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Smith Roy G - - 2009
The octanoylated peptide hormone ghrelin regulates episodic growth hormone release and energy balance. Work in genetically modified mice (Kirchner et al., 2009) now shows that in vivo activity of ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), responsible for ghrelin octanoylation, decreases during fasting but increases after ingesting medium-chain fatty acid triglycerides (MCT).
Verheesen R H - - 2009
Human physiology is supposed to be a complex interaction of regulating processes, in which hormones, genes, their proteins and apoptosis are thought to play a dominant role. We hypothesize that regulation of physiological processes is mainly influenced by amino acids and micronutrients with hormones, proteins, apoptosis and gene modifications being ...
Bloom Michael S - - 2010
Thyroid hormones play critical roles in human neurodevelopment and adult neurocognitive function. Persistent organohalogen pollutants, such as perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), may interfere with thyroid homeostasis and thus exposures to these compounds might represent risk factors for neurologic and cognitive abnormalities. In this study, serum specimens collected from thirty-one licensed anglers ...
Ahkami Amir H - - 2009
Adventitious root formation (ARF) in the model plant Petunia hybrida cv. Mitchell has been analysed in terms of anatomy, gene expression, enzymatic activities and levels of metabolites. This study focuses on the involvement of wound response and primary metabolism. Microscopic techniques were complemented with targeted transcript, enzyme and metabolite profiling ...
Schubert Mitchell L - - 2008
Although gastric acid is not essential for life, it facilitates the digestion of protein and the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B(12), and thyroxin. It also prevents bacterial overgrowth and enteric infection. Gastric acid secretion must be precisely regulated, as too much acid may overwhelm mucosal defense mechanisms and lead ...
Menegaz Danusa - - 2009
1,25D3 is critical for the maintenance of normal reproduction since reduced fertility is observed in male rats on a vitamin D-deficient diet. Vitamin D-deficient male rats have incomplete spermatogenesis and degenerative testicular changes. In the present study we have examined the ionic involvement and intracellular messengers of the stimulatory effect ...
Mayoral Jaime G JG Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199, - - 2009
A juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) was isolated as an abundant EST in a library of the corpora allata of the adult female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Its full length cDNA encodes a 278-aa protein that has 43% amino acid identity with BmJHAMT, a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase previously cloned from ...
Ding Yiliang - - 2008
Nodulation is tightly regulated in legumes to ensure appropriate levels of nitrogen fixation without excessive depletion of carbon reserves. This balance is maintained by intimately linking nodulation and its regulation with plant hormones. It has previously been shown that ethylene and jasmonic acid (JA) are able to regulate nodulation and ...
Jadhav Ashok S - - 2008
Developing seeds of Brassica napus contain significant levels of ABA and products of oxidation at the 7'- and 9'-methyl groups of ABA, 7'- and 9'-hydroxy ABA, as well stable products of oxidation of the 8'-methyl group, phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid. To probe the biological roles of the initially formed ...
Yonezawa Tomo - - 2008
Hormone-sensitive lipase was firstly identified as an epinephrine-induced lipase in adipocyte. HSL mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in cloned bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and bovine lactating mammary gland. Saturated fatty acids (stearate and palmitate), but not unsaturated fatty acids (oleate and linoleate) induced up-regulation of HSL mRNA in a ...
Serrani Juan Carlos - - 2008
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit-set and growth depend on gibberellins (GAs). Auxins, another kind of hormone, can also induce parthenocarpic fruit growth in tomato, although their possible interaction with GAs is unknown. We showed that fruit development induced by the auxins indole-3-acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were significantly reduced ...
Takahashi Hiroko - - 2008
Uridine 5'-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are part of a major elimination pathway for endobiotics and xenobiotics. UGT1A9 is a UGT that catalyses the conjugation of endogenous oestrogenic and thyroid hormones, acetaminophen, SN-38 (an active metabolite of irinotecan) and phenols. UGT1A9 is the only isoform that catalyses the glucuronidation of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) ...
Yang Jing J Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9046, - - 2008
The discovery of ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) opens the way to the design of drugs that block the attachment of an octanoyl group to the appetite-stimulating peptide hormone ghrelin, potentially preventing obesity. Here, we develop a biochemical assay that uses membranes from insect cells infected with baculovirus encoding mouse GOAT. The ...
Jensen Allan Astrup - - 2008
In recent years, polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have increasingly been used as surfactants in various industry- and consumer products, because of their unique properties as repellents of dirt, water and oils. The most well-known PFCs are perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and their derivatives belonging to the group of ...
Zhu Thant S - - 2008
A simple and reproducible demyelination-remyelination system was developed with cocultures of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and Schwann cells, and the effects of steroid hormones were examined in this system. Addition of forskolin to the cocultures induced demyelination and lower levels of myelin protein P0 expression were seen in ...
Pinto Wilson - - 2009
Aromatic amino acids (AAs, phenylalanine and tyrosine) may be specifically required during fish metamorphosis, since they are the precursors of thyroid hormones which regulate this process. This project attempted to evaluate aromatic AA metabolism during the ontogenesis of fish species with a marked (Senegalese sole; Solea senegalensis) and a less ...
Yang Jing J Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2008
Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid, appetite-stimulating peptide hormone secreted by the food-deprived stomach. Serine-3 of ghrelin is acylated with an eight-carbon fatty acid, octanoate, which is required for its endocrine actions. Here, we identify GOAT (Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase), a polytopic membrane-bound enzyme that attaches octanoate to serine-3 of ghrelin. Analysis ...
Moreno Maria - - 2008
The processes and pathways mediating the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are all affected by thyroid hormones (THs) in almost all tissues. Particular attention has been devoted by scientists to the effects of THs on lipid metabolism. Among others, effects related to cholesterol, lipid handling, and cardiac performance ...
Kanmegne, G; ;
The present study was carried out to investigate laboratory germination responses of six collections of Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of soaking seeds for three days in cool distilled water (control), in cool distilled water supplemented with 10-4 M of either naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), ...
Michell A R - - 2008
The concept of a regulatory link between the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys is not new. The idea that dietary intake and composition can affect renal function is perhaps self-evident, but defining this relationship, especially in terms of sensors and effectors, is proving more difficult. That the gastrointestinal tract can exert ...
Xu Xiao-Chao - - 2008
A recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) fragment (Gly1-Gln26-rhPTH(1-34)) which contains two amino acids substitutions (Gly1 and Gln26) was acquired through Escherichia coli expression system using a soluble fusion protein strategy. The soluble fusion protein MBP-Gly1-Gln26-rhPTH(1-34) was harvested after purification by Phenyl-Sepharose F.F and Q-Sepharose F.F chromatographies. Following tobacco etch virus ...
Ghanem Michel Edmond - - 2008
Leaf senescence is one of the most limiting factors to plant productivity under salinity. Both the accumulation of specific toxic ions (e.g. Na+) and changes in leaf hormone relations are involved in the regulation of this process. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Moneymaker) were cultivated for 3 weeks under ...
Pasman Wilrike J - - 2008
Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8) secretion vs. several ...
Acar Cigdem - - 2007
Somatostatin (SST) is a short-lived peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system. The main use of the derivatives of SST is to diagnose diseases related to growth hormone and to use against some forms of cancer that involve growth hormone. Also, SST suppresses gastric acid secretion, gallbladder contractions, and pancreatic ...
Zimmerli Laurent - - 2008
The non-protein amino acid beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) primes Arabidopsis to respond more quickly and strongly to pathogen and osmotic stress. Here, we report that BABA also significantly enhances acquired thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. This thermotolerance was dependent on heat shock protein 101, a critical component of the normal heat-shock response. BABA ...
Cain Christopher D - - 2007
Hormonal regulation of salt excretion and water balance by the kidneys is well documented. Before 1961, it was widely believed that the glomerular filtration rate and the steroid hormone aldosterone controlled sodium balance in the body. In 1961, deWardener et al. [de Wardener HE, Mills IH, Clapham WF, Hayter CJ ...
LeClere Sherry - - 2008
The Zea mays (maize) miniature1 (Mn1) locus encodes the cell wall invertase INCW2, which is localized predominantly in the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL) of developing kernels and catalyzes conversion of sucrose into glucose and fructose. Mutations in Mn1 result in numerous changes that include a small kernel phenotype resulting ...
Sungur Can - - 2007
Auxins, typified by IAA, are a class of plant hormones involved in a wide array of processes including cell division, cell elongation, tissue patterning, phototropism, gravitropism and root development. Despite recent descriptions of the machinery involved in auxin transport and perception, additional regulatory mechanisms and components remain to be identified ...
Chatterjee Sudipta - - 2008
The effect of some plant growth hormones, viz., gibberellic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and kinetin on chitosan production by Rhizopus oryzae in deproteinized whey was studied. Hormones, at different concentrations, increase the mycelial growth by 19-32%. However, increase in chitosan content of the mycelia was relatively small (1.7-14.3%) over ...
Shiao Shin-Hong - - 2008
Anautogenous mosquitoes require blood meals to promote egg development. If adequate nutrients are not obtained during larval development, the resulting "small" sized adult mosquitoes require multiple blood meals for egg development; markedly increasing host-vector contacts and the likelihood of disease transmission. Nutrient-sensitive target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a key ...
Jiang Fan - - 2008
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress signal, which moves in the xylem from the roots to the aerial parts of the plant, where it regulates stomatal movement and the activity of shoot meristems. Root growth-promoting microorganisms in the rhizosphere, lateral ABA flows in the root cortex across apoplastic barriers, ABA ...
Cave T A - - 2007
A case of metabolic epidermal necrosis associated with a pancreatic carcinoma is described. Normoglycaemia, reduced serum fructosamine, and hypoaminoacidaemia were identified. Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglucagonaemia were documented. Immunohistochemistry documented strong tumour expression of both insulin and glucagon supporting combined paraneoplastic production of both hormones by the tumour. Enteral protein and fatty ...
Guo Wen - - 2007
Although fatty acids enhance preadipocyte differentiation in the presence of adequate hormone cocktails, little is known regarding their effects in the absence of these hormones. We have now shown that palmitate, a common long-chain saturated fatty acid, induced apoptosis in both mouse 3T3-L1 and rat primary preadipocytes grown in a ...
de Lange Pieter - - 2007
T(3) regulates energy metabolism by stimulating metabolic rate and decreasing metabolic efficiency. The discovery of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), its homology to UCP1, and regulation by T(3) rendered it a possible molecular determinant of the action of T(3) on energy metabolism, but data are controversial. This controversy may in ...
Nobukuni Takahiro - - 2007
Recent studies have shown that the nutrient input to the mTOR Complex1/S6K1 signaling pathway is mediated by class 3 PI3K or hVps34, the oldest member of the PI3K family. Moreover, studies to date would suggest that during the evolution of multicellular organisms this ancient branch of the pathway was merged ...
Kovács Magdolna - - 2007
GnRH-III was reported to have selective FSH-releasing activity in rats and significant anticancer potency on human breast cancer cells. To improve either of these effects, 14 analogs were synthesized and investigated for FSH/LH stimulation and breast cancer inhibition. Analogs with single amino acid changes in positions 5-7 or 10 showed ...
Sanders Jane - - 2006
The effects of an extensive series of mutations in the TSH receptor (TSHR) leucine-rich domain (LRD) on the ability of thyroid-stimulating monoclonal antibodies (TSMAbs) and TSH to bind to the receptor and stimulate cyclic AMP production in TSHR-transfected CHO cells has been investigated. In addition, the ability of a mouse ...
D'Aniello Antimo - - 2007
D-Aspartic acid (d-Asp), an endogenous amino acid present in vertebrates and invertebrates, plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system, as well as in the development of the nervous system. During the embryonic stage of birds and the early postnatal life of mammals, a transient high concentration of d-Asp takes ...
Conigrave Arthur D - - 2006
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a multimodal sensor for several key nutrients, notably Ca2+ ions and L-amino acids, and is expressed abundantly throughout the gastrointestinal tract. While its role as a Ca2+ ion sensor is well recognized, its physiological significance as an L-amino acid sensor and thus, in the ...
Schroeder Julian I - - 2006
The hormone abscisic acid regulates development and survival of plants in response to environmental stresses. now demonstrate that in response to stress, abscisic acid can be made available via polymerization of a beta-glucosidase enzyme. This enzyme is reported to hydrolyze glucose-conjugated abscisic acid, thus increasing active abscisic acid concentrations.
Ren Huibo - - 2007
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in plant tissues which experience water deficit (stress ABA). This study analysed its accumulation as a function of both synthesis and catabolism in maize tissues. By following the disappearance of the stress ABA when ABA synthesis was blocked by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the ...
Hrdý Ivan - - 2006
The efficacy of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and two JH-mimicking compounds was compared in laboratory experiments with Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi), R. santonensis Feytaud and R. virginicus (Banks). Induction of presoldier, soldier and/or soldier-worker intercaste differentiation was taken as positive response to the treatment. The novel juvenogen, a fatty acid ...
Nolles J A - - 2006
This study examined, whether the postprandial fate of dietary amino acids from different amino acid sources is regulated by the responses of insulin, glucagon, corticosterone and growth hormone (GH). Male Wistar rats were cannulated in the vena jugularis and assigned to dietary groups. The diets contained 21% casein or the ...
Cline Morris G - - 2006
Evidence from pea rms1, Arabidopsis max4 and petunia dad1 mutant studies suggest an unidentified carotenoid-derived/plastid-produced branching inhibitor which moves acropetally from the roots to the shoots and interacts with auxin in the control of apical dominance. Since the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), known to inhibit some growth processes, is ...
Chua Brendon Y - - 2007
We have previously shown that incorporating the lipid moiety dipalmitoyl-S-glyceryl cysteine (Pam2Cys) into peptide structures effectively adjuvants otherwise weak immunogens. In this study lipopeptides based on luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) as a B cell epitope, [B], were synthesised in tandem with a 17-residue T-helper epitope, [T], derived from the ...
Koch Brian T - - 2006
Organochlorine compounds (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, were used on lands adjacent to the Middle Mississippi River (MMR; USA) from 1930 through 1988, and they continue to occur in MMR fish. These compounds are estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic, and they alter hormone production and reception within the brain and ...
Butler Mari - - 2006
The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquitoes. This chemical disrupts normal mosquito development, drastically inhibiting emergence from the pupal to the adult stage. If the presence of methoprene attracts or deters mosquitoes from ovipositing it could have implications for mosquito ...
Ohira Tsuyoshi - - 2006
Recombinant peptides related to vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) of the American lobster Homarus americanus were expressed in bacterial cells, and then purified after being allowed to refold. Biological activities of the recombinant VIHs having an amidated C-terminus (rHoa-VIH-amide) and a free carboxyl-terminus (rHoa-VIH-OH) were examined using an ovarian fragment incubation system ...
Sun Jongho - - 2006
Plant hormones interact at many different levels to form a network of signaling pathways connected by antagonistic and synergistic interactions. Ethylene and jasmonic acid both act to regulate the plant's responsiveness to a common set of biotic stimuli. In addition ethylene has been shown to negatively regulate the plant's response ...
Hinault Charlotte - - 2006
Recently, our knowledge concerning the role of amino acids in signal transduction in mammals has greatly improved. This significant advance is mainly due to the remarkable discovery that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase, known to be activated in response to a large number of hormones, growth factors ...
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