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Results 351 - 400 of 1532
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Peterson Karen - - 2005
Clinicians can use several biochemical measurements to objectively assess patients' current or past alcohol use. However, none of these currently available biomarkers-including measures of various liver enzymes and blood volume--are ideal. Several more experimental markers hold promise for measuring acute alcohol consumption and relapse. These include certain alcohol byproducts, such ...
Van Hee Paul - - 2004
Analysis of blood of severely intoxicated patients always requires prompt investigation. Diagnosis of intoxication with ethylene glycol, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid or D-lactic acid takes hours, since several different procedures are required. Rapid derivatization of the common hydroxyl function may resolve this analytical problem. Here we describe a fast method for the ...
Otaka Akira - - 2004
It has been shown that fluorinated analogues of naturally occurring biological active compounds including amino acids often exhibit unique physiological activity. Among wide varieties of fluorine-containing amino acids, nonhydrolyzable phosphoamino acids possessing a substituent of the difluoromethylene (CF(2)) unit for the phosphoryl ester oxygen are of value in the medicinal ...
Meredith R M - - 2004
The intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) is an area of the domestic chick forebrain that stores information acquired through the learning process of imprinting. The effects of visual imprinting on the release of the amino acids aspartate, arginine, citrulline, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glycine and taurine ...
Takahashi Toshinari - - 2004
Sake yeasts take up gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derived from rice-koji in the primary stage of sake brewing. The GABA content in sake brewed with the UGA1 disruptant, which lacked GABA transaminase, was higher than that brewed with the wild-type strain K701. The UGA1 disruptant derived from sake yeast could not ...
Bitan Gal - - 2003
Aberrant protein oligomerization is an important pathogenetic process in vivo. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) forms neurotoxic oligomers. The predominant in vivo Abeta alloforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42, have distinct oligomerization pathways. Abeta42 monomers oligomerize into pentamer/hexamer units (paranuclei) which self-associate to form larger oligomers. Abeta40 does not ...
King Steven C - - 2003
The Escherichia coli GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) permease GabP is a prototypical APC (amine/polyamine/choline) super-family transporter that has a CAR (consensus amphipathic region) containing multiple specificity determinants, ostensibly organized on two helical surfaces, one hydrophobic [SHS (sensitive hydrophobic surface)] and the other hydrophilic [SPS (sensitive polar surface)]. To gauge the functional ...
Pan Yue - - 2003
Previously it was found that a conformationally rigid analogue (2) of the epilepsy drug vigabatrin (1) did not inactivate gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT). A cyclic compound with an exocyclic double bond (6) was synthesized and was found to inactivate GABA-AT, but only in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The corresponding difluoro-substituted ...
Lherbet Christian - - 2004
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) catalyses the transfer of a gamma-glutamyl moiety from a donor substrate to different acceptors, such as amino acids and water. GGT is known to display relatively low stereospecificity with respect to the alpha-stereocentre of its donor substrates. In this study we have studied its stereospecificity with respect ...
Zhang Jie - - 2003
Chlorambucil (4-[p-[bis [2-chloroethyl] amino] phenyl]-butanoic acid; CMB) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that exhibits acquired drug resistance upon repeated dosing in human. This compound reacts with glutathione (gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine, GSH) both non-enzymatically and enzymatically in the presence of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) to produce several GSH conjugates. The formation of GSH conjugates ...
Johnstone Timothy B C - - 2004
Patients taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as norfloxacin exhibit a low incidence of convulsions and anxiety. These side effects probably result from antagonism of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the brain GABA(A) receptor complex (GRC). Modification of norfloxacin yields molecules such as compound 4 that potentiate GABA action with alpha(2) ...
Castelli M Paola - - 2003
Two gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) analogues, trans-gamma-hydroxycrotonic acid (t-HCA) and gamma-(p-methoxybenzyl)-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (NCS-435) displaced [3H]GHB from GHB receptors with the same affinity as GHB but, unlike GHB, failed to displace [3H]baclofen from GABAB receptors. The effect of the GHB analogues, GHB and baclofen, on G protein activity and hippocampal extracellular glutamate ...
Greiner Christoph - - 2003
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring analog of GABA in the mammalian brain and can be therapeutically used for basic sedation in intensive care units. Although its application is discussed controversially, GHB is suspected to protect neuronal tissue against ischemic damage. GHB was tested for an acute effect on ...
Deng Yanshen - - 2003
The effect of surangin B, an insecticidal natural product coumarin, on presynaptic release of endogenous amino acids was investigated using a purified synaptosomal fraction isolated from mouse brain. Surangin B stimulated the release of glutamic acid (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serine, alanine and the aminosulfonic acid taurine from synaptosomes at ...
Neogi Partha - - 2003
A number of 2,4-thiazolidinedione derivatives of -phenyl substituted cinnamic acid were synthesized and studied for their PPAR agonist activity. The E-isomer of cinnamic acid, 11, showed moderate PPAR transactivation. The corresponding Z-isomer, 23, and double bond reduced derivative, 15, were found to be much less potent. Although the E-isomer showed ...
Smith Benjamin P C - - 2003
When stressed or challenged by a predator, the Australian green tree frog, Litoria caerulea, emits a characteristic nutty odor from its parotoid glands. This study identifies the source of the odor as the cyclic amide 2-pyrrolidone (2-PyrO). In addition, we demonstrate the presence of 2-PyrO's straight chain form, gamma-aminobutyric acid ...
Sulaiman Saba A J - - 2003
Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T, EC 2.6.1.19) is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of gamma-aminobutyric acid. The kinetics of this reaction are studied in vitro, both in the absence, and in the presence of two inhibitors: gamma-vinyl GABA (4-aminohex-5-enoic acid), and a natural product, taurine (ethylamine-2-sulfonic ...
Satta Rosalba - - 2003
A solvent, 1,4-butanediol, is also abused as a recreational drug. In mammals, 1,4-butanediol is metabolized into gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), which stimulates metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) GABAB and putative GHB receptors. Here we show that in vivo injection of 1,4-butanediol into adult Drosophila leads to GHB synthesis (GHB was detectable 5 ...
Yang Jingyue - - 2003
Recently, a sequence encoding a novel mammalian calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)gamma) was identified in the human genome and subsequently cloned and expressed in Sf9 insect cells. Unexpectedly, expression studies in recombinant systems demonstrated the usage of multiple translation initiation codons resulting in different polypeptides. Herein, we demonstrate that hepatic iPLA(2)gamma ...
Chiang Lien-Chai - - 2003
A number of Plantago spp. especially P. major has long been used in the treatment of diseases such as infection, inflammation and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activities of five chemical classes of pure compounds obtained from the Plantago genus on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). ...
Picó Anna - - 2003
A set of diversely substituted N-Boc-gamma-amino vinyl sulfones has been prepared by a four-step procedure from readily available, highly enantiopure anti-N-Boc-3-amino-1,2-alkanediols. This new route, which does not depend on the accessibility of alpha-amino acids as starting materials, is noteworthy for its efficiency, for its generality, and for the fact that ...
Murakami Makoto - - 2003
While the role of the group IVA Ca(2+)-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism has been well documented, that of its paralogue, Ca(2+)-independent group IVC PLA(2) (cPLA(2)gamma), has remained uncertain. Here we show, using a transfection strategy, that cPLA(2)gamma has the ability to increase the spontaneous and ...
Ketter Terence A - - 2003
Anticonvulsant drugs (ACs) have diverse antiseizure, psychotropic, and biochemical effects. Carbamazepine and valproate have mood-stabilizing actions, benzodiazepines and gabapentin have anxiolytic actions, lamotrigine is useful in rapid cycling and acute treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar depression, and topiramate and zonisamide can yield weight loss. Limited controlled data suggest the carbamazepine ...
Krehan Dorte - - 2003
A number of amino acids bioisosterically derived from the specific GABA(A) agonist, isonipecotic acid, were electrophysiologically characterized as antagonists at GABA(C) rho(1) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The phosphinic acid analogue of isonipecotic acid, piperidin-4-ylphosphinic acid (2), was comparable with the standard GABA(C) antagonist, (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA), in terms of ...
Gutiérrez María del Carmen Mdel - - 2003
A toxic fraction from centipede (Scolopendra sp.) venom was tested in neurotransmitter release experiments. The venom was fractionated by DEAE-cellulose with a linear gradient from 20 mM to 1.0 M of ammonium acetate pH 4.7. Lethality tests were performed by injections into the third abdominal dorsolateral segment of sweet water ...
Khuhawar M Y - - 2003
gamma Aminobutyric acid (GABA) was determined by precolumn derivatization with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde and elution was made using Phenomenex C(18), 5 microm column with methanol: water (62:38 v/v) and UV detection at 330 nm. In a mixture containing glycine, l-lysine and tyramine GABA separated completely. A number of amines and amino acids ...
Kudzin Zbigniew H - - 2003
A new approach for simultaneous analysis of biologically active aminoalkanephosphonic acids, namely glyphosate, phosphonoglycine, phosphonosarcosine, phosphonoalanine, phosphono-beta-alanine, phosphonohomoalanine, phosphono-gamma-homoalanine and glufosinate, is presented. This includes a preliminary 31p NMR analysis of these amino acids, their further derivatization to volatile phosphonates (phosphinates) by means of trifluoroacetic acid-trifluoroacetic anhydride-trimethyl orthoacetate reagent and ...
Kerr David I B - - 2003
Selected neutral L-alpha-amino acids, and their dipeptides, were reversible, stereospecific, potentiators of GABA(B) receptor-mediated hyperpolarizing responses to baclofen (3-100 microM) in rat neocortical slices. These responses were sensitive to the GABA(B) receptor antagonist (+)-(S)-5,5-dimethylmorpholinyl-2-acetic acid (Sch50911) (30 microM). Most potent were L-Leu, L-Ile and L-Phe, as were the dipeptides L-Phe-Phe ...
Loukas Vassilios - - 2003
The synthesis of enantiopure gamma-substituted gamma-amino acids with proteinogenic side chains, starting from the corresponding natural alpha-amino acids, was studied. N-Protected amino aldehydes containing various protective groups were prepared from the corresponding amino alcohols by oxidation with NaOCl in the presence of AcNH-TEMPO and directly reacted with methyl, benzyl and ...
Ruppert Clemens - - 2003
The extracellular alveolar surfactant can be separated into the highly surface active large surfactant aggregates (LA) and the less active small surfactant aggregates (SA). Conversion of LA to SA is encountered upon cyclic surface area changes and demands the presence of enzymatic activity. In the present study we investigated the ...
Le Gall Gwénaëlle - - 2003
The maize transcription factors LC and C1 were simultaneously overexpressed in tomato with the aim of producing lines with increased amounts of flavonols. The metabolite composition of these genetically modified tomatoes has been compared with that of azygous (nonmodified) controls grown side-by-side under the same conditions. It has been possible ...
Baxter Peter - - 2003
Pyridoxine-dependent seizures have been recognised for 40 years, but the clinical and biochemical features are still not understood. It is a rare recessively inherited condition where classically a baby starts convulsing in utero and continues to do so after birth, until given pyridoxine. Many of these early onset cases also ...
Hara Yuriko - - 2003
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) play important roles in intestinal mucosal immunity. Although fatty acids are known to modulate the functions of immune effector cells, there has been no information about how fat exposure affects immunological function of IELs. In this study, we examined how fatty acids of various chain lengths modulate ...
Thomas P M - - 2003
We report preliminary results from four patients subjected to hippocampal electrocorticography and microdialysis during temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. In two cases, spontaneously vigorous hippocampal epileptiform activity (EA) was identified; basal dialysate levels for hippocampal glutamate, aspartate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid ranged from approximately 23- to 84-fold, 19- to 33-fold and 10- ...
Jin Hong - - 2003
l-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) exists as both membrane-associated and soluble forms in the mammalian brain. Here, we propose that there is a functional and structural coupling between the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by membrane-associated GAD and its packaging into synaptic vesicles (SVs) by vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). This notion ...
An Sung-Jin - - 2003
Gastrodin is one of the natural compound isolated from Gastrodia elata and has known anticonvulsant effects, although the exact pharmacological principles of this natural compound and its effects on other aspects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in vivo have not been explored. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of ...
Chen Lianhua - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of propofol, midazolam and thiopental sodium on outcomes and amino acid accumulation in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were scheduled to undergo 3-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal suture and 24-hour reperfusion. Neurologic outcomes were scored on a ...
Suresh Y - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: We previously showed that prior oral supplementation of oils rich in omega-3, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and omega-6, gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid, can prevent the development of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals. But the effect of individual fatty acids on chemically induced diabetes mellitus is not ...
Kleeberg Kim Karen - - 2003
During gamma-irradiation (5 kGy) of aqueous tryptophan (Trp) solutions small amounts of 5-, 6-, and 7-hydroxytryptophan (OH-Trp) (0.04-0.08 Mol-%) are formed. Protein rich food like shrimps contain reasonable amounts of non-protein bound Trp (100 mg/kg). In order to detect the treatment of shrimps with gamma-irradiation a method for the determination ...
Busby M Brent - - 2003
The third member of the family of single-isomer, sulfated gamma-cyclodextrins, the sodium salt of octakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-gamma-cyclodextrin has been synthesized, analytically characterized and used for the capillary electrophoretic separation of the enantiomers of nonionic, weak acid and weak base analytes in low-pH aqueous background electrolytes. Though octakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-gamma-cyclodextrin complexes less strongly with many ...
Yamagata K - - 2003
Tight junctions create a rate-limiting barrier to the diffusion of solutes between vertebrate epithelial cells and endothelial cells. They are also controlled within individual cells by a variety of physiologically relevant signals. We investigated the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the formation of tight junctions in brain capillary endothelial ...
Scharff Anne Marie - - 2003
Nitrogen (N) fixation and assimilation in pea (Pisum sativum) root nodules were studied by in vivo (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by exposing detached nodules to (15)N(2) via a perfusion medium, while recording a time course of spectra. In vivo (31)P NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the physiological state ...
Xian M - - 2003
AIMS: To optimize the production of linolenic acid by disrupted mycelia of Mortierella isabellina. METHODS AND RESULTS: Effects of incubation conditions such as incubation time, pH of reaction mixture, concentration of Mg2+ or malate and incubation temperature on production of linolenic acid were studied. The production of gamma-linolenic acid reached ...
Omura Hironori - - 2003
A thermophilic and cyanide ion-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus stearothermophilus CN3 isolated from a hot spring in Japan, was found to produce thermostable gamma-cyano-alpha-aminobutyric acid synthase. The enzyme was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of approximately 180 kDa and consists of four identical subunits. It was stable ...
Gropman Andrea - - 2003
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a rare disorder characterized by an inborn error of the catabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Because of the deficiency of SSADH, the final enzyme of the GABA degradation pathway, the substrate, succinic semialdehyde, is shunted towards production of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid). Elevations ...
García Matías - - 2003
Eight eudesmane and eremophilane sesquiterpenes administered to Tribolium castaneum larvae caused different allelochemical effects. Topical application of 3-oxo-gamma-costic acid produced the greatest lengthening in the duration of the pupal stage. Morphological deformities were found, specifically when ilicic, costic, and gamma-costic acids and costic aldehyde were used. Ilicic acid exhibited the ...
Wong C Guin Ting - - 2003
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA is converted from glutamic acid by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) of which two isoforms exist GAD65 and GAD67. GABA then is broken down, both within the cell and in the synaptic cleft by ...
Wang Siting - - 2002
To provide a quantitative comparison of the synaptic organization of "first-order" and "higher-order" thalamic nuclei, we followed bias-corrected sampling methods identical to a previous study of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; Van Horn et al. [2000] J. Comp. Neurol. 416:509-520) to examine the distribution of terminal types within ...
Ma Zhuo - - 2002
An important feature of Escherichia coli pathogenesis is an ability to withstand extremely acidic environments of pH 2 or lower. This acid resistance property contributes to the low infectious dose of pathogenic E. coli species. One very efficient E. coli acid resistance system encompasses two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA ...
Sałat Kinga - - 2002
The present study investigates the activity of four gamma-hydroxybutyric acid amide analogues (BM-68, BM-74, BM-75 and BM-76) in two models of chemically induced seizures, i.e. picrotoxin- and pentetrazole-induced seizures and in the thiopental-induced sleep test. The results of pharmacological in vivo experiments with the gamma-hydroxybutyric acid amide analogues presented below ...
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