Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1535
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Nakamura Yuki - - 2007
Plastidic phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) dephosphorylates phosphatidic acid to yield diacylglycerol, which is a precursor for galactolipids, a primary and indispensable component of photosynthetic membranes. Despite its functional importance, the molecular characteristics and phylogenetic origin of plastidic PAP were unknown because no potential homologs have been found. Here, we report ...
Seddik Riad - - 2007
Spinal-cord slices from neonatal rats were used to record lamina-X neurons using the patch-clamp technique under whole cell recording configuration. Lamina-X surrounds the central canal of the spinal cord and contains sympathetic preganglionic neurons of the central autonomic nucleus. Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents were recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin ...
Popescu Laura - - 2007
Pirinixic acid is known for its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonistic action. In a recent publication, we have shown that aliphatic alpha-substitution of pirinixic acid enhances both PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonism. The goal of this study was to evaluate, whether the PPAR agonism of pirinixic acid may be also maintained ...
Ubukata Makoto - - 2007
Mycophenolic acid (MPA), known as an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), was found to inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes into mature adipocytes. Although the effect of MPA was attributed to inhibition of IMPDH, we uncovered a hidden biological property of MPA as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated ...
Kondo Hidehiro - - 2007
Structural and functional properties were investigated for four peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), PPARalpha1, PPARalpha2, PPARbeta, and PPARgamma, from torafugu pufferfish Takifugu rubripes and determined for their transcriptional activity by the reporter assay using reporter plasmids containing three copies of the acyl-CoA oxidase PPAR response element. Although torafugu PPARs showed a ...
Xing Su Guo - - 2007
Polyamines (PAs) are assumed to perform their functions through their oxidative product such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) formation. However, there is only limited information on the interrelation between PA degradation and GABA accumulation under salt stress. In order to reveal a quantitative correlation between PA oxidation and GABA accumulation, the ...
Zhang Xian - - 2007
A fungus strain ECU2002, capable of enantioselectively hydrolyzing chiral lactones to optically pure hydroxy acids, was newly isolated from soil samples through two steps of screening and identified as Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg. From the crude extract of F. proliferatum ECU2002, a novel levo-lactonase was purified to homogeneity, with a ...
Yoon Byung Hoon - - 2007
Sinapic acid is a phenylpropanoid compound and is found in various herbal materials and high-bran cereals. With the exception of its antioxidant activities, the pharmacological properties of sinapic acid have been rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like properties of sinapic acid using an ...
Ramachandran P Veeraraghavan - - 2007
The strength of the Lewis or Brønsted acids controls the formation of either beta,gamma-disubstituted-alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactones or gamma-substituted-alpha-alkylidene-gamma-butyrolactones via the lactonization or oxonia cope rearrangement-lactonization, respectively, of the borate intermediates resulting from the crotylboration of aliphatic aldehydes with ester-containing crotylboronates, such as (E)-methyl 2-boramethyl-2-butenoates.
Knerr I - - 2007
We overview the pathophysiological bases, clinical approaches and potential therapeutic options for succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; EC1.2.1.24) deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, OMIM 271980, 610045) in relation to studies on SSADH gene-deleted mice, outcome data developed from 25 years of patient evaluation, and characterization of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) pharmacology in different species. ...
Gelmi Maria Luisa - - 2007
New 3-O-glycosyl-3-demethylthiocolchicines containing natural and unnatural sugar moieties were prepared and tested on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors present in rat brain and spinal cord. Two different synthetic approaches were used with the readily available 3-O-demethylthiocolchicine (1b) and thiocolchicoside (2a). Glycosyl compounds 2a-g were obtained from 1b and ...
Fenalti Gustavo - - 2007
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized by two isoforms of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67). GAD67 is constitutively active and is responsible for basal GABA production. In contrast, GAD65, an autoantigen in type I diabetes, is transiently activated in response to the demand for extra GABA ...
Abdel Halim O B - - 2007
Two new metabolites were isolated from the biotransformation reaction of parthenin by Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159 along with the known naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones hymenolin and dihydrocoronopilin. The new metabolites: are 3beta,4beta,6beta-trihydroxy-10alphaH,11alpha-methyl-ambrosa-1 -en-12-oic acid-gamma-lactone and 3alpha,6beta-dihydroxy-4beta-hydroperoxy-10alphaH, 11alpha-methyl-ambrosa-1-en-12-oic acid-gamma-lactone. The structure elucidation of these compounds was achieved by different spectroscopic methods.
Iwasaki Yuichiro - - 2007
A recombinant Escherichia coli, expressing the rdc gene, which encodes a gamma-resorcylic acid decarboxylase (Rdc) reversibly catalyzing regioselective carboxylation of resorcinol derived from Rhizobium radiobacter WU-0108, converted 20 mM resorcinol to gamma-resorcylic acid with a 44% (mol/mol) yield at 30 degrees C for 7 h. The recombinant E. coli cells ...
Jiang Qing Q Interdepartmental Nutrition Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. - - 2007
The metabolism of vitamin E involves oxidation of the phytyl chain to generate the terminal metabolite 7,8-dimethyl-2-(beta-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (CEHC) via intermediate formation of 13'-hydroxychromanol and long-chain carboxychromanols. Conjugated (including sulfated) metabolites were reported previously but were limited to CEHCs. Here, using electrospray and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we discovered that ...
Li Li - - 2007
The fatty acid and tocopherol compositions of three heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia var. cordiformis) varieties (Imshu, Campbell CW1, and Campbell CW3) were examined and compared with those of two Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties (Combe and Lake). The major fatty acids found in heartnuts and walnuts were identified by gas ...
Schulze Birgit - - 2007
In response to feeding larvae of the Mediterranean climbing cutworm (Spodoptera littoralis), leaves of the lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) produce fatty acid-derived signaling compounds (oxylipins). The major products are the phytohormones jasmonic acid and its biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), along with 13-hydroxy-12-oxooctadeca-9,15-dienoic acid, 9-hydroxy-12-oxooctadeca-10,15-dienoic acid (alpha- and gamma-ketol), as ...
Miller Eric D - - 2007
Three potent cancer cell cytotoxins, piperazimycins A-C (1-3), have been isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces sp., cultivated from marine sediments near the island of Guam. The structures of these cyclic hexadepsipeptides were assigned by a combination of spectral, chemical, and crystallographic methods. The piperazimycins are composed of ...
Yuan Hai H Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3113, - - 2007
Low brain levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) lead to convulsions. Inhibition of GABA aminotransferase increases the concentration of GABA and can terminate the convulsions. Earlier we reported the synthesis of (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenecyclopentanecarboxylic acid (2), which is 186 times more potent an inactivator of GABA aminotransferase than the epilepsy ...
Kelly Wendy L - - 2007
The biosynthesis of the coronamic acid fragment of the pseudomonal phytotoxin coronatine involves construction of the cyclopropane ring from a gamma-chloro-L-allo-Ile intermediate while covalently tethered as a phosphopantetheinyl thioester to the carrier protein CmaD. The cyclopropane-forming catalyst is CmaC, catalyzing an intramolecular displacement of the gamma-Cl group by the alpha ...
Hsu Shan-Hui - - 2007
The influence of the molecular weight and the type of gelatin (A or B), as well as the molecular weight of poly (gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA), on the properties of gelatin/gamma-PGA mixed bioadhesives were studied. The gelation of the system was enhanced by a crosslinker, 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-(ethylcarbodiimide) hydrochloride (EDC). The gelation time ...
Nambu Atsushi - - 2007
The internal segment of the globus pallidus (GP(i)) gathers many bits of information including movement-related activity from the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus (GP(e)), and subthalamic nucleus (STN), and integrates them. The GP(i) receives rich GABAergic inputs from the striatum and GP(e), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are ...
Bhattacharya Indranil - - 2007
Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug of abuse. Literature studies showed that D-glucuronate acts as an oxidative stimulator of GHB metabolism following in vivo GHB tracer doses. The present proof-of-concept study investigates if D-glucuronate enhances GHB metabolism and inhibits blood-brain barrier (BBB) carrier-mediated transport of GHB for clinically relevant and ...
Davies Sean S SS Departments of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. - - 2006
Isoketals and levuglandins are highly reactive gamma-ketoaldehydes formed by oxygenation of arachidonic acid in settings of oxidative injury and cyclooxygenase activation, respectively. These compounds rapidly adduct to proteins via lysyl residues, which can alter protein structure/function. We examined whether pyridoxamine, which has been shown to scavenge alpha-ketoaldehydes formed by carbohydrate ...
Wang Zhiyong Z Department of Chemistry, Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113, - - 2006
Inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) increases the concentration of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain, which could have therapeutic applications for a variety of neurological diseases, including epilepsy. On the basis of studies of several previously synthesized conformationally restricted GABA-AT inhibitors, (+/-)-(1S,2R,5S)-5-amino-2-fluorocyclohex-3-enecarboxylic acid (12) was designed as a ...
Zhang Wen - - 2006
Recognition of the sequences 5'-NGCACA-3' (N = T, A, C, G) by pyrrole/imidazole polyamides with (R/S)-alpha-hydroxyl/alpha-amino-substituted gamma-aminobutyric acid as a gamma-turn was investigated. Four novel polyamides, 2, 3, 4, and 5, including (R)-alpha-hydroxyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaRO), (S)-alpha-hydroxyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaSO), (R)-alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid (gammaRN), and (S)-alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid (gammaSN) residues, respectively, were synthesized, and ...
Oon Han Hee - - 2007
Oxime ethers of alpha-acyl-beta-phenylpropanoic acids were prepared to apply as PPARalpha and gamma dual agonists. Among them, compound 11l proved to exhibit potent in vitro activities with EC(50) of 19 and 13nM in PPARalpha and gamma, respectively. It showed better glucose lowering effects than rosiglitazone 1 and ameliorated the lipid ...
Nordin C - - 2007
The sulphated cholecystokinin (CCK) octapeptide (CCK-8S), the CCK tetrapeptide (CCK-4), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11 pathological male gamblers and 11 healthy male controls. Compared with healthy controls, pathological male gamblers displayed higher concentrations of CCK-8S, CCK-4 and GABA (but ...
Hernández-Fisac Inés - - 2006
OMP (oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid) stimulates by itself a biphasic secretion of insulin whereas L-leucine requires the presence of L-glutamine. L-Glutamine is predominantly converted into GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in rat islets and L-leucine seems to promote its metabolism in the 'GABA shunt' [Fernández-Pascual, Mukala-Nsengu-Tshibangu, Martín del Río and Tamarit-Rodríguez (2004) Biochem. J. ...
Chunhachart Orawan - - 2006
Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase with a molecular mass of 28 kDa was purified from the culture broth of Bacillus sp. isolated from Thai Thua-nao, a natto-like fermented soybean food. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed chemically synthesized oligo-gamma-L-glutamates but not oligo-gamma-D-glutamates and degraded gamma-polyglutamic acid to a hydrolyzed product of only about 20 kDa ...
Yang Jehoon - - 2007
Brain [2-(13)C]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signal derived from the glia-specific substrate [2-(13)C]acetate reflects the extent of the GABA-glutamine neurotransmitter cycling between GABAergic neurons and glial cells. We report, for the first time, in vivo quantification of the GABA-glutamine cycling flux. The GABA-glutamine cycling flux rate was determined to be 1.8+/-0.4 micromol/(gh) ...
Hernández Olga - - 2006
The commissure of the inferior colliculus is significant as the final point of interconnection between homologous structures on the two sides of the auditory pathway at the subcortical level. The presence of excitatory fibres is well established in this tract, but the existence of an inhibitory component is controversial. Using ...
Park Ki-Bum - - 2007
Yogurt with high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), free amino acids and isoflavones was developed using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and germinated soybean extract. Fermented soya milk (GABA soya yogurt) produced with starter and substrate had the GABA concentration of 424.67 microg/gDW, whereas fermented milk produced by a conventional method ...
Suzuki H - - 2007
Some amino acids and peptides, which have low solubility in water, become much more soluble following gamma-glutamylation. Compounds become more stable in the blood stream with gamma-glutamylation. Several gamma-glutamyl compounds are known to have favorable physiological effects on mammals. Gamma-glutamylation can improve taste and can stabilize glutamine in aqueous solution. ...
Narlawar Rajeshwar - - 2007
N-Sulfonylated and N-alkylated carbazolyloxyacetic acids were investigated for the inhibition and modulation of the Alzheimer's disease associated gamma-secretase. The introduction of a lipophilic substituent, which may vary from arylsulfone to alkyl, turned 2-carbazolyloxyacetic acids into potent gamma-secretase modulators. This resulted in the selective reduction of Abeta(42) and an increase of ...
Ellis A V - - 2006
Moderate acid treatment of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) has given rise to two new experimentally observed second-order double resonant Raman scattering frequencies centered at 1901 cm(-1) and 1942 cm(-1), in the highly dispersive LOLA region. These LOLA overtones and combination modes have been predicted by double resonance theory for two ...
Rakocevic Goran - - 2006
We report five of 38 patients with stiff person syndrome (SPS), who also had cerebellar disease, gait ataxia, dysarthria, and oculomotor dysfunction (SPS-Cer). Cerebellar manifestations either preceded SPS or occurred concurrently. Brain MRI was normal. The intrathecal production of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies was elevated. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-enhancing drugs and immunotherapies ...
Yano Shingo - - 2006
The effects of methyleugenol, an essential oil isolated from Asiasari radix, on antinociception were examined using the formalin test in mice. Oral administration of 10 mg/kg methyleugenol significantly decreased the duration of licking and biting behavior in the second phase without affecting that of the first phase, as did diclofenac, ...
Jiang Sheng - - 2006
The design and synthesis of four nonnaturally occurring amino acid analogues of l-gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), appropriately protected for Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), is described. These amino acids are Bu-Mal 2, BCAH 3, Pen-Mal 4, and Cm-Gla 5. These Gla analogues have been designed to replace the glutamic acid of ...
Yu Yong-Xin - - 2006
The neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino-acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), plays an important role in the modulation of neurotransmission and contributes to synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and to epileptogenesis. However, the mechanisms that regulate EAAC1 endocytic sorting and function remain largely unknown. Here, we first demonstrate that ...
Ramachandran P Veeraraghavan - - 2006
[reaction; see text] A general and practical procedure for the highly diastereoselective preparation of either the cis- or trans-beta,gamma-disubstituted-gamma-butyrolactones by appropriate choice of Lewis or Bronsted acid catalysts during crotylboration or lactonization is reported. The cis-stereochemistry of the Z-crotylboration product can be inverted with strong acids during lactonization. A carbocation ...
Bown Alan W - - 2006
Gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) is a ubiquitous four-carbon, non-protein amino acid. In plants, stress-induced GABA accumulation is well documented. However, the role(s) of GABA accumulation is contentious. In this Opinion article, we argue that wounding due to herbivory and crawling by insect larvae causes rapid GABA accumulation via the disruption of cellular ...
Scharf Martin B - - 2006
Sodium oxybate (Xyrem), also known as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, is the only therapeutic specifically approved in the USA for the treatment of cataplexy in narcolepsy. The US FDA has recently expanded its indication to include excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. In contrast to the antidepressants and stimulants commonly used to ...
Stark Timo - - 2006
Sensory-guided decomposition of roasted cocoa nibs revealed that, besides theobromine and caffeine, a series of bitter-tasting 2,5-diketopiperazines and flavan-3-ols were the key inducers of the bitter taste as well as the astringent mouthfeel imparted upon consumption of roasted cocoa. In addition, a number of polyphenol glycopyranosides as well as a ...
Nakagawa Yoshinori - - 2006
A cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus clarkii 7364 converts starch into gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD) with high specificity. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of this CGTase with those of other typical CGTases revealed that several amino acids are deleted or substituted with others at several subsites. Of these amino acids, ...
Windels François - - 2006
It is hypothesized that substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons become overactive during a deficit of dopamine transmission. In this study, we examined how acute dopamine receptor blockade (SCH23390 and eticlopride) affects impulse activity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons and their response to iontophoretic gamma-amino-n-butyric acid in awake, unrestrained rats. ...
Baker John M - - 2006
The 'substantial equivalence' of three transgenic wheats expressing additional high-molecular-weight subunit genes and the corresponding parental lines (two lines plus a null transformant) was examined using metabolite profiling of samples grown in replicate field trials on two UK sites (Rothamsted, Hertfordshire and Long Ashton, near Bristol) for 3 years. Multivariate ...
Kavoosi Gholamreza - - 2006
Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a number of important human diseases. One of the key determinants of parasite infectivity and survival is membrane glycoconjugate lipophosphoglycan (mLPG). In addition, it has been shown that mLPG could be used as a transmission blocking vaccine. Since culture supernatant of parasite promastigotes ...
Kuhn Bernd - - 2006
In the quest for novel PPARalpha/gamma co-agonists as putative drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, we have used a structure-based design approach to identify propionic acids with a 1,5-disubstituted indole scaffold as potent PPARalpha/gamma activators. Compounds 13, 24, and 28 are examples of submicromolar dual agonists ...
Shi Feng - - 2006
A strain with high poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) production was isolated from fermented bean curd, a traditional Chinese food. The strain was named Bacillus subtilis ZJU-7 according to 16s rDNA sequencing and its taxonomic characters. The culture conditions for gamma-PGA production were evaluated. The most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources were ...
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