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Results 301 - 350 of 1532
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Tilikete Caroline - - 2005
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Autoantibodies directed against GAD (antiGAD-Ab) have been described in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, stiff-man syndrome, and in a few patients with progressive cerebellar ataxia. The presence of these autoantibodies suggests an autoimmune pathophysiological mechanism for ...
Nagaoka Hiroyuki - - 2005
We found that the levels of bioactive products from wheat can be increased dramatically by manipulating germination conditions and taking advantage of the activity of endogenous enzymes. The yield of phytic acid (IP(6)) from wheat germinated in the presence of high, controlled levels of dissolved oxygen (188 +/- 28 mg/100 ...
Sierra Saleta - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a key role in a number of biological functions. Rice bran oil (RBO) is rich in linoleic acid, an essential n-6 fatty acid. n-6 fatty acids are said to have proinflammatory effects as a result of an increase in n-6 fatty acid-derived eicosanoids. RBO is ...
Pattabiraman Mahesh - - 2005
Cucurbit[8]uril and gamma-cyclodextrin are able to align two olefin molecules in a head-head fashion within their large cavities. Excitation of such templated olefins results in syn head-head cyclobutanes in nearly quantitative yields. The methodology revealed here works with trans-cinnamic acids that do not dimerize either in solution or in the ...
Yang Xiao-e - - 2005
A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 micromol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate ...
Ge Xiuchun - - 2005
The non-protein amino acid beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a proven inducer of plant defense against pathogens. This work examines its effect on the production of diterpenoid tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures, both separately and in combination with a yeast elicitor (YE, the carbohydrate fraction of yeast extract). In ...
Osz Katalin - - 2005
We present a microequilibrium analysis of a series of amino acid and peptide derivatives containing the chelating bis(imidazol-2-yl)methyl group (BIP, Gly-BIMA, His-BIMA, alpha-Glu-BIMA, gamma-Glu-BIMA, and Phe-His-BIMA). NMR measurements were performed in D2O to follow the deprotonation steps. The software PSEQUAD and a specialized program written in MATLAB were used to ...
Ferraz Helena M C - - 2005
From previous results with lower homologues, dehydroiodination of the three alkenyl-beta-enamino esters 3a-c was expected to provide six-membered N-heterocyclic products. The reactions of 3a-c with triethylamine are found to lead, however, to the unexpected stereoselective synthesis of the trisubstituted cyclopentane derivatives 4a-c, as confirmed by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Cyclopentanes ...
Bercot Eric A - - 2005
Complementary reduction conditions have been identified that provide ready access to each respective diastereomer of bi- and tricyclic, trisustituted gamma-lactones starting from the corresponding cyclic gamma-keto acids. Subjection of cyclic gamma-keto acids to silane reagents in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid provides all syn-gamma-lactones, while reduction with trialkylborohydrides furnishes the ...
Blazina Maria - - 2005
Aggregates differing in size and phytoplankton community composition were sampled in winter/spring 2001 and summer 1997 and 2002 (during mucilaginous event) in the northern Adriatic Sea. The fatty acid profiles (FAME) were determined in aggregates, bacterial population was grown from each aggregate and each bacterial isolate from aggregate's plated cultures. ...
Kett-White R - - 2005
This study investigated the changes in extracellular chemistry during reversible human cerebral ischaemia. Delayed analysis was performed on samples taken from a subgroup of patients during aneurysm surgery previously reported. Frozen microdialysis samples from 14 patients who had all undergone temporary clipping of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) were ...
Matsusaki Michiya - - 2005
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) mitogenic activities of sulfonated poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA-S) were investigated with chlorate-treated L929 fibroblast culture tests. When 72% of the carboxyl groups in gamma-PGA were sulfonated (gamma-PGA-S72), cell numbers reached a maximum. The activity of gamma-PGA-S72 was higher than that of gamma-PGA and synthetic heparinoids and ...
Iida M - - 2005
We report on two Japanese brothers with hereditary deficiency in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The propositus was 48 years old when he first visited our medical center and had a 51-year-old brother. The brothers were both tall and slender and had long limbs; the younger was diagnosed as having Marfan syndrome. Both ...
Sung Moon-Hee - - 2005
Poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) is a very promising biodegradable polymer that is produced by Bacillus subtilis. Gamma-PGA is water-soluble, anionic, biodegradable, and edible. This paper reviews the production of a strain of gamma-PGA and recent developments with respect to applications in terms of Ca absorption, moisturizing properties, gamma-PGA conjugation, super absorbent ...
Mellegaard Shelli R - - 2004
Diphenyl diselenide catalyzes the halolactonization of unsaturated acids with N-halosuccinimides under mild conditions. The diselenide not only accelerates the reactions, but in some cases affords regiocontrol in favor of gamma-lactone products. Experiments show that the regioselectivity in favor of gamma-lactones is a result of kinetic rather than thermodynamic control.
Chung Hung-Ho - - 2004
Clays from tidal flat sediments showed efficient catalytic activity in the decomposition of PCE by gamma-radiation. The highest PCE removal of 98.6% was obtained with clays heated to 700 degrees C after acid treatment. The improved catalytic activity was identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The EPR spectra of ...
Tadeusiak Elzbieta J - - 2004
The involvement of carnitine and gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid in the biology of mammalian cells, the physiology of the human body, and some important aspects of medicinal treatment has induced many research groups to develop their pharmacologically potent analogues. Among them are the very important phosphonic analogues: phosphocarnitine and gamma-amino-beta-hydroxypropylphosphonic acid. This ...
Inomata Masahiro - - 2004
We examined the biosynthetic pathway of abscisic acid (ABA) after isopentenyl diphosphate in a fungus, Cercospora cruenta. All oxygen atoms at C-1, -1, -1', and -4' of ABA produced by this fungus were labeled with (18)O from (18)O(2). The fungus did not produce the 9Z-carotenoid possessing gamma-ring that is likely ...
Pant Niraj - - 2004
Semen samples of fertile and infertile men were analysed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) for the presence of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) (pp'-DDE); (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl ethane) (pp'-DDT); (1,1-dichloro-2,2 bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) (pp'-DDD); (1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) (op'-DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its isomers alpha (alpha), beta (beta), gamma (gamma), delta (delta) and ...
Beppu Teruhiko - - 2004
The occurrence of L(S)-allo-isocitric acid in nature, as a new fungal product, was first found in the culture medium of Pen. purpurogenum Stoll var. rubri-sclerotium Thom. No. 1148. The acid was obtained as its gamma-lactone in a crystalline form. Some chemical and physical characters were described. The acid was the ...
Hislop Jo-Anna - - 2004
Two syntheses of deuterated gamma-lactones for use as internal standards in stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) were developed. [2,2,3,3-2H4]-gamma-Octa-, -gamma-deca-, and -gamma-dodecalactones with >89% deuterium incorporation were prepared in 27, 17, and 19% overall yields, respectively, by the reduction of a doubly protected hydroxypropiolic acid with deuterium gas. [3,3,4-2H3]-gamma-Octa- and ...
Ishii Yoshitaka - - 2004
We found a gamma-resorcylic acid (gamma-RA, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid) decarboxylase, as a novel enzyme applicable to carboxylation of resorcinol (RE, 1,3-dihydroxybenzene) to form gamma-RA, in a bacterial strain Rhizobium radiobacter WU-0108 isolated through the screening of gamma-RA degrading microorganisms. The activities for carboxylation of RE and decarboxylation of gamma-RA were detected ...
Storici Paola - - 2004
(1R,3S,4S)-3-Amino-4-fluorocyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid (7) was previously shown to be a mechanism-based inactivator of gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) [Qiu, J. and Silverman, R. B. (2000) J. Med. Chem. 43, 706-720]. Two mechanisms were considered as reasonable possibilities, a Michael addition mechanism and an enamine mechanism. On the basis of a variety of ...
Li Yin - - 2005
Glutathione and gamma-glutamylcysteine were produced in Lactococcus lactis using a controlled expression system and the genes gshA and gshB from Escherichia coli encoding the enzymes gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase. High levels of gamma-glutamylcysteine were found in strains growing on chemically defined medium and expressing either gshA alone or both ...
Richter Angelika - - 2004
Previous studies suggested an involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated excitation by an enhanced efflux of bicarbonate ions in addition to retarded development of GABAergic inhibition in the syndrome of dt(sz) mutant hamsters, a model of paroxysmal dyskinesia in which dystonic episodes occur in response to stress. Acetazolamide blocks bicarbonate regeneration ...
Suzuki Hideyuki - - 2004
The aspartyl residue at position 433 of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase of Escherichia coli K-12 was replaced by an asparaginyl residue. This substitution enabled gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase to deacylate glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid, producing 7-aminocephalosporanic acid, which is a starting material for the synthesis of semisynthetic cephalosporins.
Pizzolatti Moacir Geraldo - - 2004
NMR and GC-MS analysis of fractions of the CHCl3 extract of Trichilia catigua bark led to the identification of a mixture of three omega-phenyl alkanes, three omega-phenyl alkanoic acids, five omega-phenyl-gamma-lactones, two alkyl-gamma-lactones, one alkenyl-gamma-lactone and a mixture of fatty acids ranging from C-14 to C-26. Beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol ...
Hon Ng Chee - - 2004
Anticonvulsant drugs are the initial treatment of choice in trigeminal neuralgia. Historically, carbamazepine is and remains the gold standard. Many similarities between the pathophysiologic phenomena observed in epilepsy models and neuropathic pain models justify the rationale for the use of anticonvulsants in the management of neuropathic pain disorders. We have ...
Gillis Robert C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition containing eicosapentaenoic (20:5 omega-3) and gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-6) decreases leukotriene B4 levels and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients and animals with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Reduction in pulmonary inflammation may be caused by decreased neutrophil migration or survival. We showed that apoptosis increases in ...
Shen Qing - - 2004
To fit the request of developing new biomaterials using persimmon leaves as raw material, this paper reported the surface free energy and related components, e.g. the Lifshitz-van der Waals and Lewis acid-base components for persimmon leaves estimated by means of the column wicking technique. Considering this natural material might be ...
Echigo Noriko - - 2004
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory amino acid and acts as an intercellular transmitter in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. In pineal glands, GABA is supposed to be a paracrine-like modulator of secretion of melatonin, although its mode of action, especially the sites of GABA signal appearance, is ...
Zhang Jie - - 2004
Clinical efficacy of alkylating anticancer drugs, such as chlorambucil (4-[p-[bis [2-chloroethyl] amino] phenyl]-butanoic acid; CHB), is often limited by the emergence of drug resistant tumor cells. Increased glutathione (gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine; GSH) conjugation (inactivation) of alkylating anticancer drugs due to overexpression of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) is believed to be an important ...
Soderberg A M - - 2004
Over the six years since the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425, which was associated with the nearby (distance approximately 40 Mpc) supernova 1998bw, astronomers have debated fiercely the nature of this event. Relative to bursts located at cosmological distance (redshift z approximately 1), GRB 980425 was under-luminous in ...
Parker David A S - - 2004
In electrically stimulated rat neocortical brain slices preloaded with [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or [3H]glutamic acid, the pharmacological actions of 1-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexaneacetic acid (gabapentin, Gp) were compared with the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen (Bac) and (3-amino-2-(S)-hydroxypropyl)-methylphosphinic acid (CGP 44532). Gabapentin, baclofen and CGP 44532 all reduced the electrically stimulated release of [3H]glutamic ...
Malhotra Kanam - - 2004
Laccase production in gamma-proteobacterium JB was enhanced 13-fold by adding 0.1 mM CuSO(4) 24 h after the onset of growth. Ethidium bromide (2.5 microM), Malachite Green, Phenol Red and Thymol Blue (10 microM each) enhanced laccase production 17-, 19-, 4- and 2-fold, respectively. Among the fourteen aromatic/organic compounds tried, p-aminobenzoic ...
Charych Erik I - - 2004
We have isolated, from a rat brain cDNA library, a clone corresponding to a 2779-bp cDNA encoding a novel splice form of the glutamate receptor interacting protein-1 (GRIP1). We call this 696-amino acid splice form GRIP1c 4-7 to differentiate it from longer splice forms of GRIP1a/b containing seven PDZ domains. ...
Das Undurti N - - 2004
Malignant gliomas are among the most devastating of cancers and are a major cause of mortality in a young population with a median survival time of 9 months following cytoreductive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent studies showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids especially gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) have selective tumoricidal action especially ...
Kanno Kiyoshi - - 2004
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) is one of the most common craniofacial malformations. Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis. In addition to its role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is presumed to play a ...
Zhao Long-Xuan - - 2004
For the development of new anticonvulsive agents, analogs of gamma-vinyl GABA (vigabatrin) containing GABA, gamma-vinyl GABA, valproic acid, nipecotic acid or isonipecotic acid moieties were prepared and evaluated for their anticonvulsive activities. Most of the prepared compounds showed moderate anticonvulsive activities. Among them compounds 10 and 16 displayed the most ...
Singh Pratap B - - 2004
Both male and female freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis, were exposed to safe (SC; 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L) and sublethal (SL; 10 mg/L) concentrations of an agricultural pesticide, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) for 4 weeks during the active pre-spawning (vitellogenic) phase of their annual reproductive cycle. On the last day of exposure, 18 ...
Shimokuri Taiki - - 2004
Poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) is a biosynthetic polymer, and the carboxyl groups are able to undergo a chemical modification. In this study, poly(alpha-propyl gamma-glutamate) (gamma-PGA propylate) was synthesized by the esterification of these carboxyl groups to yield a thermosensitive and biodegradable polymer. In aqueous solution, the gamma-PGA propylate can impart thermosensitivity ...
Shah Rakhi B - - 2004
The usefulness of enzyme inhibitors and absorption enhancers with least mucosal cell cytotoxicity was evaluated on Caco-2 cell monolayers. The temporal cytotoxicity of several protease inhibitors at 500 microg/mL (e.g., turkey and chicken ovomucoids, aprotinin, and Protease Inhibitor Cocktail) and absorption enhancers [e.g., cholate (3%), glycocholate (3%), glycosursodeoxycholate (3%), ethylenediaminetetraacetic ...
Najm I - - 2004
Cortical dysplasias (CDs) increasingly are recognized as pathologic substrates in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Several studies have demonstrated the intrinsic epileptogenicity of these lesions, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for seizure initiation remain unknown. The increased availability of surgically resected neocortical tissue has provided the opportunity for ...
Ethofer T - - 2004
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a rare hereditary disorder of the CNS catabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), leading to accumulation of the metabolite 4-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Here the authors report on 1.5 and 3.0 T proton MR spectroscopy in a patient with SSADH deficiency. A characteristic pattern with clearly elevated ...
Wang Zhihong - - 2004
Brevetoxin (PbTx) metabolism was examined in the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) following exposure to a Karenia brevis red tide, by using LC/MS(/MS) and cytotoxicity assay. Metabolites observed in field-exposed oysters were confirmed in oysters exposed to K. brevis cultures in the laboratory. Previously, we identified a cysteine conjugate and its ...
Del Castillo Maria Luisa Ruiz - - 2004
The fatty acid compositions of seeds from 29 black currant genotypes were determined using a rapid small-scale procedure. There was interest in alpha-linolenic, stearidonic, and, especially, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) contents, and most samples showed values between 11.1 and 18.7%, between 2.5 and 4.5%, and between 11.6 and 17.4%, respectively. However, ...
Kuntz A - - 2004
In 1998, Horvath et al. (1998) observed a marked improvement in speech, eye contact, and attention in autistic children five weeks after treatment with secretin, which ocurred in the course of an endoscopic investigation. Since autism is hypothesized to be a hypoglutamatergic disorder we investigated the in vivo effects of ...
Inoue Tohru - - 2004
Solid-liquid phase behavior was investigated for binary fatty acid mixtures composed of oleic acid (OA; cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and saturated fatty acids, lauric acid (LA; dodecanoic acid), myristic acid (MA; tetradecanoic acid), and palmitic acid (PA; hexadecanoic acid), by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). ...
Matsukawa Motomi - - 2004
We synthesized several prodrugs of glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. In order to establish a screening system from the prodrugs of selective activity to MAO-A or MAO-B, we examined purification conditions such as solubilization with Triton X-100, precipitation with ammonium sulfate, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. MAO-B was purified from ...
Asselineau B - - 2004
An international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems took place in the SILENE reactor, in June 2002. Participants from 60 laboratories irradiated their dosemeters (physical and biological) using two different configurations of the reactor. In preparation for this intercomparison, the leakage radiation fields were characterised by spectrometry and dosimetry measurements ...
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