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Results 201 - 250 of 810
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Hwang W - - 2001
We study the dissolution of a solid by continuous injection of reactive "acid" particles at a single point, with the reactive particles undergoing biased diffusion in the dissolved region. When acid encounters the substrate material, both an acid particle and a unit of the material disappear. We find that the ...
Akimoto K - - 2001
Biliary organic anion excretion is mediated by an ATP-dependent primary active transporter, multidrug resistance protein 2. On the other hand, a multiplicity of canalicular organic anion transport has been suggested. Ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7beta-epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, is clinically used for various hepatobiliary diseases. In our previous study, the contribution ...
Lin C X - - 2001
The effect of bile acids on the formation of azoxymethane induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was investigated using the fecal stream-excluded colons of colostomized F344 rats. The excluded colon was irrigated with saline or bile acids (1 mg/0.5 ml per day, 5 days/week) for 4 weeks. The mean numbers of ...
Fimognari C - - 2001
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid (BA) used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution. Since epidemiological evidence indicates that BAs can be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, we investigated the effects of UDCA and its physiologically produced taurine conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on human lymphocyte cultures in terms of ...
Bodin K - - 2001
The major cholesterol oxidation products in the human circulation are 27-hydroxycholesterol, 24-hydroxycholesterol, and 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol. These oxysterols are formed from cholesterol by specific cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP27, CYP46, and CYP7A, respectively. An additional oxysterol present in concentrations comparable with 7alpha- and 24-hydroxycholesterol is 4beta-hydroxycholesterol. We now report that patients treated with ...
Fickert P - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholestasis is associated with retention of potentially toxic bile acids and alterations in hepatocellular transporter expression. Conversely, nontoxic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) stimulates bile secretion and counteracts cholestasis. This study aimed to determine the effects of UDCA and cholic acid (CA) on the expression of hepatocellular transporters for ...
Rodrigues C M - - 2001
The dihydroxy bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), has been in widespread clinical use in the Western world since the mid 1980s, when it was initially used for gallstone dissolution [1,2] and subsequently for the treatment of chronic cholestatic liver diseases [3,4]. Many clinical trials of UDCA in a variety of ...
Nakashima T - - 2001
AIM AND METHODS: The effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 600 mg/day) on liver function test values, and serum and urinary bile acids levels in hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis (CH, n = 39) and liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 25), and in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, n = 25) were ...
Ofoefule S I - - 2001
A comparative in vitro dissolution efficiencies (DE) of six commercial brands of ciprofloxacin tablets were evaluated in acetic acid and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and results obtained were used in ranking of their probable in vivo bioavailability. The dissolution efficiencies (DE) of the six brands varied widely in the two ...
Douglass A - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To mimic episodic hepatic encephalopathy after gastrointestinal bleeding under controlled conditions, cirrhotic patients were challenged with an amino acid mixture of comparable composition to haemoglobin. METHODS: Basal EEG, psychometric score (HE test), reaction times and venous blood ammonia were recorded. Following a 54 or 108 gm oral amino acid ...
Marschall H U - - 2001
Significant amounts of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) used for the treatment of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) become epimerized at C-3 to isoUDCA. We investigated the metabolism of isoUDCA and a possible pharmacologic effect in five patients (51.4 +/- 5.8 years old; 3 females, 2 males) with PBC and persistent ...
Purucker E - - 2001
Isoursodeoxycholic acid (isoUDCA), the 3 beta-epimer of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), may have pharmaceutical potential because of its similar hydrophilicity and in vitro cytoprotection as compared with UDCA. We compared metabolism and effects on cholestasis of UDCA and isoUDCA in experimental cholestasis in rats. Cholestasis was induced by bile duct ligation. ...
Kren B T - - 2001
Liver regeneration after two thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) is an orchestrated hyperplastic growth process requiring coordinated expression of many genes. The synchronous progression of 95% of the remnant hepatocytes through the cell cycle provides an in vivo model for examining the influence of bile acids on the molecular regulation of ...
Nobilis M - - 2001
Ursodeoxycholic acid (3 alpha,7 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholanoic acid, UDCA) is a therapeutically applicable bile acid widely used for the dissolution of cholesterol-rich gallstones and in the treatment of chronic liver diseases associated with cholestasis. UDCA is more hydrophilic and less toxic than another therapeutically valuable bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), the ...
Silva R F - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) can be neurotoxic in jaundiced neonates and in patients with Crigler-Najjar syndrome. UCB toxicity may culminate in cell death, however, the occurrence of apoptosis has never been investigated. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a strong modulator of the apoptotic threshold in both hepatic and nonhepatic cells. The ...
Ventura P - - 2001
Complexation of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) with 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) improves the water solubility and the dissolution rate of UDCA and may therefore increase its bioavailability. We compared the amount and the rate of biliary excretion of UDCA and biliary lipid secretion after a single oral administration of UDCA in 3 different ...
Gupta R R - - 2001
Thirty-one patients with melasma, 4 with superficial post acne scarring and one each with xeroderma pigmentosum and epidermal naevus were studied to know the efficacy of glycolic acid for chemical peeling in varying concentrations and time intervals such as 35% (4 minutes), 52.5% (3 minutes), 70% (2 minutes) at varying ...
Oda S - - 2001
An interface bioreactor, which is a device for the microbial transformation of water-insoluble substrates, was applied to an anaerobic bioconversion for the first time. Methyl 7-ketolithocholate [Me-7KLCA] was reduced with the human intestinal bacterium Eubacterium aerofaciens JCM 7790 in a convenient anaerobic interface bioreactor using a nutrient agar plate placed ...
Petroni M L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Combination therapy using ursodeoxycholic acid plus chenodeoxycholic acid has been advocated for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones because the two bile acids have complementary effects on biliary lipid metabolism and cholesterol solubilization. AIM: To compare the clinical efficacy of combination therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid monotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total ...
Ofner C M CM - - 2001
Incomplete in vitro capsule shell dissolution and subsequent drug release problems have recently received attention. A modified USP dissolution method was used to follow capsule shell dissolution, and a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) assay was used to follow loss of epsilon-amino groups to study this shell dissolution problem postulated to be ...
Kessel D - - 2000
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) protects cells from the apoptotic effects of hydrophobic bile acids and some other cytotoxic agents. We observed the opposite result when assessing the effects of UDCA on the apoptotic response to mitochondrial photodamage induced by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Two photosensitizers with predominantly mitochondrial specificity were used: a ...
Erbańüci Z - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of atrophic acne scars is difficult and generally unsatisfactory. Although many clinical studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of glycolic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris, to the best of our knowledge no placebo-controlled study has been carried out to ascertain the effect ...
Pérez-Bernal A - - 2000
Facial and neck pigmentations are the most cosmetically important. They are common in middle-aged women, and are related to endogenous (hormones) and exogenous factors (such as use of cosmetics and perfumes, and exposure to sun radiation). Melasma (chloasma) is the most common cause of facial pigmentation, but there are many ...
Thomas S R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa may undergo a phenotypic change from the wild (prototrophic) type to an auxotrophic phenotype in the course of respiratory infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. The clinical significance of this is unclear. A study was undertaken to investigate whether the presence of auxotrophs of P aeruginosa in ...
Rodríguez V G - - 2000
A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method (MEKC) has been developed and validated for the determination of bile acids (BA) such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), dehydrocholic acid (DHCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) in pharmaceuticals for quality control purpose. The background electrolyte consisted of 20 mM borate-phosphate buffer containing 50 mM sodium dodecylsulfate ...
Arias De Fuentes O - - 2000
The results reported in this paper regard the setting up of a polymeric membrane ISE that is selective for cholic acids (CA) and able to work in a flow system, especially in flow injection analysis (FIA), based on the exchanger (tetrakisdecylammoniumcholate, TDACh), which has proved effective, is of very simple ...
Look M P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the major metabolic block in the methionine catabolic pathway in cirrhotics exists at the level of the enzyme S-adenosylmethionine synthetase because in previous studies using conventional amino-acid analyzers, no intermediates of transmethylation/transsulfuration were found to accumulate in plasma downstream of S-adenosylmethionine synthesis. We therefore ...
Tsai T F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Topical use of alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) may increase skin photosensitivity, as demonstrated by increased numbers of sunburst cells. However, effects of AHA on tanning have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to study whether short-term use of glycolic acid hastens resolution of pre-existing light-induced pigmentation and whether the ...
Mishina M - - 2000
A new chemolytic therapy with amino acid preparation was tried for use on struvite renal stones in two dogs, which were admitted to Azabu University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. No other special diet, for the purpose of dissolving the stones, was fed during the treatment. Dissolution of the stones began at ...
Wakusawa S - - 2000
As an option to interferon, either iron removal by phlebotomy or ursodeoxycholic acid administration has been recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis C. Some patients, however, show only partial responses to such monotherapy. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a combination of phlebotomy and ursodeoxycholic acid in ...
Piazza F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Ursodeoxycholic acid has been widely used as a therapeutic agent in cholesterol gallstones and liver disease patients, but its mechanism of action is still under investigation. AIMS: The protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid, both free, taurine and glycine conjugated, against hepatotoxic bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid and its ...
Geilen C C - - 2000
Mycophenolic acid is effective for systemic treatment of psoriasis. However, there is no report about its topical use in this cutaneous disorder so far. We undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled, within subject comparison of mycophenolic acid 1% incorporated in an ointment base and the corresponding vehicle alone (placebo) using the psoriasis ...
Heaton K W - - 2000
Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that hyperinsulinaemia may be a central factor in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones, explaining a probable link with physical inactivity as well as abdominal adiposity. There is also increasing evidence for the hypothesis that enrichment of bile with DCA. 'the colonic bile acid', leads to ...
Angelico M - - 2000
Parenteral nutrition is often associated with hepatobiliary complications. Hepatic steatosis, intrahepatic cholestasis and biliary sludge are the most frequent. Cholestasis predominates in infants, steatosis in adults, and biliary sludge in both. Other less frequent complications are steatohepatitis and gallstones. All hepatobiliary complications are more likely to occur after extended periods ...
Kowdley K V - - 2000
Ursodeoxycholic acid is a hydrophilic bile acid that under normal circumstances represents a small fraction of the bile acid pool in humans. It is effective in dissolving cholesterol gallstones in appropriately selected patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves serum alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase levels in primary biliary cirrhosis, but its effects on ...
Kobayashi N - - 2000
Sulfation of the 3-hydroxy group is assumed to be a major metabolic route of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) which is used for treating various hepatobiliary diseases. We have developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determining the total amount of nonamidated, glycine- and taurine-amidated ursodeoxycholic acid 3-sulfates (UDCA 3-Suls) using ...
Scalia S - - 2000
The bioavailability of ursodeoxycholic acid from a new formulation based on drug-loaded cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was studied in man. The plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization and sample purification by solid-phase extraction. Capsules containing the drug/polymer system were prepared and compared with ...
Tung R C - - 2000
alpha-Hydroxy acid (AHA) peels and home regimens have recently been recognized as important adjunctive therapy in a variety of conditions including photodamage, actinic damage, melasma, hyperpigmentation disorders, acne, and rosacea. Overall in our experience and in the literature, AHAs have a proven level of safety and efficacy in a variety ...
Imamura M - - 2000
The pathophysiology following a total colectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has not been sufficiently clarified yet. We investigated bile acid metabolism, bacterial bowel flora and transit of the alimentary tract after IPAA, with reference to administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in dogs undergoing IPAA. Ten adult beagle dogs underwent ...
Rust C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Cholestyramine is the first-line treatment for cholestasis-induced pruritus and is prescribed along with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in patients with cholestatic liver diseases. Impairment of the intestinal absorption of endogenous hydrophobic bile acids by cholestyramine is well known. It is unclear, however, whether cholestyramine also impairs the absorption of the ...
Wells J E - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The development of cholesterol gallstones, in some patients, has been associated with increased proportions of deoxycholic acid in the bile acid pool. Deoxycholic acid is a microbial product of cholic acid 7alpha-dehydroxylation in the intestines. The levels and activities of bile acid 7alpha-dehydroxylating bacteria have been reported to be ...
De Lédinghen V - - 2000
We report a prospective randomized multicenter trial that tested the efficacy of combining ursodeoxycholic acid and norfloxacin in the prevention of polyethylene stent clogging in patients with obstructive jaundice due to an unresectable malignancy at the level of the common bile duct. After insertion of a 10-Fr straight polyethylene stent, ...
Gohel M C - - 2000
The feasibility of using succinic acid-treated ispaghula husk in matrix-based tablets of diltiazem-HCl was investigated. The sample prepared using 4:1 weight ratio of ispaghula husk to succinic acid showed improved swelling and gelling. A 3(2) factorial design was employed to investigate the effect of amount of succinic acid-treated ispaghula husk ...
Kostarelos K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: A double-blind, single-site, split-face clinical study was organized and carried out in order to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a glycolic acid containing scalp lotion in conjunction with a betamethasone (as the 17-valerate) scalp application against conditions of psoriasis. BACKGROUND: Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA) have been proposed as ...
Wu Z S - - 2000
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether daily rapid intravenous administration of amino acids (IVAA) prevented the formation of biliary sludge in humans receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Thirty adult patients receiving TPN for more than 28 consecutive days were studied. They were randomized to receive either ...
Bettarello L - - 2000
Some distinctive unprecedented 1H NMR signals and the complete 13C NMR resonances are assigned for the entire set of mixed oxo-hydroxy bile acid isomers, obtained by selective oxidation of the hydroxy groups at positions (3,7), (3,12) and (3,7,12) of chenodesoxycholic acid, desoxycholic acid and cholic acid, respectively. Partially or totally ...
Mazzella G - - 1999
As immunosuppressive agents, corticosteroids may be considered an appropriate treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis, even if bone loss and other side effects may occur. We studied biliary lipid metabolism in 10 nonicteric patients, with histologically proven primary biliary cirrhosis (stage I-IV). We administered methylprednisolone (24 mg daily) for 30 days ...
Bjerke R - - 1999
Previous investigations have indicated that topical azelaic acid has beneficial effects in rosacea. This 3-month randomized, double-blind, multicentre study compared the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid 20% cream with its vehicle, in the treatment of papulo-pustular rosacea. A total of 116 patients were enrolled in the study and medication ...
Rodrigues C M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Data on meconium bile acid composition in newborn babies of patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) are relatively scant, and changes that occur on ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) administration have not been evaluated. AIMS: To investigate bile acid profiles in meconium of neonates from untreated and UDCA treated patients ...
Paolini M - - 1999
We examined the effects of the administration of different bile acids on in vivo hepatic murine cytochrome P450 (CYP) content, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-CYP-reductase, and individual mixed-function oxidases (MFOs). Neither CYP level nor reductase were appreciably affected by single intraperitoneal administration of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) (12.2 or 24.4 mg ...
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