Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1537
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Kuhn Bernd - - 2006
In the quest for novel PPARalpha/gamma co-agonists as putative drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, we have used a structure-based design approach to identify propionic acids with a 1,5-disubstituted indole scaffold as potent PPARalpha/gamma activators. Compounds 13, 24, and 28 are examples of submicromolar dual agonists ...
Shi Feng - - 2006
A strain with high poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) production was isolated from fermented bean curd, a traditional Chinese food. The strain was named Bacillus subtilis ZJU-7 according to 16s rDNA sequencing and its taxonomic characters. The culture conditions for gamma-PGA production were evaluated. The most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources were ...
Kuwabara Yuka - - 2006
We previously reported that a novel hydrophilic gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) derivative, gamma-tocopheryl-N,N-dimethylglycinate hydrochloride (gamma-TDMG) gets converted to the antioxidant gamma-Toc in skin. We also found that this derivative displayed greater bioavailability than gamma-Toc itself. In the present study, we determined whether gamma-TDMG could reduce UV-induced skin pigmentation in brownish guinea pigs. ...
Zhang Hui - - 2006
The accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the rice germ by using protease was investigated. After the proteolytic hydrolysis of germ protein by trypsin, the amount of GABA reached about 2.26 g per 100 g of germ. This demonstrates that the GABA yield could be significantly increased by protease. Our ...
O'Brien Kylie B - - 2006
Efflux of a number of important neurochemicals, including D-serine, L-serine, taurine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), from mouse cortical brain slices housed in a 7 microL perfusion chamber was monitored using online microdialysis-CE (MD-CE). Analyte concentrations could be measured every 20-27 s using the MD-CE instrument. Stimulation with high potassium ...
Csillik Bertalan - - 2006
Large calyciform synapses in the rat reticular thalamic nucleus are characterized by the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Presynaptic terminals are also loaded with calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin and calcineurin. The number of calyciform terminals containing gamma-aminobutyric acid and parvalbumin is 2005 in young adult rats; calbindin is ...
Reggiani R - - 2006
Inhibitors of action and synthesis of ethylene (Ag(+), norbornadien, Co(2+)) were able to reduce the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (Gaba) in rice roots during the development of an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect was reversed by the addition of the G protein activator 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate. Gaba accumulation was modulated by the ...
Schweizer Frank - - 2006
Gamma-sugar-amino acid analogues in the form of C-ketosides can be prepared in 5-6 steps starting from D-galactono-1,5-lactone. The key step in the synthesis is the trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) promoted C-glycosylation of 2-deoxy-3-ulopyranosonates with trimethylsilyl cyanide. Hydrogenation of the resulting beta-cyano esters provides C-ketoside-based gamma-sugar-amino acids that serve as building blocks ...
Schulte Rolf F - - 2006
A two-dimensional fitting procedure is introduced, capable of extracting the full amount of information from 2D J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopic data. The fitting procedure uses a linear combination of 2D model spectra. For reducing the degrees of freedom and increasing robustness, it is divided into a non-linear outer loop and ...
Jeong Woojin - - 2006
Among many proteins with cysteine sulfinic acid (Cys-SO2H) residues, the sulfinic forms of certain peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are selectively reduced by sulfiredoxin (Srx) in the presence of ATP. All Srx enzymes contain a conserved cysteine residue. To elucidate the mechanism of the Srx-catalyzed reaction, we generated various mutants of Srx and ...
Del Baño M J - - 2006
The radioprotective effects of carnosic acid (CA), carnosol (COL), and rosmarinic acid (RO) against chromosomal damage induced by gamma-rays, compared with those of L-ascorbic acid (AA) and the S-containing compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), were determined by use of the micronucleus test for antimutagenic activity, evaluating the reduction in the frequency ...
Misra Radha Mohan - - 2006
Oleic acid is one of the major components of a variety of oils and its spectra are very complex due to the presence of a large number of conformational states (alpha, beta, gamma). In the present communication, an attempt has been made to unravel the complex spectra by calculating the ...
Bakema Jantine E - - 2006
The prototypic receptor for IgA (FcalphaRI, CD89) is expressed on myeloid cells and can trigger phagocytosis, tumor cell lysis, and release of inflammatory mediators. The functions of FcalphaRI and activating receptors for IgG (FcgammaRI and FcgammaRIII) are dependent on the FcR gamma-chain dimer. This study increases our understanding of the ...
Bellis E - - 2006
Three generations of alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid modified poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers [DAB(AM)n, n = 4, 8, 16] containing 4, 8, 16 free amino groups were coupled with Boc-protected alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) moieties in high yields. These modified dendrimers were deprotected and the chiral dendritic amines with 8, 16 and 32 amino groups on ...
Struys Eduard A - - 2006
gamma-Hydroxybutyratic acid (GHB), and its prodrugs 4-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol, represent expanding drugs of abuse, although GHB is also used therapeutically to treat narcolepsy and alcoholism. Thus, the pathway by which GHB is metabolized is of importance. The goal of the current study was to examine GHB metabolism in mice with ...
Ricci Lorenzo - - 2006
The use of the antiepileptic drug, 4-aminobutyrate transaminase (GABA-T) inhibitor vigabatrin (VIGA), has been recently cautioned because it is associated to irreversible field defects from damage of the retina. Since novel GABA-T inhibitors might prove useful in epilepsy or other CNS pathologies as VIGA substitutes, the aim of the present ...
Ikura Masahiro - - 2006
A series of N-benzoyl gamma-aminobutyric hydroxamic acids were synthesized and evaluated as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. First, we focused on chemical modification of the N-benzoyl residue. Introduction of electron-rich para-substituents was effective to increase the inhibitory activity. Especially, some of the analogs with relatively more planar N-acyl residues, such as 10 ...
Cebada Jorge - - 2006
The microdialysis method was adapted to obtain long-term hemolymph dialysates from the pericardial cavity of freely moving Procambarus clarkii crayfish, to measure fluctuations of non-essential amino acids, GABA and histamine by high-performance liquid chromatography using off-line fluorometric derivatization. Asp, Ala, Tau, GABA and histamine (HA) reached its maximal concentrations at ...
Chanut Evelyne - - 2006
Noda epileptic rats (NER) exhibit frequent spontaneous tonic-clonic convulsions which represent a valuable model of human epilepsy. If implication of brain neurotransmitters was largely reported, little is known about retina. However, it has been reported that human epilepsy syndrome varies not only with the location of seizure foci but also ...
Irwin Richard D - - 2006
1,4-Butanediol is an industrial chemical used primarily as an intermediate in the manufacture of other organic chemicals. It has recently been associated with deaths, addiction and withdrawal related to its promotion and use as a dietary supplement. The rapid absorption and conversion of 1,4-butanediol to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB, or date ...
Santos A J G - - 2006
Phosphogypsum, a waste by-product derived from the wet process production of phosphoric acid, represents a serious problem facing the phosphate industry in Brazil. This by-product (mainly calcium sulphate dihydrate) precipitates during the reaction of sulphuric acid with phosphate rock and is stored at a rate of about 4x10(6) kg per ...
Verhoeven Willem M A - - 2006
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the result of a lack of expression of genes on the paternally derived chromosome 15q11-q13 and can be considered as a hypothalamic disorder. Its behavioral phenotype is characterized by ritualistic, stereotyped, and compulsive behaviors as well as motor abnormalities. After adolescence, recurrent affective psychoses are relatively ...
Mazzucotelli Elisabetta - - 2006
Amino acid homeostasis was investigated in frost-resistant barley seedlings under either cold- or freezing-stress conditions. Total free amino acid content varied only slightly, but a substantial conversion of glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was found that was proportional to the severity of the stress. Cold acclimation caused a significant increase ...
Carling Robert W - - 2005
There is increasing evidence that compounds with selectivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) alpha2- and/or alpha3-subtypes may retain the desirable anxiolytic activity of nonselective benzodiazepines but possess an improved side effect profile. Herein we describe a novel series of GABA(A) alpha2/alpha3 subtype-selective agonists leading to the identification of the development candidate ...
Palmio Johanna - - 2005
There are indications that mood disorders may be related to perturbations in the amino acid transmitters. The amino acids may thus be targets of treatment of depression. The purpose of this pilot study was to measure the acute effects of a single administration of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on the plasma ...
Cardelle-Cobas Alejandra - - 2005
The initial steps of the Maillard reaction in freshly laboratory-freeze-dried and commercial dehydrated onion and garlic samples have been assessed by quantitative determination of 2-furoylmethylamino acids, obtained after acid hydrolysis of the corresponding Amadori compound. In freshly prepared samples, hardly any presence of 2-furoylmethylamino acids was detected, whereas in commercial ...
Hashimoto Atsushi - - 2005
To elucidate the effect of an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes, aminooxyacetic acid, on the activity of serine racemase in vivo, we have investigated the effect of aminooxyacetic acid on the extracellular concentration of D-serine in the rat striatum using an in vivo microdialysis technique. The intrastriatal perfusion of aminooxyacetic ...
Yuan Hai - - 2006
A series of potential substrates of gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) with lipophilic bioisosteres of the carboxylic acid group (2-7) were synthesized and tested. Most of the synthesized compounds showed substrate activities with GABA-AT; 1H-tetrazole-5-propanamine (6) was the best of those tested. The potential time-dependent inhibitor of GABA-AT, 1H-tetrazole-5-(alpha-vinyl-propanamine) (8), was ...
Hsieh Chieh-Yang - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel composite porous scaffold by blending chitosan and gamma-poly(glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) for the sustained delivery of rhBMP-2. METHODS: Chitosan and gamma-PGA were blended to fabricate a novel porous scaffold by the freeze-gelation method. For comparison, scaffolds made of freeze-dried chitosan, ...
Abazov V M - - 2005
We present a study of the decay B0(s) --> J/psiphi. We obtain the CP-odd fraction in the final state at time zero, Rperpendicular = 0.16 +/- 0.10(stat) +/- 0.02 (syst), the average lifetime of the (B0(s), B0(s)) system, tau(B0(s)) = 1.39(+0.13)(-0.16)(stat)(+0.01)(-0.02)(syst) ps, and the relative width difference between the heavy ...
Sauma Lilian - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We studied the activity and regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma response element (PPRE) in primary human adipocytes. METHODS: We transfected primary human adipocytes with a plasmid-encoding firefly luciferase cDNA under control of a PPRE from the acyl-coenzyme A oxidase gene by using our newly developed electroporation-based method. Several ...
Zhang Li-Yao - - 2005
A mixed micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with fluorescence detection was developed to simultaneously monitor gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu) and alanine (Ala) in biological samples. Amino acids were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA). The separation of three NDA-labeled isomers (GABA, alpha-ABA, beta-ABA) was studied in detail with different micelles solutions such ...
Hodge S - - 2005
DL-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a non-protein amino acid that is an effective inducer of resistance against a variety of plant pathogens. However, examples of BABA-induced resistance against insect herbivores have not been reported. We applied BABA as a soil drench to legumes and monitored its effects on the pea aphid ...
Paik Sang Kyoo - - 2005
Signal substances of axon terminals presynaptic to jaw spindle Ia afferents and their ultrastructural features were examined using a combination of intra-axonal horseradish peroxidase injection and postembedding immunogold-labeling techniques in cats. A total of 35 axon terminals presynaptic to 22 horseradish peroxidase-labeled Ia boutons were examined. Of the 35 presynaptic ...
Kreil Annette - - 2005
In the dtsz mutant hamster, a model of paroxysmal dyskinesia in which dystonic episodes occur in response to stress, previous studies suggested that retarded development of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibition plays a critical role in the pathogenesis. In the present study, we therefore examined the effects of selective GABA uptake ...
Carrera Iván - - 2006
The present immunocytochemical study provides evidence of a previously unrecognized, rich, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic innervation of the pineal organ in the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula). In this elasmobranch, the pineal primordium is initially detected at embryonic stage 24 and grows to form a long pineal tube by stage 28. Glutamic acid ...
Kragler Andrea - - 2005
Searching for potent and subtype selective parent structures of the murine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter subtypes mGAT3 and mGAT4 a series of amino acids was characterised in a uniform [3H]GABA uptake test system based on transiently expressed mGAT1-4. From several potent inhibitors showing IC50 values at mGAT3 and mGAT4 in ...
Hoff Philippe Tony - - 2005
A perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) assessment was conducted on gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders (Belgium). The liver PFOS concentrations in fish from the Ieperlee canal (Boezinge, 250-9031 ng/g wet weight, respectively) and the Blokkersdijk pond (Antwerp, 633-1822 ng/g wet weight) were ...
Katsuki Hiroshi - - 2005
Selective degeneration of hypothalamic orexin neurons, a hallmark of pathology in narcolepsy patients, is in part reproduced in hypothalamic slice cultures by application of an endogenous excitotoxin quinolinic acid. Depolarized membrane potential may be responsible for the vulnerability of orexin neurons to excitotoxicity. We show that stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid ...
Humphreys Benjamin D - - 2005
A rare cause of high anion gap acidosis is 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid), an organic acid intermediate of the gamma-glutamyl cycle. Acetaminophen and several other drugs have been implicated in the development of transient 5-oxoprolinemia in adults. We report the case of a patient with lymphoma who was admitted for salvage ...
Huang Meifang - - 2005
N-maleamic acid-chitosan was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis (FT-IR) and 1H NMR. The graft copolymerization of N-maleamic acid-chitosan and butyl acrylate (BA) in acetic acid aqueous solution was investigated, using the gamma-ray of 60Co gamma-irradiation method. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) trace of N-maleamic acid-chitosan-g-PBA has a ...
Knopf Daniel A - - 2005
The heterogeneous reaction of O3 with lauric acid/oleic acid (LA/OA) mixtures and myristic acid/oleic acid (MA/OA) mixtures were studied as a function of composition, physical state, and microstructure at 298 K. Lauric acid and myristic acid are both alkanoic acids, whereas oleic acid is an alkenoic acid. Additionally, we investigated ...
Frucht Steven J - - 2005
We conducted an open-label, dose-finding, blinded-rating trial of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (Xyrem) in a single patient with severe alcohol-responsive posthypoxic myoclonus refractory to treatment with standard antimyoclonic agents. Xyrem was given in divided doses during the day and was well tolerated. Intensity of myoclonus was measured using the Unified Myoclonus Rating ...
Eram Mojgan - - 2005
In catfish, the facial nerve innervates taste buds distributed over the entire body including the barbels, while the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves innervate oropharyngeal taste buds. Facial nerve innervated taste buds (FITBs) are thought to be involved in food detection and localization, while glossopharyngeal and vagal nerve innervated taste buds ...
Diaz Céline - - 2005
Comparison of the extent of leaf senescence depending on the genetic background of different recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is described. Five RILs of the Bay-0 x Shahdara population showing differential leaf senescence phenotypes (from early senescing to late senescing) were selected to determine metabolic markers to ...
Avent Anthony G - - 2005
A new method for gamma-acylation of protected glutamic acids, involving intramolecular rearrangement of an acyl urethane, has been devised to prepare the protected gamma-carboxyglutamates 7, 9 and 11 and the protected 4-acylglutamates 15 and 22 from N,N-bisurethanes or N-acyl-N-urethanes of general structure 1. When the formyl-urethane 17 was used in ...
Rotzoll Nina - - 2005
Although morel mushrooms are widely used as tasty ingredients in savory dishes, knowledge of the key compounds evoking their attractive taste is still very fragmentary. In the present study, taste activity-guided fractionation of an aqueous morel extract by means of the recently developed taste dilution analysis (TDA) enabled the localization ...
Dutt Anita - - 2005
Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the extended structure of dipeptide Boc-beta-Ala-m-ABA-OMe (m-ABA: meta-aminobenzoic acid) self-assembles in the solid state by intermolecular hydrogen bonding to create an infinite parallel beta-sheet structure. In dipeptide Boc-gamma-Abu-m-ABA-OMe (gamma-Abu: gamma-aminobutyric acid), two such parallel beta-sheets are further cross-linked by intermolecular hydrogen bonding through ...
Sugiura Yasoo - - 2005
This study aimed to examine distribution of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), the hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)-generating enzymes, and metabolomic alterations in sulfur-containing amino acids in rat testes exposed to stressors. Immunohistochemistry revealed distinct distribution of the two enzymes: CBS occurred mainly in Leydig cells and was also detectable ...
Fitsanakis Vanessa A - - 2005
Historically, amino acids were studied in the context of their importance in protein synthesis. In the 1950s, the focus of research shifted as amino acids were recognized as putative neurotransmitters. Today, many amino acids are considered important neurochemicals. Although many amino acids play a role in neurotransmission, glutamate (Glu), glycine ...
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