rats. Forty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-220 g weight and 6-8 weeks) were divided into the 9 irradiation subgroups, sham, and control groups. Their whole brain was irradiated by a single dose of ...
Fork Christian - - 2011
OAT2 (human gene symbol SLC22A7) is a member of the SLC22 family of transport proteins. In rat, the principal site of expression of OAT2 is the sinusoidal membrane domain of hepatocytes. The particular physiological function of OAT2 in liver has been unresolved so far. Here, we have used the strategy ...
Kiso Yoshinobu - - 2011
Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are major constituents of cell membranes and play important roles in preserving physiological and psychological function. Recently, data from several studies have indicated that impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP), the process underlying plasticity in synaptic connections, are associated with a decrease in membrane ...
Farias Santiago E - - 2011
BACKGROUND:: Enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids leads to the formation of biologically active products known as lipid mediators. In the brain, lipid mediators play an important role in supporting homeostasis and normal function. Thus, levels of these metabolites in normal and pathologic conditions in the brain are ...
Prata Diana P DP Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK. - - 2012
The D-Amino acid oxidase activator (G72 or DAOA) is believed to play a key role in the regulation of central glutamatergic transmission which is seen to be altered in psychosis. It is thought to regulate D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), which metabolizes D-serine, a co-agonist of NMDA-type glutamate receptors and to ...
Vaka Siva Ram Kiran - - 2011
The potential of intranasally administered carnosic acid to enhance the endogenous levels of neurotrophins [nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor] in the brain was investigated. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was used to enhance the aqueous solubility of carnosic acid. The effect of different concentrations of chitosan on the permeation of carnosic ...
Bollam Swetha - - 2011
The aim of our present work was to develop indinavir O/W submicron lipid emulsions (SLEs) loaded with lipoamino acids for specific delivery to brain. Tetradecyl aspartic acid (A) and decyl glutamic acid (G) loaded stable SLEs of indinavir having a mean size range of 210-220 nm and average zeta potential ...
Hage Maha El - - 2011
This study was performed to analyze the metabolic fate of a high concentration (5mM) of glutamine and glutamate in rat brain slices and the participation of these amino acids in the glutamine-glutamate cycle. For this, brain slices were incubated for 60min with [3-(13)C]glutamine or [3-(13)C]glutamate. Tissue plus medium extracts were ...
de Souza Amanda Santos - - 2011
Undernutrition still affects mothers and children in developing countries and thus remains the major focus of nutritional intervention efforts. Neuronal development, which classically includes neurogenesis, migration, maturation, and synapse refinement, begins in utero and continues into the early postnatal period. These processes are not only genetically regulated but also clearly ...
Takahashi Yusuke - - 2011
13-cis Retinoic acid (13cRA), a stereoisomeric form of retinoic acid, is naturally generated in the body and is also used clinically to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia, some skin diseases and cancer. Furthermore, it has been suggested that 13cRA modulates brain neurochemical systems because increased 13cRA levels are correlated with depression ...
Kaul Swetha - - 2011
Disulfiram has been used as a deterrent in the treatment of alcohol abuse for almost 60 years. Our laboratory has shown that a disulfiram metabolite, S-(N,N-diethylcarbamoyl) glutathione (carbamathione), is formed from disulfiram and appears in the brain after the administration of disulfiram. Carbamathione does not inhibit aldehyde dehydrogenase but has ...
Tachikawa Masanori - - 2011
Guanidino compounds (GCs), such as creatine, phosphocreatine, guanidinoacetic acid, creatinine, methylguanidine, guanidinosuccinic acid, γ-guanidinobutyric acid, β-guanidinopropionic acid, guanidinoethane sulfonic acid and α-guanidinoglutaric acid, are present in the mammalian brain. Although creatine and phosphocreatine play important roles in energy homeostasis in the brain, accumulation of GCs may induce epileptic discharges and ...
Brodney Michael A - - 2010
A novel series of tetralin containing amino imidazoles, derived from modification of the corresponding phenyl acetic acid derivatives is described. Replacement of the amide led to identification of a potent series of tetralin-amino imidazoles with robust central efficacy. The reduction of brain Aβ in guinea pigs in the absence of ...
Chen Chuck T - - 2011
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) is being explored as a therapy in neurological diseases and disorders. Although it is known that palmitate is the most abundant fatty acid in the brain while EPA is one of the lowest, the mechanism by which the brain maintains this balance is unclear. Therefore, to ...
Navarro C - - 2011
Transport across the blood-brain barrier is a relevant factor in the pharmacological action of many drugs and endogenous substances whose action site is located in brain. An overactive P-gp has been suggested to be of relevance for the resistance of the HPA system to be suppressed by glucocorticoids, which is ...
Mayurasakorn Korapat - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With important effects on neuronal lipid composition, neurochemical signaling and cerebrovascular pathobiology, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, may emerge as a neuroprotective agent against cerebrovascular disease. This paper examines pathways for DHA accretion in brain and evidence for possible roles of DHA in prophylactic ...
Barcelos Raquel Cristine Silva - - 2010
Fish oil (FO) supplementation could cause an increase in the concentration of plasmatic free fatty acids and, consequently, could compete with pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (ARA) derived from brain biomembranes metabolism in the cerebrospinal fluid. Essential fatty acids (EFA) (n-3) have been reported by their antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, and therefore ...
Plaschke Konstanze - - 2010
An insulin-resistant brain state (IRBS) was induced by intracerebroventricular application of the diabetogenic substance streptozotocin (STZ) to investigate changes in cerebral fatty acids. Six weeks after the first STZ injection, increases were found in the concentrations of palmitic and stearic acid in temporal cortex; and of palmitic acid in entorhinal ...
Cole Greg M GM Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. - - 2010
Aging contributes to physiological decline and vulnerability to disease. In the brain, even with minimal neuronal loss, aging increases oxidative damage, inflammation, demyelination, impaired processing, and metabolic deficits, particularly during pathological brain aging. In this review, the possible role of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the prevention of age-related disruption of ...
Lamaziere Antonin - - 2011
On a per-weight basis, the brain is the organ richest in lipids, including a remarkable proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega 3 series, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. The cerebral effects of exogenous DHA likely depend on its degree of incorporation into neuronal phospholipids and ...
Eisert Regina - - 2011
The domestic hypercarnivores cat and mink have a higher protein requirement than other domestic mammals. This has been attributed to adaptation to a hypercarnivorous diet and subsequent loss of the ability to downregulate amino acid catabolism. A quantitative analysis of brain glucose requirements reveals that in cats on their natural ...
Long Jonathan Z - - 2011
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates amidated lipid transmitters, including the endocannabinoid anandamide and its N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) congeners and transient receptor potential channel agonists N-acyl taurines (NATs). Using both the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 and FAAH(-/-) mice, we present a global analysis of changes in NAE and NAT metabolism caused ...
Kanno Yuri - - 2010
ABA plays important roles in many aspects of seed development, including accumulation of storage compounds, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, induction of seed dormancy and suppression of precocious germination. Quantification of ABA in the F(1) and F(2) populations originated from crosses between the wild type and an ABA-deficient mutant aba2-2 demonstrated ...
Tarantino Giovanni G Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Italy. - - 2010
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a further expression of metabolic syndrome, strictly linked to obesity and diabetes mellitus, is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), elevated serum levels of free fatty acids and fatty infiltration of the liver, which is known as hepatic steatosis. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a key feature of ...
Zhang Yifei - - 2010
The dialogue between gut hormone, bile acids, and the brain plays an important role in energy homeostasis and the onset of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present review focuses on: (i) bile acid metabolism and the role of bile acids in the regulation of both glucose homeostasis and the ...
Saba Alessandro - - 2010
3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) is a novel relative of thyroid hormone, able to interact with specific G protein-coupled receptors, known as trace amine-associated receptors. Significant functional effects are produced by exogenous T1AM, including a negative inotropic and chronotropic effect in cardiac preparations. This work was aimed at estimating endogenous T1AM concentration in ...
Bento Gilberto - - 2010
Morphological novelties are lineage-specific traits that serve new functions. Developmental polyphenisms have been proposed to be facilitators of phenotypic evolution, but little is known about the interplay between the associated genetic and environmental factors. Here, we study two alternative morphologies in the mouth of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus and the ...
Freeman John L - - 2010
The molecular mechanisms responsible for selenium (Se) tolerance and hyperaccumulation were studied in the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) by comparing it with the related secondary Se accumulator Stanleya albescens using a combination of physiological, structural, genomic, and biochemical approaches. S. pinnata accumulated 3.6-fold more Se and was tolerant to ...
Ida Takanori - - 2010
Ghrelin, a novel peptide modified by n-octanoic acid at the third serine residue (Ser(3)), serves as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) 1a. The octanoyl modification at Ser(3) is essential for receptor binding or growth hormone release. Here, we report the purification of caprine ghrelin and ...
Sangiao-Alvarellos S - - 2010
Current evidence demonstrates that the stomach-derived hormone ghrelin, a potent growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, promotes feeding through a mechanism involving the short-term activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn results in decreased hypothalamic levels of malonyl-CoA and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity. Despite this evidence, no ...
Buhl M - - 2010
Critical illness and severe inflammation are catabolic states characterised by breakdown of tissue and protein stores, by increased levels of free fatty acids, and by insulin resistance. These metabolic features contribute to morbidity and mortality. Growth hormone and insulin are the two major anabolic hormones. The present study was designed ...
Myler Heather A - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: The ability to quantify systemic concentrations of protein therapeutics is complicated by the presence of endogenous analyte, specific binding proteins, and nonspecific matrix components in biological matrices (Lee & Ma, 2007). Further complications can be introduced following pegylation whereby polyethylene glycol (PEG) impedes epitope recognition. Due to substantial interference ...
Liu Shuhua - - 2010
Juvenile hormone (JH) plays key roles in both metamorphosis and adult reproductive processes. Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) is thought to be an important enzyme in the JH biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing methylation of farnesoic acid (FA) to methyl farnesoate (MF). A full-length cDNA (NlFAMeT) encoding a 299 amino acid putative FAMeT ...
Peng Qi - - 2009
The dynamic state of endogenous hormone content in soybean seedlings was investigated for a further demonstration of alleviating the damage of the ultraviolet ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation in the La(III)-treated soybean seedlings under UV-B stress. Using hydroponics culture, the effects of lanthanum(III) on the contents of endogenous hormone under elevated ultraviolet-B ...
Selman Helmy - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) with different glycosylation patterns on oocyte quality and clinical outcomes in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment program. DESIGN: Prospective randomized, open-label, clinical study. SETTING: Assisted reproduction center. PATIENT(S): One hundred eighty-eight infertile couples undergoing assisted fertilization treatment. INTERVENTION(S): All participants ...
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